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Islamic denominations

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Islamic denominations

This article summarizes the different branches in Islam.

Sunni Islam

Main article: Sunni Islam

Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam and are known as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h or simply as Ahl as-Sunnah. The word Sunni comes from the word sunnah, which means the teachings and actions or examples of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Therefore, the term "Sunni" refers to those who follow or maintain the sunnah of the prophet Muhammad.

The Sunnis believe that Muhammad did not specifically appoint a successor to lead the Muslim ummah (community) before his death, and after an initial period of confusion, a group of his most prominent companions gathered and elected Abu Bakr Siddique, Muhammad's close friend and a father-in-law, as the first caliph of Islam. Sunni Muslims regard the first four caliphs (Abu Bakr, `Umar ibn al-Khattāb, Uthman Ibn Affan and Ali ibn Abu Talib) as "al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn" or "The Rightly Guided Caliphs." Sunnis also believe that the position of caliph may be attained democratically, on gaining majority votes, but after the Rashidun, the position turned into a hereditary dynastic rule because of the divisions that started by the Umayyads and others. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, there has never been another caliph as widely recognized in the Muslim world.

Schools of jurisprudence

Main article: Madh'hab

Madhhab is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Several of the Sahaba had a unique school of jurisprudence, but these schools were gradually consolidated or discarded so that there are currently four recognized schools. The differences between these schools of thought manifest in some practical and philosophical differences. Sunnis generally do not identify themselves with a particular school of thought, simply calling themselves "Sunnis," but the populations in certain regions will often - whether intentionally or unintentionally - follow the views of one school while respecting others.

Hanafi

The Hanafi school was founded by Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man. It is followed by Muslims in the Levant, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Western Lower Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, the Balkans and by most of Russia's Muslim community. There are movements within this school such as Deobandis, and the Tablighi Jamaat, which are all concentrated in South Asia and in most parts of India.

Maliki

The Maliki school was founded by Malik ibn Anas. It is followed by Muslims in North Africa, West Africa, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, in parts of Saudi Arabia and in Upper Egypt. The Murabitun World Movement follows this school as well. In the past, it was also followed in parts of Europe under Islamic rule, particularly Islamic Spain and the Emirate of Sicily.

Shafi`i

The Shafi`i school was founded by Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i. It is followed by Muslims in Eastern Lower Egypt, Somalia, Jordan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Philippines, Yemen, Kurdistan, Kerala (Mappilas) and is officially followed by the governments of Brunei and Malaysia.

Hanbali

The Hanbali school was founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal. It is followed by Muslims in Qatar, most of Saudi Arabia and minority communities in Syria and Iraq. The majority of the Salafist movement claims to follow this school.

Ẓāhirī

The Ẓāhirī school was founded by Dawud al-Zahiri. It is followed by minority communities in Morocco and Pakistan. In the past, it was also followed by the majority of Muslims in Mesopotamia, Portugal, the Balearic Islands, North Africa and parts of Spain.


Schools of Theology

Main article: Aqidah

Aqidah is an Islamic term meaning creed or belief. Any religious belief system, or creed, can be considered an example of aqidah. However this term has taken a significant technical usage in Muslim history and theology, denoting those matters over which Muslims hold conviction. The term is usually translated as "theology". Such traditions are divisions orthogonal to sectarian divisions of Islam, and a Mu'tazili may for example, belong to Jafari, Zaidi or even Hanafi school of jurisprudence.

Textualist approach

Athari
Main article: Athari

The Athari school derives its name from the Arabic word Athar, meaning "narrations." The Athari creed is to avoid delving into extensive theological speculation. They use the Qur'an, the Sunnah, and sayings of the Sahaba - seeing this as the middle path where the attributes of Allah are accepted without questioning 'how' they are. Ahmad bin Hanbal is regarded as the leader of the Athari school of creed. Athari is generally synonymous with Salafi. The central aspect of Athari theology is its definition of Tawhid, meaning literally unification or asserting the oneness of Allah.[1][2][3][4]

Kalām

Main article: Kalam

Kalām is the Islamic philosophy of seeking theological principles through dialectic. In Arabic, the word literally means "speech/words". A scholar of kalām is referred to as a mutakallim (Muslim theologian; plural mutakallimūn). There are many schools of Kalam, the main ones being the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools in Sunni Islam.

Ash'ari
Main article: Ash'ari

Ash'ari is a school of early Islamic philosophy founded in the 10th century by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari. It was instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islam and laid the groundwork to "shut the door of ijtihad" centuries later in the Ottoman Empire. The Asharite view was that comprehension of the unique nature and characteristics of God were beyond human capability.

Maturidi
Main article: Maturidi

A Maturidi is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi's theology, which is a close variant of the Ash'ari school. Points which differ are the nature of belief and the place of human reason. The Maturidis state that belief (iman) does not increase nor decrease but remains static; it is piety (taqwa) which increases and decreases. The Ash'aris say that belief does in fact increase and decrease. The Maturidis say that the unaided human mind is able to find out that some of the more major sins such as alcohol or murder are evil without the help of revelation. The Ash'aris say that the unaided human mind is unable to know if something is good or evil, lawful or unlawful, without divine revelation.

