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Islam in Australia

Part of a series on
Islam in Australia



History

Early history
Makasan contact
Afghan cameleers
Battle of Broken Hill
Contemporary society
Halal certification in Australia
Islamophobia in Australia

Mosques

List of mosques
Auburn Gallipoli Mosque · Central Adelaide
Mosque
 • Lakemba Mosque ·
Marree Mosque

Organisations

Islamic organisations in Australia
AFIC · ANIC • LMA · IMAA · IISNA • ICQ •
ICV • MWA

Groups

Afghan • Albanian • Arab • Bangladeshi
Bosnian • Indian • Indonesian • Iranian
Iraqi • Lebanese • Malay • Pakistani •
Turkish

People
Notable Australian muslims
Grand Mufti of Australia
Taj El-Din Hilaly • Fehmi Naji •
Ibrahim Abu Mohamed

Islam in Australia is a minority religious affiliation. According to the 2011 census, 476,291 people, or 2.2% of the total Australian population, were Muslims.[1] This made Islam the fourth largest religious grouping, after all forms of Christianity (61.1%), irreligion (22.9%), and Buddhism (2.5%). Demographers attribute Muslim community growth trends during the most recent census period to relatively high birth rates, and recent immigration patterns.[2][3] Adherents of Islam represent the majority of the population in Cocos (Keeling) Islands. The vast majority of Muslims in Australia belong to the Sunni denomination, with sizeable Shia and Sufi minorities.[4]

While the Australian Muslim community is defined largely by religious belonging, it is fragmented racially, ethnically, culturally and linguistically.[5] Members of the Australian Muslim community thus also espouse parallel non-religious ethnic identities with related non-Muslim counterparts, either within Australia or abroad.[6]

Contents

  • History 1
    • Prior to 1860 1.1
    • 1860 to 1900 1.2
    • 1900 to present 1.3
      • Increased immigration 1.3.1
      • Since the 1990s 1.3.2
  • Schools of jurisprudence in Australia 2
    • Sunni 2.1
    • Shia 2.2
      • Alawites 2.2.1
      • Druze 2.2.2
    • Sufi 2.3
    • Ahmadiyya 2.4
  • Religious life 3
    • Organisations 3.1
    • Halal certification 3.2
  • Issues 4
    • Radical Islam 4.1
      • Responses 4.1.1
    • Discrimination 4.2
    • Women's rights 4.3
    • Employment, education and crime 4.4
    • Other issues 4.5
      • Promotion of antisemitism 4.5.1
      • Promotion of extremism 4.5.2
  • Demography 5
    • Trends 5.1
    • Areas 5.2
    • Communities 5.3
      • Aboriginal Muslims 5.3.1
      • Bangladeshi Muslims 5.3.2
      • Bosnian Muslims 5.3.3
      • Lebanese Muslims 5.3.4
      • Somali Muslims 5.3.5
      • Turkish Muslims 5.3.6
  • In literature and film 6
  • Criticism of Islam 7
  • Notable figures 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12

History

Prior to 1860

Indonesian Muslims Yolngu people of this contact is everywhere: in their language, in their art, in their stories, in their cuisine."[8] According to anthropologist John Bradley from Monash University, the contact between the two groups was a success: "They traded together. It was fair - there was no racial judgement, no race policy." Even into the early 21st century, the shared history between the two peoples is still celebrated by Aboriginal communities in Northern Australia as a period of mutual trust and respect.[9]

Others who have studied this period have come to a different conclusion regarding the relationship between the Aboriginal people and the visiting trepangers. Anthropologist Ian McIntosh[10] has said that the initial effects of the Macassan fishermen were "terrible", which resulted in "turmoil"[11]:65–67 with the extent of Islamic influence being "indeterminate".[11]:76 In another paper McIntosh concludes, "strife, poverty and domination . . is a previously unrecorded legacy of contact between Aborigines and Indonesians."[12]:138 A report prepared by the History Department of the Australian National University says that the Macassans appear to have been welcomed initially, however relations deteriorated when, "aborigines began to feel they were being exploited . . leading to violence on both sides".[13]:81–82

A number of "Mohammedans" were listed in the musters of 1802, 1811, 1822, and the 1828 census, and a small number of Muslims arrived during the convict period. Beyond this, Muslims generally are not thought to have settled in large numbers in other regions of Australia until 1860.[14]:10

Muslims were among the earliest settlers of Norfolk Island while the island was used as a British penal colony in the early 19th century. They arrived from 1796, having been employed on British ships. They left following the closure of the penal colony and moved to Tasmania. The community left no remnants; only seven permanent residents of the island identified themselves as "non-Christian" in a 2006 census.[15][16][17]

1860 to 1900

19th-century mosque in cemetery, Bourke, New South Wales
The grave of an Afghan cameleer

