Jamal ad-Din (astronomer)

Jamal ad-Din
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 扎馬魯丁[1]
Persian name
Persian جمال الدين محمد بن طاهر بن محمد الزيدي البخاري

Jamal ad-Din Muḥammad ibn Ṭāhir ibn Muḥammad al‐Zaydī al‐Bukhārī (variously transcribed Jamal ud-Din, Jamal al-Din, etc., Chinese name Zhamaluding) was a 13th-century Persian-speaking[2] Muslim astronomer. Originally from Bukhara, he entered the service of Kublai Khan around the 1250s to set up an Islamic Astronomical Bureau in his new capital Beijing, to operate in parallel with the traditional Chinese bureau.[3] Kublai Khan thus maintained the bureaucratic structure, but allowed Chinese observations and predictions to be checked by respected Muslim scholars.

He is credited with having taken seven astronomical instruments to Kublai Khan, as a present from Hulagu Khan including a Persian astrolabe, a globe and an armillary sphere, in 1267.[4] This is the earliest known reference to a spherical terrestrial globe of the Earth in Chinese astronomy.[5][6]

He is associated with a zij in Persian which has been lost but was translated into Chinese in 1383 by Ma‐shayihei with the title Huihuilifa (Islamic calendar). This contained Ptolomaic tables based on new values and adjusted to Beijing and has been reconstructed in recent years.[7]

In general, his activity didn't make much difference to Chinese astronomy. However Guo Shoujing did evidently gain the idea of the torquetum from him (which he didn't bring), and produced a simplified version which omitted ecliptic coordinates which were not used in China.[8]

In 1286 he carried out a large-scale survey of the Yuan empire which was produced in 755 volumes as the Dayitongzh. All but the introduction of this has been lost.[9]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Zhu & Fuchs 1946, p. 3
  2. ^ Persian was the lingua franca of Westerners at the court of Kublai Khan.
  3. ^ van Dalen 2007
  4. ^ Zhu & Fuchs 1946, p. 4
  5. ^ David Woodward (1989), "The Image of the Spherical Earth",  
  6. ^ Needham, Joseph (1959),  
  7. ^ van Dalen 2007
  8. ^ Needham 1959, p. 375
  9. ^ van Dalen 2007

References

  • Dalen, Benno van (2007). "Zhamaluding: Jamāl al‐Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ṭāhir ibn Muḥammad al‐Zaydī al‐Bukhārī". In Thomas Hockey; et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 1262–3. (PDF version)  
  • Zhu, Siben; Fuchs, Walter (1946), The "Mongol Atlas" of China, Taipei:  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.