Murji'ah
Main article: Murji'ah

Murji'ah (Arabic المرجئة) is an early Islamic school, whose followers are known in English as Murjites or Murji'ites (Arabic المرجئون). During the early centuries of Islam, Muslim thought encountered a multitude of influences from various ethnic and philosophical groups that it absorbed. Murji'ah emerged as a theological school that was opposed to the Kharijites on questions related to early controversies regarding sin and definitions of what is a true Muslim.

They advocated the idea of "delayed judgement". Only God can judge who is a true Muslim and who is not, and no one else can judge another as an infidel (kafir). Therefore, all Muslims should consider all other Muslims as true and faithful believers, and look to Allah to judge everyone during the last judgment. This theology promoted tolerance of Umayyads and converts to Islam who appeared half-hearted in their obedience. The Murjite opinion would eventually dominate that of the Kharijites.

The Murjites exited the way of the Sunnis when they declared that no Muslim would enter the hellfire, no matter what his sins. This contradicts the traditional Sunni belief that some Muslims will enter the hellfire temporarily. Therefore the Murjites are classified as Ahlul Bid'ah or "People of Innovation" by Sunnis, particularly Salafis.

Mu'tazili
Main article: Mu'tazili

Mu'tazili theology originated in the 8th century in al-Basrah when Wasil ibn Ata left the teaching lessons of Hasan al-Basri after a theological dispute. He and his followers expanded on the logic and rationalism of Greek philosophy, seeking to combine them with Islamic doctrines and show that the two were inherently compatible. The Mu'tazili debated philosophical questions such as whether the Qur'an was created or eternal, whether evil was created by God, the issue of predestination versus free will, whether God's attributes in the Qur'an were to be interpreted allegorically or literally, and whether sinning believers would have eternal punishment in hell.

Movements

Salafi

The Salafi movement is a historical revivalist tradition dating back chiefly to the 13th century to Sheikh Ibn Taymiyyah and with a claim to following the methodology of the earliest Muslim generations, known as the Salaf. Most sunni scholars consider them kafir and out of the fold of Islam. It is a movement recently revived by the 18th century teacher Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab in the Arabian peninsula, and was instrumental in the rise of the House of Saud to power. Salafism is a puritanical and legalistic Islamic movement under the Sunni umbrella, and is the dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia. The terms "Wahhabi movement" and "Salafism" are often used interchangeably, although the word "Wahhabi" is a specific for followers of Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab who are the far right wing of Salafi Islam.

In addition to the Qur'an and hadith, the works of earlier scholars like Ibn Taymiyya, Ibn Al Qayyim and Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab are used for religious guidance. Salafism is, in general, opposed to Sufism as well as sects outside of the Sunni fold, which they regard as heresies. They see their role as a movement to restore Islam from what they perceive to be innovations, superstitions, deviances, and idolatries.

Salafis view the first three generations of Muslims, Muhammad's companions and the two succeeding generations after them, the Tabi‘un and the Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in, and those who followed in their path as being the best sources in order to understand the foundational principles of Islam, this being the methodology of the salaf. From this they follow the Athari creed with regards to their beliefs and regarding fiqh, as Sheikh Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen once explained, the clearest path is for Muslims who are laymen to follow, do taqlid to, a local scholar or teacher. However for those who wish to further their knowledge in fiqh then these Muslims are advised to take learning from a scholar well versed in a particular Madh'hab and study it thoroughly. The notable thing with regards to the salafi methadology is that it allows for scholars and sheikhs to reach a level whereby if they master the four madha'hib then they are capable of ijtihad, deriving their own fiqh rulings.

The methodology predominates mainly in countries such as Saudi Arabia, and other Arabian Peninsula states. There are also significant numbers of adherents in the Indian subcontinent (known as the Ahl al-Hadith), Egypt, and all over the Muslim world. It is also growing in popularity in countries in the western world; in particular in Muslim communities of the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.

Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimun

The Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimun, or Muslim Brotherhood, is an organisation that was founded by Egyptian scholar Hassan al-Banna, a graduate of Dar al-Ulum. With its various branches, it is the largest Sunni movement in the Arab world, and an affiliate is often the largest opposition party in many Arab nations. The Muslim Brotherhood is not concerned with theological differences, accepting Muslims of any of the four Sunni schools of thought. It is the world's oldest and largest Islamist group. Its aims are to re-establish the Caliphate and in the mean time push for more Islamisation of society. The Brotherhood's stated goal is to instill the Qur'an and sunnah as the "sole reference point for... ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community... and state."