Among the early Muslims were the "Afghan" camel drivers who migrated to and settled in Australia during the mid to late 19th century. Between 1860 and the 1890s a number of Central Asians came to Australia to work as camel drivers. Camels were first imported into Australia in 1840, initially for exploring the arid interior (see Australian camel), and later for the camel trains that were uniquely suited to the demands of Australia's vast deserts. The first camel drivers arrived in Melbourne, Victoria, in June 1860, when eight Muslims and Hindus arrived with the camels for the Burke and Wills expedition. The next arrival of camel drivers was in 1866 when 31 men from Rajasthan and Baluchistan arrived in South Australia with camels for Thomas Elder. Although they came from several countries, they were usually known in Australia as 'Afghans' and they brought with them the first formal establishment of Islam in Australia.[18]

Cameleers settled in the areas near Alice Springs and other areas of the Northern Territory and inter-married with the Indigenous population. The Adelaide, South Australia to Darwin, Northern Territory, railway is named The Ghan (short for The Afghan) in their memory.[19]

The first mosque in Australia was built in 1861 at Marree, South Australia.[20] The Great Mosque of Adelaide was built in 1888 by the descendants of the Afghan cameleers.

During the 1870s, Muslim Malay divers were recruited through an agreement with the Dutch to work on Western Australian and Northern Territory pearling grounds. By 1875, there were 1800 Malay divers working in Western Australia. Most returned to their home countries.

One of the earliest recorded Islamic festivals celebrated in Australia occurred on 23 July 1884 when 70 Muslims assembled for Eid prayers at Albert Park in Melbourne. “During the whole service the worshippers wore a remarkably reverential aspect.”[21]

1900 to present

In the early 20th century, immigration of Muslims to Australia was restricted to those of European descent, as non-Europeans were denied entry to Australia under the provisions of the White Australia policy. In the 1920s and 1930s Albanian Muslims, whose European heritage made them compatible with the White Australia Policy, immigrated to the country. Albanian Muslims built the first mosque in Shepparton, Victoria in 1960 and the first mosque in Melbourne in 1963.

Modern-day replica of an ice cream van owned by one of the terrorists involved in the Battle of Broken Hill in 1915.

Notable events involving Australian Muslims during this early period include what has been described either as an act of war by the Ottoman Empire, or the earliest terrorist attack planned against Australian civilians.[22] The attack was carried out at Broken Hill, New South Wales, in 1915, in what was described as the Battle of Broken Hill. Two Afghans who pledged allegiance to the Ottoman Empire shot and killed four Australians and wounded seven others before being killed by the police.[23]

Increased immigration

The perceived need for population growth and economic development in Australia led to the broadening of Australia's immigration policy in the post-World War II period. This allowed for the acceptance of a number of displaced Muslims who began to arrive from Europe mainly from the Balkans, especially from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Between 1967 and 1971, approximately 10,000 Turkish citizens settled in Australia under an agreement between Australia and Turkey.

Also, from the 1970s onwards, there was a significant shift in the government's attitude towards immigration. Instead of trying to make newer foreign nationals assimilate and forgo their heritage, the government became more accommodating and tolerant of differences by adopting a policy of multiculturalism.

The Chullora Greenacre Mosque

Larger-scale Muslim migration began in 1975 with the migration of Lebanese Muslims, which rapidly increased during the Lebanese Civil War from 22,311 or 0.17% of the Australian population in 1971, to 45,200 or 0.33% in 1976. Lebanese Muslims are still the largest and highest-profile Muslim group in Australia, although Lebanese Christians form a majority of Lebanese Australians, outnumbering their Muslim counterparts at a 6-to-4 ratio.

By the beginning of the 21st-century, Muslims from more than sixty countries had settled in Australia. While a very large number of them come from Bosnia, Turkey, and Lebanon, there are Muslims from Indonesia, Malaysia, Iran, Fiji, Albania, Sudan, Somalia, Egypt, the Palestinian territories, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh, among others. At the time of the 2011 census, 476,000 Australians (representing 2.2 percent of the population) reported Islam as their religion.[24]

Since the 1990s

Trade and educational links between have been developed Australia and several Muslim countries. Muslim students from countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, are among the thousands of international students studying in Australian universities.

A number of Australian Arabs experienced anti-Arab backlash during the First Gulf War. Newspapers received numerous letters calling for Arab Australians to "prove their loyalty" or "go home", and some Arab Australian Muslim women wearing hijab head coverings were reportedly harassed in public. The Australian government's Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission included accounts of racial harassment experienced by some Australian Arabs in their 1991 report on racism in Australia.[14]:11–13

On a few occasions in the 2000s and 2010s, tensions have flared between Australian Muslims and the general population. The Sydney gang rapes was a much reported set of incidents in 2000; a group of Lebanese men sexually assaulted non-Muslim women. In 2005, tensions between Muslims and non-Muslims in the Cronulla area of Sydney led to violent rioting; the incident resulted in mass arrests and criminal prosecution. In 2012, Muslims protesting in central Sydney against Innocence of Muslims, an anti-Islam film trailer, resulted in rioting.[25] There was an increase in anti-Muslim sentiment in the aftermath of the Sydney hostage crisis on 15–16 December 2014, including a threat made against a mosque in Sydney.[26] However, the Muslim community also received support from the Australian public through a social media campaign.[27][28]

The founding president of the Australian Federation of Islamic Councils has said that with moderate Muslims being sidelined by those promoting more fundamentalist views, there is a need to be more careful in regard to potential Australian immigrants. Keysar Trad has said moderate Muslims need to take back control.[29] An article in The Australian in May 2015 opined, "Most Muslims want the peace and prosperity that comes from an Islam that coexists with modernity; it is a fanatical fringe that seeks to impose a fabricated medieval Islam". It describes Dr Jamal Rifi as a brave insider who is working to assist "the cause of good Muslims who are struggling for the soul of Islam".[30]

Schools of jurisprudence in Australia

Most Australian Muslims are Sunni, with Shia then Sufi and Ahmadiyya as minorities.[4]

Sunni

Adherents of the Sunni denomination of Islam are concentrated in the suburb of Lakemba and surrounding areas such as Punchbowl, Wiley Park, Bankstown and Auburn.

