World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ivigtut

Article Id: WHEBN0002548806
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ivigtut  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Fridtjof Nansen, Economy of Greenland, Viking Age, Cryolite, Acuminite, Ivittuut Municipality, Thomsenolite, Berryite, Ikaite, Bowdoin (Arctic schooner)
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Ivigtut

Ivittuut

The cryolite mine in Ivittuut in 1940
Ivittuut
Ivittuut
Location within Greenland

Coordinates: 61°12′30″N 48°10′10″W / 61.20833°N 48.16944°W / 61.20833; -48.16944Coordinates: 61°12′30″N 48°10′10″W / 61.20833°N 48.16944°W / 61.20833; -48.16944

State  Kingdom of Denmark
Constituent country  Greenland
Municipality 20px Sermersooq
Abandoned 1980s
Time zone UTC-03

Ivittuut, formerly Ivigtût (Kalaallisut: "Grassy Place",[1] is an abandoned mining town near Cape Desolation in southwestern Greenland. Its site is located in the modern Sermersooq municipality on the ruins of the former Norse Middle Settlement.

Ivittuut is one of the only locations in the world so far discovered to have naturally occurring cryolite (Na3AlF6, sodium aluminum fluoride), an important agent in modern aluminum extraction.

For the former U.S. Army post and Naval base at Ivigtut, see Bluie West Seven. For the former Royal Danish Navy base, see Gronnedal.

History


The area was settled by about twenty farms of vikings, a district called the "Middle Settlement" by modern archaeologists from its placement between the larger Western and Eastern Settlement. It is the smallest and least well known of the three, and no written records of its residents survive, for which reasons it is believed to have been established last (and abandoned first) of the three.

The town's cryolite deposit was discovered in 1799[2] and the veins of silver-bearing lead surrounding it were mined by the British engineer J.W. Tayler before the silver content was found to be too low to make the operation practical.[3] Danish engineers began mining the cryolite itself in 1859 and in 1864 the Danish Kriolit Mine og Handels Selskabet was granted a monopoly on its extraction.[3] These early mines simply processed the cryolite for its direct aluminum content and for sale to the Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company, which used it to create caustic soda.

The 1884 establishment of the Hall-Heroult Process, which depends on the rare cryolite but dramatically improved the extraction of aluminum from bauxite ore, increased the deposit's importance. The Ivittuut mining operations were a major factor in the American occupation of Greenland during World War II. After World War II, the cryolite was mined by the Danish firm Kryolitselskabet Øresund, which helped fund the establishment of Grønlandsfly, today's Air Greenland.

Cryolite was eventually synthesized, reducing the importance of the mine and production was finally found uneconomical and discontinued in 1987.[4] The community was abandoned soon after.

Climate

Climate data for Ivittuut
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
14.4
(57.9)
15.6
(60.1)
16.1
(61)
23.3
(73.9)
30.1
(86.2)
23.3
(73.9)
21.7
(71.1)
21.1
(70)
19.4
(66.9)
17.8
(64)
15.6
(60.1)
30.1
(86.2)
Average high °C (°F) −4.4
(24.1)
−3.3
(26.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.3
(37.9)
8.3
(46.9)
12.2
(54)
13.9
(57)
12.8
(55)
8.3
(46.9)
4.4
(39.9)
0.0
(32)
−2.8
(27)
4.3
(39.7)
Average low °C (°F) −11.1
(12)
−11.1
(12)
−8.9
(16)
−4.4
(24.1)
0.6
(33.1)
3.9
(39)
5.6
(42.1)
5.0
(41)
2.2
(36)
−1.7
(28.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
−8.9
(16)
−2.9
(26.8)
Record low °C (°F) −27.8
(−18)
−28.9
(−20)
−27.2
(−17)
−20.6
(−5.1)
−10.6
(12.9)
−2.2
(28)
0.6
(33.1)
−1.7
(28.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
−12.8
(9)
−17.8
(0)
−26.7
(−16.1)
−28.9
(−20)
Precipitation mm (inches) 83.8
(3.299)
66.0
(2.598)
86.4
(3.402)
63.5
(2.5)
88.9
(3.5)
81.3
(3.201)
78.7
(3.098)
94.0
(3.701)
149.9
(5.902)
144.8
(5.701)
116.8
(4.598)
78.7
(3.098)
1,132.8
(44.598)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[5]

Trivia

Ivittuut holds the record for Greenland's highest recorded temperature of 30.1 °C (86.2 °F).[6] The lowest recorded temperature was −28.9 °C (−20.0 °F).

Ivittuut and Kangilinnguit are connected by a road (which is roughly 5 km long), the only two towns in Greenland to do so.

See also

References

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.