Jamaat-e-Islami

The Jamaat-e-Islami is an Islamist political party in the Indian Subcontinent. It was founded in Lahore, British India, by Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi in 1941 and is the oldest religious party in Pakistan and India. Today, sister organizations with similar objectives and ideological approaches exist in India, (Jamaat-e-Islami Hind), Bangladesh (Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh), Kashmir, Afghanistan, and Sri Lanka, and there are "close brotherly relations" with the Islamist movements and missions "working in different continents and countries", particularly those affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood or Akhwan-al-Muslimeen. The JI envisions an Islamic government in Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan governing by Islamic law. It opposes Westernization—including capitalism, socialism, or such practices as bank interest, and favours an Islamic economic order and Caliphate.

Jamaat-al-Muslimeen

The Jamaat ul-Muslimeen is a movement in Sunni Islam revived by the Imam Syed Masood Ahmad in the 1960s.[5] The present leader of this group is Muhammad Ishtiaq.[6]

Shia Islam

Main articles: Shi'ites and Imamah (Shia doctrine)

Shia Islam (شيعة Shia, sometimes Shi'a or Shi'ite), is the second-largest denomination of Islam, comprising 25%[7][8][9] of the total Muslim population in the world.[10] Shia Muslims—though a minority in the Muslim world—constitute the majority of the populations in Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Iran, and Iraq, as well as a plurality in Lebanon and Yemen.

In addition to believing in the authority of the Qur'an and teachings of Muhammad, Shia believe that his family, the Ahl al-Bayt (the "People of the House"), including his descendants known as Imams, have special spiritual and political rule over the community[11] and believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, was the first of these Imams and was the rightful successor to Muhammad, and thus reject the legitimacy of the first three Rashidun caliphs.[12]

The Shia Islamic faith is vast and includes many different groups. There are various Shia theological beliefs, schools of jurisprudence, philosophical beliefs, and spiritual movements. The Shia identity emerged soon after the martyrdom of Hussain son of Ali (the grandson of the prophet Muhammad) and Shia theology was formulated in the second century[13] and the first Shia governments and societies were established by the end of the ninth century.

An estimate of approximately 20% of the world's Muslims are Shia, which corresponds to about 300-400 million Shia Muslims worldwide.[9][10] Shia Muslims also constitute over 40% of the population in Lebanon,[14] over 25% of the population in Yemen,[15] over 35% of the population in Kuwait, 10–20% of the population (primarily Alevi) in Turkey, 10% (primarily Bektashi) of the population in Albania, 12% of the population in Pakistan and 2% of population in Afghanistan. They also make up at least 15%[16]-31%[17] of the Muslim populations in India, 10-15% in the United Arab Emirates, Syria and Saudi Arabia, although the total number is difficult to estimate due to the intermingling between the two groups and practice of taqiyya by Shiites.[18]

Significant Shia communities exist on the coastal regions of West Sumatra and Aceh in Indonesia (see Tabuik). The Shia presence is negligible elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where Muslims are predominantly Shafi'i Sunnis.

A significant syncretic Shia minority is present in Nigeria, centered around the state of Kano (see Shia in Nigeria). East Africa holds several populations of Ismaili Shia, primarily descendants of immigrants from South Asia during the colonial period, such as the Khoja.

According to Shia Muslims community,[19] one of the lingering problems in estimating Shia population is that unless Shia form a significant minority in a Muslim country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni.[19] The reverse, however, has not held true, which may contribute to imprecise estimates of the size of each sect. For example, the 1926 rise of the House of Saud in Arabia brought official discrimination against Shia.[20]

Shia Islam is divided into three branches. The largest and best known are the Twelver (اثنا عشرية iṯnāʿašariyya), named after their adherence to the Twelve Imams. They form a majority of the population in Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain and Iraq. Other smaller branches include the Ismaili and Zaidi, who dispute the Twelver lineage of Imams and beliefs.[21]

The Twelver Shia faith is predominantly found in Iran (90%), Azerbaijan (85%), Bahrain (65%), Iraq (65%), Lebanon (35%),[22] Kuwait (25%), Albania (20%), Pakistan (15%), Afghanistan (3%).[23][24] and India (25%[16]-31%)[17] of its Muslim population.

The Zaidi dispute the succession of the fifth Twelver Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir, because he did not stage a revolution against the corrupt government, unlike Zaid ibn Ali. They do not believe in a normal lineage, but rather that any descendant of Hasan ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali who stages a revolution against a corrupt government is an imam. The Zaidi are mainly found in Yemen.

The Ismaili dispute the succession of the seventh Twelver Imam, Musa al-Kadhim, believing his older brother Isma'il ibn Jafar actually succeeded their father Ja'far al-Sadiq, and did not predecease him like Twelver Shia believe. Ismaili form small communities in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, India, Syria, United Kingdom, Canada, Uganda, Portugal, Yemen, mainland China, Bangladesh and Saudi Arabia[25] and have several subbranches.