In Australia there are also groups associated with the "hardline" Salafi branch of Islam, including the Islamic Information and Services Network of Australasia[31] and Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah Association (Australia) (ASWJA).[32] While their numbers are small,[33] the ASWJA is said to "punch above its weight".[5]

Dawateislami is "a global non-political movement"[34] with adherents in Australia. (Refer Dawat-e-Islami and Sunni Dawat-e-Islami).

Shia

Shi'a commemorating Ashura outside the Opera House, Sydney.

The Campbelltown, Fairfield, Auburn and Liverpool regions of Sydney, with the al-Zahra Mosque built in Arncliffe in 1983.[35] In 2008, the community numbered 30,000 followers nationally.[36]

In November 2014, up to 3,000 Shi'a Muslims marched in Sydney on the annual Ashura Procession to mark the death of the prophet's grandson.[37][38] In November 2015 there was Ashura march in Sydney[39] and a Victorian school observed Muharram.[40]

Alawites

There are approximately 20,000 Alawites from Turkish, Syrian and Lebanese backgrounds.[41] They have at least one school called Al Sadiq College, with campuses in the Sydney suburbs of Yagoona and Greenacre.[42] There is also a population of the related, though distinct, Alevis.[43]

Druze

Druze, which is an 11th-century branch of Ismaili Shiites,[44] is reported to have thousands of followers living in Australia.[45] There is also an Ismaili population of unspecified size.[46][47]

Sufi

There are communities of Sufis,[48] most notably the Ahbash, who operate under the name Islamic Charitable Projects Association.[49] They run Al Amanah College, as well as a mosque and a community radio station in suburban Sydney.[50] There have been tensions between the Ahbash and other Muslim communities.[51][52]

Ahmadiyya

The Ahmadiyya sect[53][54] is reported to have 6,000 followers in Australia.[55] There are 4 Ahmadiyya mosques all over Australia including Sydney; Masjid Bait-ul Huda, Melbourne; Masjid Bait-ul Salam, Brisbane; Masjid Bait-ul Masroor and Adelaide; Masjid Mahmood. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has its headquarters located at the Masjid Bait-ul Huda, Marsden Park to the west of Sydney.[56]

Religious life

The Australian Muslim community has built a number of mosques and Islamic schools, and a number of imams and clerics act as the community's spiritual and religious leaders. In 1988, the Australian Federation of Islamic Councils (AFIC) appointed Sheikh Taj El-Din Hilaly as the first Grand Mufti of Australia and New Zealand. In 2007, Hilaly was succeeded by Fehmi Naji in June 2007[57] who was succeeded by the current Grand Mufti, Ibrahim Abu Mohamed in September 2011.[58]

Sunshine Mosque located in Melbourne serves the Turkish Cypriot community.

Fatwas, edicts based on Islamic jurisprudence which aim to provide "guidance to Muslim Australians in the personal, individual and private spheres of life",[59] are issued by various Australian Islamic authorities.[60][61]

Organisations

A number of organisations and associations are run by the Australian Islamic community including mosques, private schools and charities and other community groups and associations. Broad community associations which represent large segments of the Australian Muslim public are usually termed "Islamic councils". Some organisations are focused on providing assistance and support for specific sectors within the community, such as women.

Two organisations with strong political emphasis are Hizb ut-Tahrir[62] which describes itself as a, "political party whose ideology is Islam"[63][64] and Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah Association (ASWJA).[65][66]

A number of financial institutions have developed sharia-compliant investments, superannuation,[69] Islamic wills[70] and zakat management.[71][72]

  • Islam in Australia - at Oxford Bibliographies Online
  • Islamic Museum of Australia
  • Australian Federation of Islamic Councils
  • Muslim Journeys – historical community biography produced by the National Archives of Australia
  • Australian Multicultural Foundation
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001 Census Dictionary – Religion category
  • Australia's Muslim Cameleers
  • Garry Wotherspoon (2015). "Muslims in Sydney". ] CC-By-SA [ 

