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Java applet

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Title: Java applet  
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Java applet

A Java applet that was created as supplementary demonstration material for a scientific publication.[1]
A Java applet that uses 3D hardware acceleration to visualize 3D files in .pdb format downloaded from a server.[2]
Using applet for nontrivial animation illustrating biophysical topic (randomly moving ions pass through voltage gates)[3]
Using a Java applet for computation - intensive visualization of the Mandelbrot set[4]
Sufficient running speed is also utilized in applets for playing nontrivial computer games like chess[5]
NASA World Wind (open source) is a second generation applet[6] that makes heavy use of OpenGL and on-demand data downloading to provide a detailed 3D map of the world.
Web access to the server console at the hardware level with the help of a Java applet
Demonstration of image processing using two dimensional Fourier transform[7]

A Java applet is a small application which is written in Java and delivered to users in the form of bytecode. The user launches the Java applet from a web page, and the applet is then executed within a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in a process separate from the web browser itself. A Java applet can appear in a frame of the web page, a new application window, Sun's AppletViewer, or a stand-alone tool for testing applets. Java applets were introduced in the first version of the Java language, which was released in 1995.

Java applets can be written in any programming language that compiles Java bytecode. They are usually written in Java, but other languages such as Jython,[8] JRuby,[9] Pascal,[10] Scala, or Eiffel (via SmartEiffel)[11] may be used as well.

Java applets run at very fast speeds and are comparable to other compiled languages such as C++, though the latter have a slight advantage. Until 2011, Java applets had run many times faster than JavaScript.[12] Unlike JavaScript, Java applets had access to 3D hardware acceleration, making them well-suited for non-trivial, computation-intensive visualizations. As browsers have gained support for hardware-accelerated graphics thanks to the canvas technology (or specifically WebGL in the case of 3D graphics), as well as just in time compiled JavaScript, the speed difference has become less noticeable.

Since Java's bytecode is cross-platform (or platform independent), Java applets can be executed by browsers (or other clients) for many platforms, including Microsoft Windows, FreeBSD, Unix, OS X and Linux. It is also trivial to run a Java applet as an application with very little extra code so that it can be run directly from the integrated development environment (IDE).

Overview

Applets are used to provide interactive features to web applications that cannot be provided by HTML alone. They can capture mouse input and also have controls like buttons or check boxes. In response to user actions, an applet can change the provided graphic content. This makes applets well-suited for demonstration, visualization, and teaching. There are online applet collections for studying various subjects, from physics[13] to heart physiology.[3]

An applet can also be a text area only; providing, for instance, a

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