Twelver

Part of a series on Shia Islam
Twelvers

The Fourteen Infallibles

Muhammad · Fatimah · and
The Twelve Imams:
Ali · Hasan · Husayn
al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq
al-Kadhim · ar-Ridha · al-Taqi
al-Naqi · al-Askari · al-Mahdi

Principles

Monotheism
Judgement Day · Justice
Prophethood · Imamate

Other Beliefs

Succession to Muhammad
Imamate of the Family
Angels
Mourning of Muharram
Intercession
The Occultation · Clergy
Usul · Ijtihad
Taqleed · 'Aql · Irfan
Mahdaviat

Practices

Prayer · Fasting · Pilgrimage
Charity · Taxes · Jihad
Command Justice · Forbid Evil
Love the family of Muhammad
Dissociate from their Enemies

Holy cities

Mecca · Medina
Najaf · Karbala · Mashhad
Jerusalem · Samarra · Kadhimayn · Qom ·

Groups

Usuli · Akhbari · Shaykhi
Nimatullahi · Safaviya
Qizilbash · Alevism · Alawism
Bektashi · Tabarie

Scholarship

Law · Marja' · Hawza
Ayatollah · Allamah
Hojatoleslam · Mujtahid
List of maraji · List of Ayatollahs

Hadith collections

Peak of Eloquence · The Psalms of Islam · Book of Fundamentals · The Book in Scholar's Lieu · Civilization of Laws · The Certainty · Book of Sulaym ibn Qays · Oceans of Light · Wasael ush-Shia · Reality of Certainty · Keys of Paradise


Twelvers believe in twelve Imams. The twelfth Imam is believed to be in occultation, and will appear again just before the Qiyamah (Islamic view of the Last Judgment). The Shia hadiths include the sayings of the Imams. Many Muslims criticise the Shia for certain beliefs and practices, including practices such as the Mourning of Muharram (Mätam). They are the largest Shia school of thought (93%), predominant in Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Bahrain and have a significant population in Pakistan, Kuwait and the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The Twelver Shia are followers of either the Jaf'ari or Batiniyyah madh'habs.

Ja'fari jurisprudence

Main article: Ja'fari jurisprudence

Followers of the Jaf'ari madh'hab are divided into the following sub-divisions, although these are not considered different sects:

  • Usulism – The Usuli form the overwhelming majority within the Twelver Shia denomination. They follow a Marja-i Taqlid on the subject of taqlid and fiqh. They are concentrated in Iran, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, India, Iraq, and Lebanon.
  • Akhbarism – Akhbari, similar to Usulis, however reject ijtihad in favor of hadith. Concentrated in Bahrain.
  • Shaykhism – Shaykhism is an Islamic religious movement founded by Shaykh Ahmad in the early 19th century Qajar dynasty, Iran, now retaining a minority following in Iran and Iraq. It began from a combination of Sufi and Shia and Akhbari doctrines. In the mid 19th-century many Shaykhis converted to the Bábí and Bahá'í religions, which regard Shaykh Ahmad highly.

Batini jurisprudence

Main article: Batiniyyah

On the other hand, the followers of the Batiniyyah madh'hab consist of Alevis and Nusayris, who developed their own fiqh system and do not pursue the Ja'fari jurisprudence.

  • Alevi – Alevis are sometimes categorized as part of Twelver Shia Islam, and sometimes as its own religious tradition, as it has markedly different philosophy, customs, and rituals. They have many Tasawwufī characteristics and express belief in the Qur'an and The Twelve Imams, but reject polygamy and accept religious traditions predating Islam, like Turkish shamanism. They are significant in East-Central Turkey. They are sometimes considered a Sufi sect, and have an untraditional form of religious leadership that is not scholarship oriented like other Sunni and Shia groups. They number around 9 million worldwide, of which 6 million are in Turkey, with the rest in the Balkans, Albania, Azerbaijan, Iran and Syria.

Ismā'īlīsm

Main articles: Ismā'īlī and Imamah (Ismaili doctrine)

The Ismailis and Twelvers both accept the same initial Imams from the descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima Zahra and therefore share much of their early history. However, a dispute arose on the succession of the Sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq. The Ismailis are those who accepted Ja'far's eldest son Ismail as the next Imam, whereas the Twelvers accepted a younger son, Musa al-Kazim. Today, Ismailis are concentrated in Pakistan and other parts of South Asia. The Nizari Ismailis, however, are also concentrated in Central Asia, Russia, China, New Zealand, Afghanistan, Papua New Guinea, Syria, Australia, North America (including Canada), the United Kingdom, Bangladesh and in Africa as well.