External links

  • Aslan, Alice. "Islamophobia In Australia"
  • Boundless Plains: The Australian Muslim Connection, By Islamic Museum of Australia. Author: Moustafa Fahour
  • Cleland, Bilal. The Muslims in Australia: A Brief History. Melbourne: Islamic Council of Victoria, 2002.
  • Deen, Hanifa. Muslim Journeys. Online: National Archives of Australia, 2007.
  • Drew, Abdul Shaheed. Muslims in Australia since the 1600s
  • Kabir, Nahid. Muslims in Australia: Immigration, Race Relations and Cultural History. London: Kegan Paul, 2004.
  • Kabir, Nahid (July 2006). "Muslims in a 'White Australia': Colour or Religion?".  
  • Saeed, Abdullah. Islam in Australia. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2003.
  • Saeed, Abdullah and Shahram Akbarzadeh, eds. Muslim Communities in Australia. Sydney: UNSW Press, 2001.
  • Stevens, Christine. Tin Mosques and Ghantowns.
  • Woodlock, Rachel and John Arnold (eds). Isolation, Integration and Identity: The Muslim Experience in Australia. Special Issue of The La Trobe Journal. Melbourne, Victoria: State Library of Victoria Foundation, 2012.

Further reading

  1. ^ "2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  2. ^ "Old trend no leap of faith". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  3. ^ "Australians Lose Their Faith". The Wall Street Journal. 
  4. ^ a b "Islam in Australia - Demographic Profile of Muslim Youth" (PDF). Retrieved 31 March 2015. 
  5. ^ a b Burke, Kelly (22 September 2012). "Disunity, not anger, is Muslim dilemma".  
  6. ^ Baker, Jordan; Marcus, Caroline (23 September 2012). "Inside Sydney's City of Imams". Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
  7. ^ "The Yolngu".  
  8. ^ Ganter,R.(2008) Journal of Australian Studies, Volume 32,4, 2008: "Muslim Australians: the deep histories of contact."[5] Retrieved on 6 April 2012
  9. ^ Janak Rogers (24 June 2014). "When Islam came to Australia". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  10. ^ "Dr Ian S McIntosh - Biography".  
  11. ^ a b McIntosh, Ian (June 1996). "Islam and Australia's Aborigines? A Perspective from North-East Arnhem Land". The  
  12. ^ McIntosh, Ian (1996). "Allah and the Spirit of the Dead - The hidden legacy of pre-colonial Indonesian/Aboriginal contact in north-east Arnhem Land" (PDF).  
  13. ^ Howie-Willis, Ian, ed. (1997). "Aboriginal History Volume 21" (PDF). History Department, Australian National University. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "Muslims In Australia - Nahid Kabir - Google Books". Books.google.com.au. 2013-01-11. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
  15. ^ "Norfolk Island Census of Population and Housing 2006" (PDF). Government of Norfolk Island. p. 25. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  16. ^ "Combating Racism and Prejudice in Schools" (PDF). Victorian Department of Education. p. 13. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  17. ^ Shahram Akbarzadeh; Abdullah Saeed (2001). Muslim communities in Australia. UNSW Press. pp. 13–15. 
  18. ^ Jones, Philip G and Kenny, Anna (2007) Australia’s Muslim cameleers : pioneers of the inland, 1860s–1930s Kent Town, S. Aust. : Wakefield Press. ISBN 978-1-86254-778-0
  19. ^ Arthur Clark (January–February 1988). "Camels Down Under". Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved 19 November 2006. 
  20. ^ Dr Nahid Kabir (7 September 2007). "A History of Muslims in Australia". The (Dhaka) Daily Star, Bangladesh. Retrieved 18 July 2009. 
  21. ^ “Mahomedan Festival in Melbourne”, Auckland Star, 16 August 1884, page 3.
  22. ^ Murphy, Damien. "Broken Hill an act of war or terrorism won't be commemorated." Sydney Morning Herald. 31 October 2014.
  23. ^ Stevens, Christine. Tin Mosques and Ghantowns; A History of Afghan Cameldrivers in Australia. Oxford University Press. Melbourne 1989, p. 163 ISBN 0-19-554976-7
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  34. ^ http://www.dawateislami.net Dawateislami
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  40. ^ Cook, Henrietta (27 October 2015). "Department backs school over national anthem furore".  
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  44. ^ "Cry, my father's country".  
  45. ^ Debien, Noel (22 July 2012). "The good life: Druze practical spirituality (Part 1)".  
  46. ^ R. S. McGregor (25 Sep 1992). McGregor, R. S., ed. Devotional Literature in South Asia: Current Research, 1985-1988 (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 103.  
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  131. ^ Paul Bibby (2012-09-13). "'"Sydney sheikh in court over 'female genital mutilation. Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
  132. ^ "7.30". ABC. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
  133. ^ http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/health/female-circumcision-is-a-right-says-imam/story-fn59nokw-1226542730442
  134. ^ "Shame of our child brides : Court hears how woman was raped and beaten as its revealed hundreds are forced into arranged and unregistered marriages across NSW". Dailytelegraph.com.au. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
  135. ^ Rachel Olding (2015-02-25). "Child bride: 19-year-old man charged over 'wedding' to 15-year-old". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
  136. ^ "A 12-year-old bride was found to be pregnant after the man she married was charged with multiple sex offences". Dailytelegraph.com.au. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
  137. ^ Growing number of Muslim men and multiple wives exploiting loophoole for taxpayer handouts
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  139. ^ Patricia Karvelas (17 May 2011). "Muslims to push for sharia".  
  140. ^ http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/inmates-banned-from-speaking-arabic-at-supermax-jail-in-goulburn/story-fnpn118l-1227252909937
  141. ^ Ari Gross, Judith (13 March 2015). "Australian Muslim leader calls Jews ‘evil creatures’".  
  142. ^ "Islamic State is a plot by Western countries, Victoria's Al-Taqwa College principal tells students".  
  143. ^ "Muddle headed Mufti".  
  144. ^ Jones, Jeremy. "Confronting Reality: Anti-Semitism in Australia Today".  
  145. ^ "Excerpts of al-Hilali's speech".  
  146. ^ Baxendale, Rachel (4 October 2015). "Extremist Muslim group to hold workshops at Deakin University".  
  147. ^ "Row over Melbourne 'holy war' book sales - War on Terror - Features - In Depth". Theage.com.au. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
  148. ^ Maley, Paul (27 February 2015). "Meet the point man for radical Islam".   (subscription required)
  149. ^ "Sheikhs in Sydney's Al Risalah book store encouraging young Muslims to get involved in Syria's conflict - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
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  151. ^ Welch, Dylan; Chadwick, Vince (12 September 2012). "What is the Al-Furqan centre?".  
  152. ^ Dowling, James (16 May 2015). "Revealed: The split that created Al-Furqan".  
  153. ^ "Radical Islamic group : Inside the world of radical group Al-Furqan". Heraldsun.com.au. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
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  155. ^ Olding, Rachel (26 September 2014). "Members of Street Dawah preaching group feature heavily in Sydney's counter-terrorism raids".  
  156. ^ Colvin, Mark (9 October 2015). "Bukhari House linked to Parramatta killer".  
  157. ^ Doorley, Neil (6 September 2012). "Islamic bookshop run by brother of suicide bomber ‘promotes extremism’". Courier Mail. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
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  159. ^ Bachelard, Michael; Bucci, Nino (26 April 2015). "How do you solve a problem like radical Islam?".  
  160. ^ a b "HREOC Website: Isma - Listen: National consultations on eliminating prejudice against Arab and Muslim Australias". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
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  168. ^ Janak Rogers (24 June 2014). "When Islam came to Australia". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 25 June 2014. This sense of the compatibility of Aboriginal and Islamic beliefs is not uncommon, says Peta Stephenson, a sociologist at  
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  175. ^ Haveric, David (February 2009). "History of the Bosnian Muslim Community in Australia: Settlement Experience in Victoria" (PDF). Institute for Community, Ethnicity and Policy Alternatives, Victoria University. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
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  178. ^ "Veiled Ambition". Ronin Films. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
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  182. ^ Ray, Chris (24 October 2015). "The controversies raging inside our Islamic schools".  
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  • CIA Factbook[183]
  • US State Department's International Religious Freedom Report 2006[184]

