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Italian general election, 1953

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Title: Italian general election, 1953  
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Italian general election, 1953

Italian general election, 1953

June 7, 1953 (1953-06-07)

All 590 seats to the Italian Chamber of Deputies
and 237 (of the 243) seats to the Italian Senate
Turnout 93.8%
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Leader Alcide De Gasperi Palmiro Togliatti Pietro Nenni
Party Christian Democracy Communist Party Socialist Party
Leader since 1944 1938 1931
Last election 305 & 131 seats, 48.5% 130 & 50 seats, inside the Front 53 & 22 seats, inside the Front
Seats won 263 (H)
116 (S)
143 (H)
56 (S)
75 (H)
30 (S)
Seat change 57 19 30
Popular vote 10,862,073 6,120,809 3,441,014
Percentage 40.1% 22.6% 12.7%
Swing 8.4% 0.6%[1] 3.7%[1]

Legislative election results map. Light Blue denotes provinces with a Christian Democratic plurality, Red denotes those with a Communist plurality, Gray denotes those with an Autonomist plurality.

Prime Minister before election

Alcide De Gasperi
Christian Democracy

New Prime Minister

Alcide De Gasperi
Christian Democracy

General elections were held in Italy on Sunday June 7, 1953, to choose the Second Republican Parliament.[2] They were a test for leading centrist coalition ruled by Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi.

Contents

  • The Scam Law 1
  • Parties and leaders 2
  • Results 3
    • Chamber of Deputies 3.1
    • Senate of the Republic 3.2
  • References 4

The Scam Law

The election was characterized by changes in the electoral law. Even if the general structure remained uncorrupted, the government introduced a superbonus of two thirds of seats in the House for the coalition which would obtain at-large the absolute majority of votes. The change was hugely opposed by the opposition parties as well as the smaller DC coalition partners, which had no realistic chances of success. The new law was called Scam Law by its detractors,[3] including some dissidents of minor government parties who founded special opposition groups to deny the artificial landslide to the Christian Democracy.

Parties and leaders

Party Ideology Leader
Christian Democracy (DC) Christian democracy, Popularism Alcide De Gasperi
Italian Communist Party (PCI) Communism, Marxism-Leninism Palmiro Togliatti
Italian Socialist Party (PSI) Socialism, Democratic socialism Pietro Nenni
Monarchist National Party (PNM) Monarchism, Conservatism Alfredo Covelli
Italian Social Movement (MSI) Neo-Fascism, Italian nationalism Augusto De Marsanich
Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI) Social democracy, Centrism Giuseppe Saragat
Italian Liberal Party (PLI) Liberalism, Conservatism Bruno Villabruna
Italian Republican Party (PRI) Republicanism, Social liberalism Oronzo Reale

Results

The complaint campaign of the oppositions against the Scam Law reached its goal. The government coalition (DC, PSDI, PLI, PRI, SVP, PSAZ) was stopped at an incredible 49.9% of national vote, resulting in the ordinary proportional distribution of the seats. Minor dissident parties resulted determinant for the final result, especially the short-lived National Democratic Alliance. Leading party Christian Democracy did not repeat the extraordinary result of five years before, which had been obtained under special conditions linked to the Cold War, and lost a lot of votes to the right wing, which included resurgent fascist politicians particularly in Southern Italy.

Technically, the government won the election, reaching the majority of seats in both houses. But the frustration for the lack of the expected result caused big problems to the leading coalition. De Gasperi was forced to resign by the Parliament on August 2: the Trentin statesman consequently retired and died twelve months later. The legislature continued with weak governments, with minor parties refusing institutional responsibilities. Giuseppe Pella rose to power, but fell after five months only, following strong disputes about the status of the Free Territory of Trieste which Pella was claiming. Amintore Fanfani not receiving a vote of confidence, Mario Scelba and Antonio Segni followed with more traditional centrist coalitions supported by PSDI and PLI: under the administration of the first one, the problem of Trieste was closed ceding Koper to Yugoslavia. The parliamentary term was closed by the minority government chaired by Adone Zoli, finishing a legislature which hugely weakened the office of the Prime Minister, held by six different rulers.

Chamber of Deputies

Composition of the Chamber of Deputies after the election.
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Christian Democracy 10,862,073 40.10 263 –41
Italian Communist Party 6,120,809 22.60 143
Italian Socialist Party 3,441,014 12.70 75
Monarchist National Party 1,854,850 6.85 40 +26
Italian Social Movement 1,582,154 5.84 29 +23
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 1,222,957 4.51 19 –14
Italian Liberal Party 815,929 3.01 13 –6
Italian Republican Party 438,149 1.62 5 –4
Independent Socialist Unity 225,409 0.83 0 New
Popular Unity 171,099 0.63 0 New
South Tyrolean People's Party 122,474 0.45 3
National Democratic Alliance 120,685 0.45 0 New
Sardinian Action Party 27,231 0.10 0 –1
Others 82,886 0.31 0
Invalid/blank votes 1,318,778
Total 28,406,479 100 590 +16
Registered voters/turnout 30,272,236 93.84
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Popular vote
DC
  
40.10%
PCI
  
22.60%
PSI
  
12.70%
PNM
  
6.85%
MSI
  
5.84%
PSDI
  
4.51%
PLI
  
3.01%
PRI
  
1.62%
Others
  
2.77%

Senate of the Republic

Composition of the Senate after the election.
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Christian Democracy 9,660,210 39.76 112 –19
Italian Communist Party 4,910,077 20.21 52 +1
Italian Socialist Party 2,891,605 11.90 26 –1
Monarchist National Party 1,581,128 6.51 14 +10
Italian Social Movement 1,473,645 6.07 9 +8
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 1,046,301 4.31 4 –4
Italian Liberal Party 695,816 2.86 3 –4
Italian Republican Party 261,713 1.08 0 –4
Popular Unity 172,545 0.71 0 New
National Democratic Alliance 165,845 0.68 1 New
South Tyrolean People's Party 107,139 0.44 2 0
Others 1,330,253 5.48 9
Invalid/blank votes 1,173,850
Total 25,483,201 100 237 0
Registered voters/turnout 27,172,871 93.8
Source: Ministry of the Interior

References

  1. ^ a b Due to impossibility of direct confrontation cause the end of the political alliance which linked the Communists and the Socialists during the previous election of 1948, unofficial swing was calculated using the strength ratio (130:53) between the communist group and the socialist group in the House after the division.
  2. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1048 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  3. ^ Also for the disruptive effect of its approval process in the Senate: see (Italian) , in L’Ago e il filo, 2014}.
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