Nīzār’īyyah

Main articles: Nizar (Fatimid Imam), Nizārī Ismā'īlī and Imamah (Nizari Ismaili doctrine)

Tayyābī Mustā'līyyah

Main articles: Al-Musta'li, Mustali, At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim and Taiyabi
  • Mustaali – The Mustaali group of Ismaili Muslims differ from the Nizāriyya in that they believe that the successor-Imām to the Fatimid caliph, al-Mustansir, was his younger son al-Mustaʻlī, who was made Caliph by the Fatimad Regent Al-Afdal Shahanshah. In contrast to the Nizaris, they accept the younger brother al-Mustaʻlī over Nizar as their Imam. The Bohras are an offshoot of the Taiyabi, which itself was an offshoot of the Mustaali. The Taiyabi, supporting another offshoot of the Mustaali, the Hafizi branch, split with the Mustaali Fatimid, who recognized Al-Amir as their last Imam. The split was due to the Taiyabi believing that At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim was the next rightful Imam after Al-Amir. The Hafizi themselves however considered Al-Hafiz as the next rightful Imam after Al-Amir. The Bohras believe that their 21st Imam, Taiyab abi al-Qasim, went into seclusion and established the offices of the Da'i al-Mutlaq (الداعي المطلق), Ma'zoon (مأذون) and Mukasir (مكاسر). The Bohras are the only surviving branch of the Mustaali and themselves have split into the Dawoodi Bohra, Sulaimani Bohra, and Alavi Bohra.
  • Dawoodi Bohra – The Dawoodi Bohras are a denomination of the Bohras. After offshooting from the Taiyabi the Bohras split into two, the Dawoodi Bohra and the Sulaimani Bohra, over who would be the correct dai of the community. Concentrated mainly in Pakistan and India.
  • Sulaimani Bohra – The Sulaimani Bohra named after their 27th Da'i al-Mutlaq, Sulayman ibn Hassan, are a denomination of the Bohras. After offshooting from the Taiyabi the Bohras split into two, the Sulaimani Bohra and the Dawoodi Bohra, over who would be the correct dai of the community. Concentrated mainly in Yemen.
  • Alavi Bohra – Split from the Dawoodi Bohra over who would be the correct dai of the community. The smallest branch of the Bohras.
  • Hebtiahs Bohra – The Hebtiahs Bohra are a branch of Mustaali Ismaili Shia Islam that broke off from the mainstream Dawoodi Bohra after the death of the 39th Da'i al-Mutlaq in 1754.
  • Atba-i-Malak – The Abta-i Malak jamaat (community) are a branch of Mustaali Ismaili Shia Islam that broke off from the mainstream Dawoodi Bohra after the death of the 46th Da'i al-Mutlaq, under the leadership of Abdul Hussain Jivaji. They have further split into two more branches, the Atba-i-Malak Badra and Atba-i-Malak Vakil.[29]

Durziyyah

Main articles: Durzi and ad-Darazi
  • Druze – The Druze are a small distinct traditional religion that developed in the 11th century. It began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo-Platonic and other philosophies. Druze are considered heretical and non-Muslims by most other Muslims because they are believed to address prayers to the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the third Fatimid caliph of Egypt, whom they regard as "a manifestation of God in His unity." The Druze believe that he had been hidden away by God and will return as the Mahdi on Judgement Day. Like Alawis, most Druze keep the tenets of their Faith secret, and very few details are known. They neither accept converts nor recognize conversion from their religion to another. They are located primarily in the Levant. Druze in different states can have radically different lifestyles. Some claim to be Muslim, some do not, though the Druze faith itself abides by Islamic principles.

Zaidiyyah

Main articles: Zaidiyyah, Zayd ibn Ali and Zaydi Revolt

Zaidiyyahs historically come from the followers of Zayd ibn Ali, the great-Grandson of 'Ali b. Abi Talib. They follow any knowledgeable and upright descendant of al-Hasan and al-Husayn, and are less esoteric in focus than Twelverism or Ismailism.

Sufism

Main articles: Sufism and Tariqa

Sufism is a mystical-ascetic form of Islam. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.[30] Tasawwuf is regarded as a science of Islam that has always been an integral part of Orthodox Islam. But the tasawwuf of the Sufis is different insofar as it has historically been accused of innovation by orthodox scholars throughout the ages however in his Al-Risala al-safadiyya, Shaykh Ibn Taymiyya defends the Sufis as those who belong to the path of the Sunna and represent it in their teachings and writings. Jurist and Hadith master Ibn Taymiyya's Sufi inclinations and his reverence for Sufis like `Abd al-Qadir Gilani can also be seen in his hundred-page commentary on Futuh al-ghayb, covering only five of the seventy-eight sermons of the book, but showing that he considered tasawwuf essential within the life of the Islamic community. In his commentary Ibn Taymiyya stresses that the primacy of the Shari`a forms the soundest tradition in tasawwuf, and to argue this point he lists over a dozen early masters, as well as more contemporary shaykhs like his fellow Hanbalis, al-Ansari al-Harawi and `Abd al-Qadir, and the latter's own shaykh, Hammad al-Dabbas:The upright among the followers of the Path - like the majority of the early shaykhs (shuyukh al-salaf) such as Fudayl ibn `Iyad, Ibrahim ibn Adham, Ma`ruf al-Karkhi, al-Sari al-Saqati, al-Junayd ibn Muhammad, and others of the early teachers, as well as Shaykh Abd al-Qadir, Shaykh Hammad, Shaykh Abu al-Bayan and others of the later masters -- do not permit the followers of the Sufi path to depart from the divinely legislated command and prohibition