References

See also

Notable figures

Within the Australian Islam there are unresolved tensions and internal criticisms. One example is where Australian Islamic schools teach children conflicting ideologies in relation to fundamentalism and reformation. Another example is where, "Sunni teachers were developing friction between Sunni and Shia students".[182]

However, speaking at a Sydney conference, Hizb ut-Tahrir (Australia) spokesman, Uthman Badar, said, "Islam is not up for negotiation or reform. Islam is what it is."[181]

During an interview on ABC Lateline program, the authors of a book entitled Islam and the Future of Tolerance, Sam Harris, an atheist and neuroscientist, and Maajid Nawaz, a former Hizb-ut-Tahrir member, argued that Islam has failed to modernise. Harris said, "We have a task ahead of us, a monumental task ahead of us, and that is to begin the process of adapting, reinterpreting our scriptures for the modern day and age.” The men have also established The Quilliam Foundation which lobbies government and public institutions for more nuanced policies regarding Islam and the need for greater democracy in the Muslim world.[180]

Criticism of Islam

Veiled Ambition is a documentary created by Rebel Films for the SBS independent network following a Lebanese-Australian woman named Frida as she opens a shop selling fashionable clothing for Muslim women on Melbourne's Sydney Road. The documentary follows Frida as she develops her business in Melbourne while juggling a husband and home in Sydney and a pregnancy.[178] Veiled Ambition won the Palace Films Award for Short Film Promoting Human Rights at the 2006 Melbourne International Film Festival.[179]

  • The Camel in Australia, by Tom L. McKnight
  • Fear and Hatred, by Andrew Markus
  • Afghans in Australia, by Michael Cigler
  • Tin Mosques and Ghantowns, by Christine Stevens
  • Ali Abdul v The King, by Hanifa Deen
  • Australia's Muslim Cameleers: Pioneers of the inland, 1860s–1930s, by Dr Anna Kenny

There are a number of notable works in Australian literature that discuss the Muslims during the "Afghan period" (1860-1900).[14]:10

In literature and film

Turkish Muslims are a significant segment of the Australian Muslim community. Some statistical reports forecast the Turkish Muslim population in Australia surpassing the Lebanese Muslim population in the 2020s and 2030s. The majority of Turkish Muslims in Sydney are from Auburn, Eastlakes and Prestons. Despite still having a large Turkish population in Auburn and Eastlakes, many Turks moved out of these areas and moved to Prestons to be close to the new and growing Turkish private school, Amity College which is run by people closely affiliated with the Galaxy Foundation (formerly Feza Foundation).

