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Jl-2

Julang-2 (JL-2) or CSS-NX-4
JL-1 and JL-2.
Type SLBM
Place of origin  China
Service history
In service Development
Used by  People's Liberation Army Navy
Production history
Designer Huang Weilu
Designed 1990s
Manufacturer Factory 307 (Nanjing Dawn Group) ?
Produced 2000s
Specifications
Weight 42,000 kilograms (93,000 lb)
Length 13 metres (43 ft)
Width 2.25 metres (7.4 ft)
Warhead nuclear, single or MIRVs (3 or 4 (JMA)), (10 maximum (JMB)), 1050 to 2800 kg
Blast yield 25–1000 kt ?

Propellant 2-stage
solid-fueled 1st stage
liquid-fueled 2nd stage
Operational
range
8000 km (JL-2)[1][2]
12,000 km = 7,456 miles (JMA)[1][2]
14,000 km = 8,699 miles (JMB)[1][2]
Guidance
system
inertial with Compass
Launch
platform
Type 094 Jin class submarine

The JL-2 (Chinese: 巨浪-2; pinyin: Jù Làng-2; literally: "Giant Wave 2") is a Chinese second-generation intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) which has a two-stage, solid–liquid-fuelled propulsion design. Accurate specifications of the new missile are hard to obtain and substantiate due to the secretive nature of the program. However, the missile is thought to be able to deliver its payload(s) up to a range of 14,000 km (8,700 mi)[3] and can carry either single or multiple warheads (conventional or nuclear).

Contents

  • Introduction 1
  • History 2
  • Variants 3
  • Specifications 4
    • JL-2 4.1
    • JL-2 "Jia" 4.2
    • JL-2 "Yi" 4.3
  • Notes and references 5
  • External links 6

Introduction

JL-2's design is based on the mobile land-based DF-31 ballistic missile. As such, it shares many features of DF-31 missile such as its operational range. There has been a debate among Western analysts on whether the JL-2 missile is capable of carrying multiple warheads (MIRVs) because China has never fielded any submarine-based MIRVs before. Most analysts within the U.S. intelligence community believe that the missile can carry only a single warhead (conventional or nuclear). Other analysts such as Jane's Defence asserted that the missile can deliver 3 to 4 MIRVs (JMA) or 10 maximum (JMB), each with a yield of 90 kt or a single warhead of 25 to 1,000 kt yield. The JL-2 SLBMs are carried on the new Chinese Type 094 (Jin-class) submarine. It replaces the earlier first-generation JL-1 SLBM which were primarily deployed by the older Type 092 (Xia-class) nuclear submarine.

The JL-2 missile is expected to provide China with its first credible sea-based nuclear deterrent. The expected operational range of the missile (up to 14,000 km or 8,699 miles) will allow it to reach Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, Russia, and India and the continental United States from Chinese littoral waters (Bohai Sea or South China Sea).

The general designer of the missile is Huang Weilu [黄纬禄] (1916–2011). The first sea launch of the JL-2 was reported to have taken place mid January 2001 from a modified Golf class submarine. Development has suffered repeated delays; it may reach initial operational capability by 2014.[3]

History

The whole JL-2 project lasts roughly about one decade, until present. The original designation of the project was so-called "New DongFeng Goes Undersea" ("新东风下海"), by the COSTIND and CMC. The project was co-held by the First and Second Research Institutes of the Ministry of Aerospace Industry (defunct, see CNSA)

Variants

JL-2 has three subtypes, the initial experimental one, the "Jia" (甲, Chinese literally means "The First", or "I"), and the "Yi" (乙, Chinese literally means "The Second", or "II"). The codes for "Jia" and "Yi" are JMA and JMB, respectively. The tests happened of JMA/B are listed like below:

In January 2012, at least two submarines carried out as many as six test launches near Dalian.[4]

On 21 August 2012, a new Type 094 submarine successfully test launched a JL-2 from the Bohai Sea.[4]

Specifications

JL-2

[1][2]

  • NATO code: CSS-N-4Mod0
  • Structure: 2 stages
  • Fuel: 1st: solid-fueled; 2nd: liquid-fueled
  • Operational range: 8,600 km (max)
  • Mass: 42+ t
  • Warhead: Single or MIRV; 3~4 Nuclear 250 kt /thermo
  • Guidance system: Inertial + stellar update
  • Accuracy: 80+ CEP
  • Platform: SSBN
  • Designer: The First and Second Research Institutes of the Ministry of Aerospace Industry
  • Manufacturer: CASTC

JL-2 "Jia"

[1][2]

  • NATO code: CSS-N-4ModI
  • Structure: 2 stages
  • Fuel: 1st: solid-fueled; 2nd: liquid-fueled
  • Operational range: 12,000 km
  • Mass: 42+ t
  • Warhead: Single or MIRV; 6~8 Nuclear 250 kt /thermo
  • Guidance system: Inertial + stellar update
  • Accuracy: 80+ CEP (with satellite guidance)
  • Platform: SSBN
  • Designer: The Second Research Institute of the Ministry of Aerospace Industry
  • Manufacturer: CASTC

JL-2 "Yi"

[1][2]

  • NATO code: CSS-N-4ModII
  • Structure: 2 stages
  • Fuel: 1st: solid-fueled; 2nd: liquid-fueled,3rd:liquid
  • Operational range: 14,000 13871 km exactly
  • Mass: 42+ t
  • Warhead: Single or MIRV; ~10 (max) Nuclear 250 kt /thermo
  • Guidance system: Inertial + stellar update
  • Accuracy: 40+ CEP (with satellite guidance)
  • Platform: SSBN
  • Designer: The Second Research Institute
  • Manufacturer: CASTC

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e f 资料:"巨浪2"型潜射弹道导弹_新浪军事_新浪网 (in Chinese). Mil.news.sina.com.cn. 2005-06-22. Retrieved 2010-03-21. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f 搜狐军事资料库 (in Chinese). Product.news.sohu.com. Retrieved 2010-03-21. 
  3. ^ a b "Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2012". Office of the Secretary of Defense. pp. 23 (pp30 of PDF). 
  4. ^ a b Gertz, Bill (2012-08-21). "Ready To Launch: China conducts rare flight test of new submarine-launched missile". The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 

External links

  • JL-2 (CSS-NX-4) – China Nuclear Forces from Globalsecurity.org
  • JL-2 from Mark Wade's Encyclopedia Astronautica
  • launch article from Armscontrolwonk
  • Chinese Defence Today – JL-2 Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile
  • Images of JL-2 Launch
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