Imam Ghazali narrates in Al-Munqidh min-al-dalal:"The vicissitudes of life, family affairs and financial constraints engulfed my life and deprived me of the congenial solitude. The heavy odds confronted me and provided me with few moments for my pursuits. This state of affairs lasted for ten years but wherever I had some spare and congenial moments I resorted to my intrinsic proclivity. During these turbulent years, numerous astonishing and indescribable secrets of life were unveiled to me. I was convinced that the group of Aulia (holy mystics) is the only truthful group who follow the right path, display best conduct and surpass all sages in their wisdom and insight. They derive all their overt or covert behaviour from the illumining guidance of the holy Prophet, the only guidance worth quest and pursuit.” This is what defines the intent and path of Islam via real submission of ones nafs to Allah and His commandments. Sufism does not claim to be factory producing homogeneous and homophobic Muslims. And that is the reason Sheykh Abdul Qadir Jilaani was hambali and Sheykh Moinuddeen Chishti was hanafi. In due course of time so many misconceptions have been developed by those who do window shopping for Sufism from outside. In fact, anything which is not from Allah and His messenger is not a Sufi affair.

Bektashi

Main article: Bektashi

The Bektashi Order was founded in the 13th century by the Islamic saint Haji Bektash Veli, and greatly influenced during its fomulative period by the Hurufi Ali al-'Ala in the 15th century and reorganized by Balim Sultan in the 16th century. Because of its adherence to the Twelve Imams it is classified under Twelver Shia Islam. Bektashi are concentrated in Turkey and Albania and their headquarters are in Albania.

Chishti

Main article: Chishti Order

The Chishti Order (Persian: چشتیہ‎) was founded by (Khawaja) Abu Ishaq Shami ("the Syrian") (d. 941) who brought Sufism to the town of Chisht, some 95 miles east of Herat in present-day Afghanistan. Before returning to the Levant, Shami initiated, trained and deputized the son of the local Emir, (Khwaja) Abu Ahmad Abdal (d. 966). Under the leadership of Abu Ahmad’s descendants, the Chishtiyya as they are also known, flourished as a regional mystical order.

Naqshbandi

Main article: Naqshbandi

The Naqshbandi order is one of the major Sufi orders of Islam. Formed in 1380, the order is considered by some to be a "sober" order known for its silent dhikr (remembrance of God) rather than the vocalized forms of dhikr common in other orders. The word Naqshbandi نقشبندی is Persian, taken from the name of the founder of the order, Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. Some have said that the translation means "related to the image-maker," some also consider it to mean "Pattern Maker" rather than "image maker", and interpret "Naqshbandi" to mean "Reformer of Patterns", and others consider it to mean "Way of the Chain" or "Golden Chain".

Nimatullahi

Main article: Nimatullahi

The Ni'matullāhī order is the most widespread Sufi order of Persia today. It was founded by Shah Ni'matullah Wali (d. 1367), established and transformed from his inheritance of the Ma'rufiyyah circle.[31] There are several suborders in existence today, the most known and influential in the West following the lineage of Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh who brought the order to the West following the 1979 Revolution in Iran.

Oveyssi (or Uwaiysi)

The Oveyssi (or Uwaiysi) order claim to be founded 1,400 years ago by Uwais al-Qarni from Yemen. Uways received the teachings of Islam inwardly through his heart and lived by the principles taught by him, although he had never physically met Muhammad. At times Muhammad would say of him, "I feel the breath of the Merciful, coming to me from Yemen." Shortly before Muhammad died, he directed Umar (second Caliph) and Ali (the first Imam of the Shia) to take his cloak to Uwais. "According to Ali Hujwiri, Farid ad-Din Attar of Nishapur and Sheikh Muhammad Ghader Bagheri, the first recipient of Muhammad's cloak was Uwais al-Qarni. The "Original Cloak" as it is known is thought to have passed down the generations from the prophet Abraham to Muhammad, to Uwais al-Qarni, and so on."[32]

The Oveyssi order exists today in various forms and in different countries. According to Dr. Alan Godlas of the University of Georgia's Department of Religion, a Sufi Order or tariqa known as the Uwaysi is "very active", having been introduced in the West by the 20th century Sufi, Shah Maghsoud Angha. The Uwaysi Order is a Shi'i branch of the Kubrawiya.

Dr. Godlas writes that there are two recent and distinct contemporary branches of the Uwaysi Order in the West:

- Uwaiysi Tarighat, led by Shah Maghsoud Sadegh Angha's daughter, Seyyedeh Dr. Nahid Angha, and her husband Shah Nazar Seyed Ali Kianfar. Dr. Angha and Dr. Kianfar went on to found another the International Association of Sufism (IAS) which operates in California and organizes international Sufi symposia.