Turkish Muslims

Although the first Somali community in Victoria was established in 1988, most Somalis began to settle in the country in the early 1990s following the civil war in Somalia.[176] Somalis are active in the wider Australian Muslim community, and have also contributed significantly to local business.[177]

Somali Muslims

Lebanese Muslims form the core of Australia's Muslim Arab population, particularly in Sydney where most Arabs in Australia live. Approximately 3.4% of Sydney's population are Muslim.

Lebanese Muslims

Bosnian Muslims have predominantly arrived in Australia after 1992, with most of the community living in the south east of Melbourne and in the south west of Sydney. There are Bosnian Muslim mosques in Deer Park and Penshurst.[175]

Bosnian Muslims

Bangladeshi Muslims are located primarily in Western Sydney with a mosque at Seaton[169] and in the south-east of Melbourne, with a mosque at Huntingdale.[170] The Seaton Mosque has been linked to the Tablighi Jamaat School of Islam[171] and has hosted Hizb ut-Tahrir.[172] For Bangladeshi Muslims attending the Huntingdale Mosque, all Islamic lunar months, such as Ramadan are observed using local moon-sightings, rather than being based on Middle-Eastern, or other, timings.[173][174]

Bangladeshi Muslims

According to Australia's 2011 census, 1,140 people identify as Aboriginal Muslims, almost double the number of Aboriginal Muslims recorded in the 2001 census.[164] Many are converts and some are descendants of Afghan cameleers or, as in the Arnhem Land people, have Macassan ancestry as a result of the historical Makassan contact with Australia.[165][166] In north east Arnhem Land, there is some Islamic influence on the songs, paintings, dances, prayers with certains hymns to "Allah" and funeral rituals like facing west during prayers, roughly the direction of Mecca, and ritual prostration reminiscent of the Muslim sujud.[164] As a result of Malay indentured laborers, plenty of families in Northern Australia have names like Doolah, Hassan and Khan.[164] The boxer Anthony Mundine is a member of this community.[167] Many indigenous converts are attracted to Islam because they see a compatibility between Aboriginal and Islamic beliefs,[168] while others see it as a fresh start and an aid against common social ills afflicting indigenous Australians, such as alcohol and drug abuse.[164]

Aboriginal Muslims



Muslim population by country of origin

  Australia (36%)
  Lebanon (10%)
  Turkey (8%)
  Afghanistan (3.5%)
  Bosnia-Herzegovina (3.5%)
  Pakistan (3.2%)
  Indonesia (2.9%)
  Iraq (2.8%)
  Bangladesh (2.7%)
  Iran (2.3%)
  Fiji (2%)
  Other (23.1%)

Communities

There are also communities of Muslims from Turkey, the Indian subcontinent (Pakistan, India and Bangladesh) and South-East Asia, in Sydney and Melbourne, the Turkish communities around Auburn, New South Wales and Meadow Heights and Roxburgh Park and the South Asian communities around Parramatta. Indonesian Muslims, are more widely distributed in Darwin.

Mirrabooka and neighbouring Girrawheen contain predominantly Bosniak communities. The oldest mosque in Perth is the Perth Mosque on William Street in Northbridge. It has undergone many renovations although the original section still remains. Other mosques in Perth are located in Rivervale, Mirrabooka, Beechboro and Hepburn.

Perth also has a Muslim community focussed in and around the suburb of Thornlie, where there is a Mosque. Perth's Australian Islamic School has around 2,000 students on three campuses.

Very few Muslims live in regional areas with the exceptions of the sizeable Turkish and Albanian community in Shepparton, Victoria and Malays in Katanning, Western Australia. A community of Iraqis have settled in Cobram on the Murray River in Victoria.[163]

Many Muslims living in Melbourne are Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims) and Turkish Muslims. Melbourne's Australian Muslims live primarily in the northern suburbs surrounding Broadmeadows (mostly Turkish) and a few in the outer southern suburbs such as Noble Park and Dandenong (mainly Bosniaks).

At the 2011 census, people who were affiliated with Islam as a percentage of the total population in Sydney divided geographically by postal area
At the 2011 census, people who were affiliated with Islam as a percentage of the total population in Australia divided geographically by statistical local area

Areas

The majority of people who reported Islam as their religion in the 2006 Census were born overseas: 58% (198,400).[161] Of all persons affiliating with Islam in 2006 almost 9% were born in Lebanon and 7% were born in Turkey.[162]

The distribution by state of the nation's Islamic followers has New South Wales with 50% of the total number of Muslims, followed by Victoria (33%), Western Australia (7%), Queensland (5%), South Australia (3%), ACT (1%) and both Northern Territory and Tasmania sharing 0.3%.

There were 281,578 Muslims recorded in this survey; in the 2006 census the population had grown to 340,392.[161] 48% of Australian-born Muslims claimed Lebanese or Turkish ancestry.[160]

The following is a breakdown of the country of birth of Muslims in Australia from 2001:[160]

In 2005 the overall Muslim population in Australia had grown from 281,600 or 1.50% of the general Australian population in 2001, to 340,400 or 1.71% in 2006. The growth of Muslim population at this time was recorded as 3.88% compared to 1.13% for the general Australian population.

