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Jalebi

Jalebi
Jalebis as served in India
Alternative names Jilbi, Jilipi, Jilapi, Zelapi, Jilapir Pak, Jilebi (India), Jilawii, Zoolbia (Middle East), Jeri (Nepal), Z'labia (Tunisia)
Course Dessert
Place of origin Multiple
Region or state Middle East, South Asia, East Africa, Philippines (selling in Ermita)
Serving temperature Hot/Cold
Main ingredients Maida flour, saffron, ghee, sugar
Variations Jahangiri or Imarti
Cookbook: Jalebi 
Jalebi being prepared in a roadside shop in Bangalore

Jalebi, also known as Zulbia, is a sweet popular in countries of South Asia, the Middle East, North Africa (except Morocco) and East Africa. It is made by deep-frying a wheat flour (maida flour) batter in pretzel or circular shapes, which are then soaked in sugar syrup. They are particularly popular in South Asia during Ramadan and Diwali.

The sweets are served warm or cold. They have a somewhat chewy texture with a crystallized sugary exterior coating. Citric acid or lime juice is sometimes added to the syrup, as well as rose water. Jalebi is eaten with curd, rabri (North India) along with optional other flavours such as kewra (scented water).

This dish is not to be confused with similar sweets and variants like imarti and chhena jalebi.

Contents

  • Names 1
  • History 2
  • Geographic distribution 3
    • Zlebia (Maghreb) 3.1
    • Zalābiya 3.2
  • In popular culture 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6

Names

Names for the dish include Hindi: जलेबी; Marathi:जिलबी Bengali: জিলাপি; Telugu: జిలేబి; Kannada: ಜಿಲೇಬಿ; Punjabi/Urdu: جلیبی‎; Sindhi: جلیبی‎; Sinhala: පැණි වළලු; Pashto: jalebī; Tamil: ஜிலேபி; Pashto: ځلوبۍźəlobəi; Persian: زولبیا zulbia; Lurish: زلهیبی zuleybi; Arabic: zalābiyah or zalebi (Egyptian Arabic: مِشَبٍك Meshabek); Tagalog: Jalebie (Pronunciation: Halebi); Gujarati: જલેબી.

History

Jalebi batter being dropped in hot oil. Howrah, West Bengal

Jalebi is believed to be derived from a similar dish of West Asia. According to Hobson-Jobson, the word jalebi is a corruption of the Arabic zulabiya or the Persian zalibiya, the name for a similar dish. In Christian communities in West Asia, it is served on the Feast of the Theophany (Epiphany), often with dry sugar and cinnamon or confectioners sugar. In Iran, where it is known as zulabiya, the sweet was traditionally given to the poor during Ramadan. A 10th century cookbook gives several recipes for zulubiya. There are several 13th century recipes of the sweet, the most accepted being mentioned in a cookbook by Muhammad bin Hasan al-Baghdadi.[1]

The dish was brought to Medieval India by the Persian-speaking invaders.[2] In 15th century India, jalebi was known as Kundalika or Jalavallika.[3]:262 Priyamkarnrpakatha, a work by the Jain author Jinasura, composed around 1450 CE, mentions jalebi in the context of a dinner held by a rich merchant.[1][3]:37 Gunyagunabodhini, another Sanskrit work dating before 1600 CE, lists the ingredients and recipe of the dish; these are identical to the ones used to prepare the modern jalebi.[4]

Ernest A Hamwi, a Syrian immigrant to the United States, is believed to have used the Persian version zalabia as an early ice cream cone.[1]:404

Geographic distribution

Jilapi in Bangladesh, generally consumed as a sweetmeat, happens to be one of the popular starters in different parties.
Zulbiā and bāmieh in Iran
Jalebi dipped in rabri

In Iran it is known as zulabiā (زولبیا) in Persian and in addition to being sweetened with honey and sugar is also flavoured with saffron and rose water.

In Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Israel and Iraq, it is known as "zalabia" (زلابية) (sometimes spelt "zalabiya").[5] In the Maldives, it is known by the name "zilēbi."

This sweet is called "jeri" in Nepal, a word derived from Jangiri and the Mogul Emperor Jahangir.[6]

In Algeria and Tunisia, this sweet is known as zlebia or zlabia.

Zlebia (Maghreb)

Zlebia or zlabia (Arabic: زلابية) is a type of pastry eaten in parts of Northwest Africa, such as Algeria, Tunisia and Libya.

Natural ingredients include flour, yeast, yoghurt and sugar. This is then mixed with water and commonly two seeds of cardamom (oil for the crackling).

Zalābiya

Zalābiya are fried dough foods, including types similar to straight doughnuts. These are found in and around Iran and the Arab countries of Yemen, Egypt,[7] Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Comoros and Algeria, as well as Israel, where it was brought by the Yemenite Jews and Iraqi Jews. They are made by a zalbāni. Zalābiya are made from a batter composed of eggs, flour and milk, and then cooked in oil.

Zalābiya mushabbaka are latticed fritters made in discs, balls and squares. They are dipped in clarified honey perfumed with rose water, musk and camphor. A recipe from a caliph's kitchen suggests milk, clarified butter, sugar and pepper to be added.

Zalābiya funiyya is a "sponge cake" version cooked in a special round pot on a trivet and cooked in a tannur.[8] They are often stick shaped. They are eaten year-round, including in expatriate communities such as in France, although they are especially popular during Ramadan celebrations.[9]

In popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Alan Davidson (21 August 2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. pp. 424–425.  
  2. ^ Michael Krondl (1 June 2014). The Donut: History, Recipes, and Lore from Boston to Berlin. Chicago Review Press. p. 7.  
  3. ^ a b Anil Kishore Sinha (2000). Anthropology Of Sweetmeats. Gyan Publishing House.  
  4. ^ Dileep Padgaonkar (2010-03-15). "Journey of the jalebi". The Times of India. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  5. ^ Recipe for Zalabiya
  6. ^ Jalebi khani
  7. ^ Maya Shatzmiller Labour in the medieval Islamic world page 110
  8. ^ Translated by Nawal Nasrallah Annals of the caliphs' kitchens: Ibn Sayyār al-Warrāq's tenth-century Baghdadi cookbook Volume 70 of Islamic history and civilization Edition illustrated 2007 ISBN 978-90-04-15867-2. 867 pages BRILL page 413-417
  9. ^ Hadi Yahmid French Ramadan About Solidarity IslamOnline
  10. ^ "Double Dhamaal". IMDB. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
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