Now developed into an international non-profit organization, the Oveyssi order has over five-hundred thousand students with centers spanning five continents. With the use of modern technology and reach of the internet, weekly webcasts of the order's lecture and zekr sessions are broadcast live through the order's official website.[33]

Qadiri

Main article: Qadiriyyah

The Qadiri Order is one of the oldest Sufi Orders. It derives its name from Abdul-Qadir Gilani (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gīlān. The order is one of the most widespread of the Sufi orders in the Islamic world, and can be found in Central Asia, Turkey, Balkans and much of East and West Africa. The Qadiriyyah have not developed any distinctive doctrines or teachings outside of mainstream Islam. They believe in the fundamental principles of Islam, but interpreted through mystical experience.

Suhrawardiyya

Main article: Suhrawardiyya

The Suhrawardiyya order (Arabic: سهروردية‎) is a Sufi order founded by Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi (1097–1168).

Muridiyya

Mouride is a large Islamic Sufi order most prominent in Senegal and The Gambia, with headquarters in the holy city of Touba, Senegal.[34]

Tijaniyya

The Tijaniyyah order attach a large importance to culture and education, and emphasize the individual adhesion of the disciple (murīd).

Shadiliyya

The Shadhili is a Sufi order founded by Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili. Followers (murids Arabic: seekers) of the Shadhiliyya are often known as Shadhilis.[35][36]

Mawlawiyya

Main article: Mawlawiyyah

The Mevlevi Order is better known in the West as the "whirling dervishes".

Kharijite Islam

Kharijite (lit. "those who seceded") is a general term embracing a variety of Muslim sects which, while originally supporting the Caliphate of Ali, later on fought against him and eventually succeeded in his martyrdom while he was praying in the mosque of Kufa. While there are few remaining Kharijite or Kharijite-related groups, the term is sometimes used to denote Muslims who refuse to compromise with those with whom they disagree.

Ibadi

The only surviving Kharijite sect is the Ibadi. The sect developed out of the 7th century Islamic sect of the Kharijites. Nonetheless, Ibadis see themselves as quite different from the Kharijite. Believed to be one of the earliest schools, it is said to have been founded less than 50 years after the death of Muhammad.

It is the dominant form of Islam in Oman, but small numbers of Ibadi followers may also be found in countries in Northern and Eastern Africa. The early medieval Rustamid dynasty in Algeria was Ibadi.

Ibadis usually consider non-Ibadi Muslims as unbelievers, though nowadays this attitude has highly relaxed. They approve of the caliphates of Abū Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab, whom they regard as the "Two Rightly Guided Caliphs". Specific beliefs include: walāyah- friendship and unity with the practicing true believers and the Ibadi Imams, barā'ah- dissociation and hostility towards the unbelievers and sinners, and wuqūf- reservation towards those whose status is unclear. While Ibadi Muslims maintain most of the beliefs of the original Kharijites, they have rejected the more aggressive methods.

The Sufris (Arabic: سفريين‎) were a sect of Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries, and a part of the Kharijites. They believe Sura 12 (Yusuf) of the Qur'an is not an authentic Sura.

Ahmadiyya

Main article: Ahmadiyya

The Ahmadiyya movement was founded in India in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who claimed to be the promised Messiah ("Second Coming of Christ") the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims and a 'subordinate' prophet within Islam. The followers are divided into two groups, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam, the former believing that Ghulam Ahmad was a non-law bearing prophet and the latter believing that he was only a religious reformer though a prophet in an allegorical sense. Ahmadis consider themselves Muslims and claim to practice the pristine form of Islam as re-established with the teachings of Ghulam Ahmad.

Ahmadiyya Community

Main article: Ahmadiyya Community

The Ahmadiyya Community is the larger community of the two arising from the Ahmadiyya movement and is guided by the Khalifa (Caliph), currently Khalifatul Masih V, who is the spiritual leader of Ahmadis and the successor to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. He is called the Khalifatul Masih(successor of the Messiah). Pakistan has officially declared Ahmadis to be non-Muslims.

Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement

The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement also known as the Lahoris, formed as a result of ideological differences within the Emir.

Quranism

Main article: Quranism

Quranism (Arabic: قرآنيونQuraniyoon) is an Islamic branch that holds the Qur'an to be the only canonical text in Islam. Quranists reject the religious authority of Hadith and often Sunnah, libraries compiled by later scholars who catalogued narratives of what the Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said and done. This is in contrast to orthodox Muslims, Shias and Sunnis, who consider hadith essential for the Islamic faith.[37]

Ahle Qur'an

"Ahle Qur’an" is an organisation formed by Abdullah Chakralawi,[38][39] rely entirely on the chapters and verses of the Qur’an.

Tolu-e-Islam

Main article: Tolu-e-Islam

Tolu-e-Islam ("Resurgence of Islam") is an organization based in Pakistan, with followers throughout the world.[40] The movement was initiated by Ghulam Ahmed Pervez, a Qur'anic scholar.