The general increase of the Muslim population in this decade was from 147,487 or 0.88% of the Australian population in 1991, to 200,885 or 1.12% in 1996.

During the 1980s the Australian Muslim population increased from 76,792 or 0.53% of the Australian population in 1981, to 109,523 or 0.70% in 1986. In the 2011 Census, the Muslim population was 479,300 or 2.25%, an increase of 438% on the 1981 number.

Trends

Demography

In Brisbane, the iQraa Bookstore was said to promote extremism.[157][158] It was reported in 2015 that the al-Furqan and al-Risalah bookshops had both closed, but concern has been raised that this might be the "worst thing that could happen" as they provided a place for people to go to "express their frustrations".[159]

The Bukhari House Islamic Bookshop[154] in Auburn, New South Wales, which is aligned to the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah Association has featured heavily in counter-terrorism raids.[155] The gunman responsible for the 2015 Parramatta shooting is said to have spent his final days under the influence of Bukhari House leaders.[156]

Material sold at some Islamic bookshops have raised concerns. For example, the Islamic Information Bookshop in Melbourne was stocking literature "calling for violence against non-Muslims";[147] the Al Risalah Bookshop[148] was said to be "encouraging young Australians to fight in Syria";[149][150] and the Al-Furqan Bookshop[151][152] was said to be polarising members with extreme views.[153]

Promotion of extremism

Sheik Taj el-Din al-Hilali, former Grand Mufti of Australia said, "Jews try to control the world through sex, then sexual perversion, then the promotion of espionage, treason and economic hoarding"[143][144] with Christians and Jews being, "the worst in God's creation".[145] At a Victorian university, a Muslim group held workshops based on the teachings of Islamic scholars who have recommended the death penalty for homosexuals and apostates, promoted terrorism and preached hatred of Jews and Christians.[146]

There is antisemitism among Muslims in Australia. The leader of Hizb ut-Tahrir has said that the Jews "are evil creatures",[141] and the principal of Al-Taqwa College told students that ISIL is a scheme created by Israel.[142] An Islamic bookstore in Lakemba was found to be selling a children's book that describes Jews as "much conceited" and intent on world domination.[79]

Promotion of antisemitism

Other issues

Muslims are over-represented in jails in New South Wales, at 9% to 10% of the prison population, compared to less than 3% within the NSW population.[140]

As of 2007, average wages of Muslims were much lower than those of the national average, with just 5% of Muslims earning over $1000 per week compared to the average of 11%. Unemployment rates amongst Muslims born overseas were higher than Muslims born in Australia.[122]

Employment, education and crime

There has been prosecutions under Australian law in regards to Islamic marriages involving underage girls.[134][135][136] It has been reported that a "growing number of Muslim men [have] multiple wives"; the same story cited Islamic Friendship Association of Australia president Keysar Trad as believing that there were "not many more than 50" polygamist Muslim families in Australia.[137] The AFIC has advocated Australian Muslims being able to marry and divorce under the principles of Sharia law, saying that Australian Muslims should enjoy "legal pluralism".[138][139]

It has been reported that female circumcision has been carried out in New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia, with a Sydney sheikh arrested in relation to alleged genital mutilation.[130][131] There are reportedly 120,000 migrant women living in Australia who have had their genitals mutilated.[132] A Sydney imam has said, "Female circumcision in its legitimate form is a personal and human right of a woman [while] genital mutilation is a horrible crime."[133]

As part of the broader issue of women's rights and Islam, the perceived gender inequality in Islam has often been the focal point of criticism in Australia through comparisons to the situation of women in Islamic nations. Muslim women can face hurdles both from within the Muslim community and from the wider community.[122][126] Following a successful appeal to the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal by a Muslim lady, who believes it is a sin to be seen without a niqab, the policy of the Monash hospital is now for female doctors to attend to female patients, if requested.[127] Several Melbourne councils have women-only sessions in their swimming pools. Monash Council has provided a curtain to ensure privacy for Muslim women.[128][129]

Women's rights

According to Michael Humphrey, a professor of social marginalisation experiences of Muslim working class migrants. This "immigrant Islam" is often viewed by the host society as a force of "cultural resistance" toward the multicultural and secular nature of the general Australian culture. Muslim practices of praying, fasting and veiling appear as challenging the conformity within public spaces and the values of gender equality in social relationships and individual rights. The immigrant Muslims are often required to "negotiate their Muslimness" in the course of their encounters with Australian society, the governmental and other social institutions and bureaucracies.[125]

Muslims in Australia have historically been disadvantaged socially and economically, to some extent, owing to their status as a non-White, minority group. After the White Australia immigration laws were replaced with multicultural policies the social disadvantage of Muslims was thought to have been alleviated. Some sources, however, note that Muslims now face some disadvantages on account of their religion.[14]:15–16 At times there has been opposition to the construction of new mosques in Australia. A 2014 report from the Islamic Sciences and Research Academy, University of Western Sydney, on mosques in New South Wales found that 44 percent of mosques in the state had "experienced resistance from the local community when the mosque was initially proposed". In around 20 percent of these cases opposition was from a small number of people.[124]

