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Iridodialysis

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Title: Iridodialysis  
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Subject: Central retinal vein occlusion, Asymptomatic, Eye injury, Irvine-Gass syndrome, Terrien's marginal degeneration
Collection: Disorders of Iris and Ciliary Body
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Iridodialysis

Iridodialysis
Iridodialysis caused by blunt trauma to the eye
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 H21.5
ICD-9-CM 364.76

Iridodialysis, sometimes known as a coredialysis, is a localized separation or tearing away of the iris from its attachment to the ciliary body.[1][2]

Contents

  • Causes 1
  • Symptoms and signs 2
  • Treatment and management 3
  • Complications 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7
    • Images 7.1

Causes

Iridodialyses are usually caused by blunt trauma to the eye,[2] but may also be caused by penetrating eye injuries.[3] An iridodialysis may be an iatrogenic complication of any intraocular surgery[4][5][6] and at one time they were created intentionally as part of intracapsular cataract extraction.[7] Iridodialyses have been reported to have occurred from boxing,[8] airbag deployments,[9] high-pressure water jets,[10] elastic bungee cords,[11][12] bottle caps opened under pressure,[13] water balloons,[14] fireworks,[15][16] and various types of balls.[17]

Symptoms and signs

Those with small iridodialyses may be asymptomatic and require no treatment, but those with larger dialyses may have corectopia or polycoria and experience monocular diplopia, glare, or photophobia.[18][19][20] Iridodialyses often accompany angle recession[21] and may cause glaucoma[3] or hyphema.[22] Hypotony may also occur.[23]

Treatment and management

Iridodialysis causing an associated hyphema has to be carefully managed, and recurrent bleeds should be prevented by strict avoidance of all sporting activities. Management typically involves observation and bed rest. Red blood cells may decrease the outflow of aqueous humor, therefore the eye pressure should be kept low by giving oral acetazolamide(a diuretic given to reduce intraoccular pressure). Accidental trauma during sleep should be prevented by patching with an eye shield during night time. Avoid giving aspirin, heparin/warfarin and observe daily for resolution or progression. A large hyphema may require careful anterior chamber washout. Rebleeds may require additional intervention and therapy.

Later, surgical repair may be considered for larger avulsions causing significant double vision, cosmesis or glare symptoms.[19] Surgical repair is usually done by 10-0 prolene suture taking the base of iris avulsion and suturing it to the scleral spur and ciliary body junction.

Complications

Those with traumatic iridodialyses (particularly by blunt trauma) are at high risk for angle recession, which may cause glaucoma.[18] This is typically seen about 100 days or three months after the injury, and is thereby called "100 day Glaucoma". Medical or surgical treatment to control the IOP may be required if glaucoma is present.[3] Soft opaque contact lenses may be used to improve cosmesis and reduce the perception of double vision.[3][18]

See also

References

  1. ^ Cline D; Hofstetter HW; Griffin JR. Dictionary of Visual Science. 4th ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston 1997. ISBN 0-7506-9895-0
  2. ^ a b Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainesville, Florida: Triad Publishing Company, 1990.
  3. ^ a b c d "Glaucoma: Angle Closure: Traumatic Iridodialysis." Digital Reference of Ophthalmology. Accessed October 11, 2006.
  4. ^ "Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery: Intraoperative Complications." ORBIS International Inc. Accessed October 11, 2006.
  5. ^ Gashau, AG; Anand, A; Chawdhary, S (2006). "Hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens exchange: Five-year experience". Journal of cataract and refractive surgery 32 (8): 1340–4.  
  6. ^ Walker, NJ; Foster, A; Apel, AJ (2004). "Traumatic expulsive iridodialysis after small-incision sutureless cataract surgery". Journal of cataract and refractive surgery 30 (10): 2223–4.  
  7. ^ Beetham, WP. (1941). "Cataract Extraction with Iridodialysis". Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 39: 104–15.  
  8. ^ Hazar, M; Beyleroglu, M; Subasi, M; Or, M (2002). "Ophthalmological findings in elite amateur Turkish boxers". British journal of sports medicine 36 (6): 428–30.  
  9. ^ Kenney, KS; Fanciullo, LM (2005). "Automobile air bags: friend or foe? A case of air bag-associated ocular trauma and a related literature review". Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.) 76 (7): 382–6.  
  10. ^ Gracner, B; Pahor, D (2001). "Bilateral eye injury caused by a high-pressure water jet from a fire hose". Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 113 Suppl 3: 62–4.  
  11. ^ Viestenz, A; Küchle, M (2002). "Ocular contusion caused by elastic cords: a retrospective analysis using the Erlangen Ocular Contusion Registry". Clinical & experimental ophthalmology 30 (4): 266–9.  
  12. ^ Chorich Lj, 3rd; Davidorf, FH; Chambers, RB; Weber, PA (1998). "Bungee cord-associated ocular injuries". American journal of ophthalmology 125 (2): 270–2.  
  13. ^ Viestenz, A; Küchle, M (2002). "Eye contusions caused by a bottle cap. A retrospective study based on the Erlangen Ocular Contusion Register (EOCR)". Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft 99 (2): 105–8.  
  14. ^ Bullock, JD; Ballal, DR; Johnson, DA; Bullock, RJ (1997). "Ocular and orbital trauma from water balloon slingshots. A clinical, epidemiologic, and experimental study". Ophthalmology 104 (5): 878–87.  
  15. ^ Arya, SK; Malhotra, S; Dhir, SP; Sood, S (7/1/2001). "Ocular fireworks injuries. clinical features and visual outcome". Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 49 (3): 189–90.  
  16. ^ Sacu, S; Ségur-Eltz, N; Stenng, K; Zehetmayer, M (2002). "Ocular firework injuries at New Year's eve". Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift fur Augenheilkunde 216 (1): 55–9.  
  17. ^ Purdie, AT; Whyte, IF (1998). "Shinty and ocular trauma in north west Scotland". The British journal of ophthalmology 82 (12): 1445.  
  18. ^ a b c Rappon JM. "Ocular Trauma Management for the Primary Care Provider." Pacific University College of Optometry. Accessed October 12, 2006.
  19. ^ a b "Cornea & External Diseases: Trauma: Traumatic Iridodialysis." Digital Reference of Ophthalmology. Accessed October 11, 2006.
  20. ^ Brown, SM (1998). "A technique for repair of iridodialysis in children". Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 2 (6): 380–2.  
  21. ^ Sullivan BR. "Glaucoma, Angle Recession". eMedicine.com. August 16, 2006. Accessed October 11, 2006.
  22. ^ Kiel, J; Chen, S (2001). "Contusion injuries and their ocular effects" (PDF). Clinical & experimental optometry : journal of the Australian Optometrical Association 84 (1): 19–25.  
  23. ^ Behndig, A. (2002). "Results with a modified method for scleral suturing of intraocular lenses". Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 80 (1): 16–18.  

External links

Images

  • "Cornea & External Diseases: Trauma: Traumatic Iridodialysis." Digital Reference of Ophthalmology. Accessed October 11, 2006.
  • "Glaucoma: Angle Closure: Traumatic Iridodialysis." Digital Reference of Ophthalmology. Accessed October 11, 2006.
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