Submitters

The United Submitters International (USI) is a branch of Quranism, founded by Dr. Rashad Khalifa. Submitters considers themselves to be adhering to "true Islam", but prefer not to use the terms "Muslim" or "Islam", instead using the English equivalents: "Submitter" or "Submission". Submitters consider Khalifa to be a Messenger of God. Specific beliefs of the USI include: the dedication of all worship practices to God alone, upholding the Qur'an alone with the exception of two rejected Qur'an verses,[41] and rejecting the Islamic traditions of hadith and sunnah attributed to Muhammad. The main group attends "Masjid Tucson"[42] in Arizona, US.

Black Muslims

Moorish Science

The Moorish Science Temple of America is an American organization founded in 1913 A.D by Prophet Noble Drew Ali, who's name at birth was Timothy Drew. He claimed it was a sect of Islam but he also drew inspiration from Buddhism, Christianity, Gnosticism and Taoism. It is viewed as Islam by most sects of Islam.

Its primary tenet was the belief that they are the ancient Moabites who inhabited the Northwestern and Southwestern shores of Africa. The organization also believes that their descendents after being conquered in Spain are slaves who were captured and held in slavery from 1779 - 1865 by their slaveholders.

Although often criticised as lacking scientific merit, adherents of the Moorish Science Temple of America believe that the Negroid Asiatic was the first human inhabitant of the Western Hemisphere. In their religious texts, adherents refer to themselves as "Asiatics",[43] presumably referring to the non-Mongoloid Paleoamericans (see Luzia Woman). These adherents also call themselves "indigenous Moors", "American Moors" or "Moorish Americans" in contradistinction to "African Moors" or "African Americans".

Nation of Islam

Main article: Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam was founded by Wallace Fard Muhammad in Detroit in 1930,[44] with a declared aim of "resurrecting" the spiritual, mental, social and economic condition of the black man and woman of America and the world. It is viewed by almost all Muslims as a heretical cult. The group believes Fard Muhammad was God on earth,[44][45] a belief viewed as shirk by mainstream Muslims. It does not see Muhammad as the final prophet, but Elijah Muhammad as the "Messenger of Truth" and only allows people of black ethnicity and believes they are the original race on earth.

In 1975, the teachings were abandoned and the group was renamed the American Society of Muslims by Warith Deen Mohammed, the son of Elijah Muhammad.[46] He brought the group into mainstream Sunni Islam, establishing mosques instead of temples and promoting the Five pillars of Islam.[47][48] Thousands (estimated 2 million) of African Americans joined Imam Muhammad in mainstream Islam.[49] Some members were dissatisfied, including Louis Farrakhan, who revived the group again in 1978 with the same teachings of the previous leaders. It currently has from 30,000 to 70,000 members.[50]

Five Percenter

The Five-Percent Nation was founded in the early 20th century in the United States.

Smaller branches

Mahdavism

Main articles: Mahdavia and Zikri

Mahdavi Islam (Arabic: مهدوي اسلام‎) is a sect within Islam, founded by Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri in India in the 15th century CE. Jaunpuri declared himself to be the Imam Mahdi, the prophesied redeemer in Islam, and the denomination takes its name from the term mahdi ("guided"). Mahdavis follow the doctrine of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat. Mahdi e Maud (The Promised Mehdi) is believed to have said 'Mazhab ma Kitab Allah ( Quran )wa Ittebah e Rasool Allah ( Prophet Mohammad SAW). The Mahdavi regard Jaunpuri as the Imam Mahdi, the Caliph of Allah and the second most important figure after the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Both the prophet and imam are considered to be masum (معصوم, "infallible")[51]

Messiah Foundation International

Messiah Foundation International is a Pakistani Islamic sect.

Zikri

Zikri is claimed to be based around the teachings of Muhammad Jaunpuri. In religious practice, the Zikris differ greatly from mainstream Muslims and the Mahdavis. A main misconception that Zikris perform prayers called dhikr five times a day is a major one, in which sacred verses are recited, as compared to the orthodox practice of salat. Most Zikris live in Balochistan, but a large number also live in Karachi, the Sindh interior, Oman and Iran.

Related concepts

Islamism

Main article: Islamism

Islamism is a term that refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various fundamentalist views, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but a political system governing the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. Many Islamists do not refer to themselves as such and it is not a single particular movement. Religious views and ideologies of its adherents vary, and they may be Sunni Islamists or Shia Islamists depending upon their beliefs. Islamist groups include groups such as Al-Qaeda, the organizer of the September 11, 2001 attacks and perhaps the most prominent; and the Muslim Brotherhood, perhaps the oldest. Although violence is often employed by some organizations, not all Islamist movements are violent.

Liberals

Liberal and progressive movements have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on Ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. Liberal Muslims believe in greater autonomy of the individual in interpretation of scripture, a critical examination of religious texts, gender equality, human rights, LGBT rights and a modern view of culture, tradition, and other ritualistic practices in Islam.

Related faiths

See also

References

External links

Template:NIE Poster

  • Online Fatwa Site - Questions and Answers
  • The Four Sunni Schools of Thought
  • Ask Imam - Islam Q&A Islam-QA.com website
  • Online Islamic Learning
  • Sufism - Islamic Science of Spirituality

Template:Islamic Theology

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