A report published in 2004 by the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission pointed to many Muslim Australians who felt the Australian media was unfairly critical of, and often vilified their community due to generalisations of terrorism and the emphasis on crime. The use of ethnic or religious labels in news reports about crime was thought to stir up racial tensions.[123]

According to some scholars, a particular trend of anti-Muslim prejudice has developed in Australia since the late 1980s.[121] Since the 2001 World Trade Center attacks in New York, and the 2005 Bali bombings, Islam and its place in Australian society has been the subject of much public debate.[122]

Discrimination

In May 2015, the Abbott Government committed a further AU$450 million to fight home-grown terrorism.[120]

Peter Jennings, Executive Director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute has said Australian Muslim leaders need to recognise that there are a "disturbing number of radicalised ideologues" who do not believe Islam is peaceful. He says, "some dramatic self-healing is needed".[119]

Glenn Mohammed a Muslim lawyer has written, "Muslims need to be able to discuss these issues openly and denounce barbaric behaviour. Instead, we choose to remain silent and then criticise a government that tries to make Australia safer."[117] Psychiatrist Tanveer Ahmed has examined underlying causes and has identified the significance of issues relating to 'family' and to 'denial'. He has said, "Muslim youths have unique difficulties in coming to terms with their identity, especially when they have conflicting value systems at home compared with school or work".[118]

Sydney's Muslim leaders, including Keysar Trad, have condemned the actions of suicide bombers and denounced ISIS.[114] The Shia community in Australia have also expressed their concern regarding ISIS.[37][115] In February 2015, Ameer Ali former president of the Australian Federation of Islamic Councils called on religious leaders to oppose Islamic State as, "I haven't heard so far any single imam in this country that has named IS and condemned it."[116]

A number of forums and meetings have been held about the problem of extremist groups or ideology within the Australian Islamic community.[113] After the London bombings in 2005, Prime Minister John Howard established a Muslim Community Reference Group to assist governmental relations with the Muslim community.

Responses

[112][111] has said that any who do would be prosecuted on their arrival.Tony Abbott but Prime Minister [110] Several jihadists have expressed the desire to return to Australia,[100] had cancelled more than 100 passports by the end of March 2015.[109] The Border Force Counter-Terrorism Unit, tasked with stopping jihadists from leaving the country,[108] with 249 suspected jihadists prevented from leaving Australia.[107] It was also reported at the time that 20 Australians had been killed fighting overseas for terror groups,[106] A list released in April 2015 showed that most were young males who have come from a range of occupations, including students.[105][104] In June 2014, the government claimed that roughly 150 Australians had been recruited to fight in the conflicts in Syria and Iraq.[103].home-made bombs Some of those targeted have been minors, including a teenager who was arrested in Melbourne in May 2015 for plotting to detonate [102][101] and encourage local jihad activities.[100][99], recruiters target those vulnerable to radicalisation,social media Making use of [98] has targeted Australian Muslims for recruitment.[97] The

Several foreign Lashkar-e-Taiba,[85][86] and Jemaah Islamiah.[87][88]:111[89]:38 Al-Shabaab is believed to have been behind the Holsworthy Barracks terror plot.[90][91][92][93] An man known as "Ahmed Y" established a small militant group in Australia in 2001 and advocated the idea of establishing an Islamic State in Australia.[94]:14 Groups led by Abdul Nacer Benbrika and Khaled Cheikho were active in Melbourne and Sydney, respectively, until police arrested their members in 2005.[95][96] Instances of domestic terror inspired by radical political Islam include the plots by Faheem Khalid Lodhi, Abdul Nacer Benbrika and Joseph T. Thomas.

A number of incidents have highlighted the issues associated with radical Islam in Australia, including terrorism and militant activity.[84]

Radical Islam

Islamic preachers and clerics in Australia have been covered in the Australian press on account of the messages they have delivered publicly to the Muslim community or have otherwise shared with others in public settings. In some instances, various ideas and viewpoints espoused by these preachers have been subject of public or internal debate.[82] Statements viewed as misogynistic and radically paternalistic have come under criticism.[83]

Concerns and contemporary issues facing the Australian Muslim community include rates of unemployment, the rights of women, concerns over Islamism and Islamic radicalism, among others.

Issues

A 1974 delegation from Saudi Arabia recommended that the Australian Federation of Islamic Councils should become the sole authority in Australia to certify that meat had been killed in accordance with Islamic rites.[80] There are now close to two dozen Halal certification authorities in Australia. Halal meat and meat product exports to the Middle East and Southeast Asia have greatly increased from the 1970s onwards; this expansion was due in part to efforts of the AFIC.[14]:151 Halal certification has been criticised by anti-Islam lobby groups who argue that the practice results in added costs, a requirement to officially certify intrinsically-halal foods and with consumers required to subsidise a particular religious belief.[81]

Halal certification

Conflict between religious groups in the Middle East are reflecting as tensions within the Australian community[77][78] and in the schools.[79]

[76][75][74]

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