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John William Dawson

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Title: John William Dawson  
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Subject: Prototaxites, Redpath Museum, List of colleges and universities named after people, Canadian Science and Engineering Hall of Fame, Eozoon canadense
Collection: 1820 Births, 1899 Deaths, Alumni of the University of Edinburgh, Anglophone Quebec People, Canadian Geologists, Canadian Knights, Canadian People of Scottish Descent, Canadian Presbyterians, Companions of the Order of St Michael and St George, Dawson College People, Fellows of the Royal Society, Fellows of the Royal Society of Canada, Knights Bachelor, Lyell Medal Winners, Paleobotanists, People from Pictou County, Nova Scotia, Persons of National Historic Significance (Canada), Pre-Confederation Nova Scotia People, Presidents of the British Science Association, Principals of McGill University
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John William Dawson

Sir John William Dawson
Sir John William Dawson
Born (1820-10-13)October 13, 1820
Pictou, Nova Scotia
Died November 19, 1899(1899-11-19) (aged 79)
Montreal, Quebec
Nationality Canadian
Fields geology
Institutions McGill University
Alma mater University of Edinburgh
Known for Eozoon canadense; Hylonomus
Influences Robert Jameson
Notable awards Lyell Medal (1881)
Author abbrev. (botany) Dawson
Sir John William Dawson

, CMG, FRS, FRSC (October 13, 1820 – November 19, 1899), was a Canadian geologist and university administrator.[1]

Contents

  • Life and work 1
  • Family 2
  • Bibliography 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6

Life and work

John William Dawson was born in Pictou, Nova Scotia, where he attended and graduated from Pictou Academy. Of Scottish descent, Dawson attended the University of Edinburgh to complete his education, and graduated in 1842, having gained a knowledge of geology and natural history from Robert Jameson.

Dawson returned to Nova Scotia in 1842, accompanying Sir Charles Lyell on his first visit to that territory. Dawson was subsequently appointed as Nova Scotia's first superintendent of education. Holding the post from 1850 to 1853, he was an energetic reformer of school design, teacher education and curriculum. Influenced by the American educator Henry Barnard, Dawson published a pamphlet entitled, "School Architecture; abridged from Barnard's School Architecture" in 1850. One of the many schools built to his design, the Mount Hanley Schoolhouse still survives today, including the "Dawson Desks" named after him. Dawson's travels as school superintendent allowed him to deepen his geological studies, as he visited and studied geological sites across the region. He entered zealously into the geology of Canada, making a special study of the fossil forests of the coal-measures. From these strata, in company with Lyell (during his second visit) in 1852, he obtained the first remains of an air-breathing reptile named Dendrerpeton.

From 1855 to 1893 he was professor of geology and principal of McGill University in Montreal, an institution which under his influence attained a high reputation. In 1859 he published a seminal paper describing the first fossil plant found in rocks of Devonian origin. Although his discovery did not have the impact which might have been expected at the time,[2] he is now considered one of the founders of the science of palaeobotany. He later described the fossil plants of the Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous rocks of Canada for the Geological Survey of Canada (1871–1873). He was elected FRS(Fellow of the Royal Society) in 1862. When the Royal Society of Canada was created he was the first to occupy the presidential chair, and he also acted as president of the British Association at its meeting at Birmingham in 1886, and president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Sir William Dawson's name is especially associated with foraminifer. It was found in the Laurentian rocks, regarded as the oldest known geological system. His views on the subject were contested at the time, and have since been disproven, the so-called organism being now regarded as a mineral structure.

He was created CMG in 1881, and was knighted in 1884. In 1882, while looking to fill the vacancy left at McGill by the death of botanist James Barnston, Dawson contacted Asa Gray of Harvard University for recommendations. Gray suggested his former assistant David P. Penhallow, who Dawson accepted as a lecturer.[3]

Besides many memoirs in the Transactions of learned societies, he published several books:

  • Acadian Geology - The geological structure, organic remains and mineral resources of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island (1855; ed. 3, 1878);
  • Air-breathers of the Coal Period (1863);
  • The Story of the Earth and Man (1873; ed. 6, 1880);
  • The Dawn of Life (1875);
  • Fossil Men and their Modern Representatives (1880);
  • Geological History of Plants (1888);
  • The Canadian Ice Age (1894).

A Christian, Dawson spoke against Darwin's theory of evolution and came to write The Origin of the World, According to Revelation and Science (1877) and Facts and Fancies in Modern Science: Studies of the Relations of Science to Prevalent Speculations and Religious Belief (1882) where he discussed how science and religion (particularly Christian Revelation) were complementary in his view.[4] In his books on geological subjects he maintained a distinctly theological attitude, refusing the theory of human evolution from brute ancestors, and holding that the human species only made its appearance on this earth within quite recent times. Like Arnold Henry Guyot, Hugh Miller, and James Dwight Dana, he defended day-age creationism.[5]

He is interred in the Mount Royal Cemetery in Montreal, Quebec and is the namesake for Dawson College. The mineral Dawsonite, which was discovered during the building of the Redpath Museum with which he was intimately related, is named in his honour.

One of John's sons, George Mercer Dawson (1849–1901), became a well known and respected scientist and geologist in his own right.

Family

Lady Margaret Dawson by William Notman

John William Dawson married Margaret A. Y. Mercer, daughter of G. Mercer, of Geological Survey of Canada, in 1895.

Bibliography

  • Dawson, William (1901). Fifty Years of Work in Canada. London: Ballantyne, Hanson & Co. - Edited by Rankine Dawson
  • Dawson, William (1890). Modern Ideas of Evolution as Related to Revelation and Science. Religious Tract Society (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009; ISBN 978-1-108-00023-9)

References

  1. ^ "DAWSON, Sir JOHN WILLIAM". www.biographi.ca. Retrieved September 24, 2013. 
  2. ^ Taylor, T.N.; Taylor, E.L. & Krings, M. (2009). Paleobotany, The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants (2nd ed.). Amsterdam; Boston: Academic Press.  , p. 225ff
  3. ^ , David Penhallow entryDictionary of Canadian biography
  4. ^ Sheets-Pyenson, Susan (1996), John William Dawson: Faith, Hope and Science, McGill-Queen's Press MQUP. pp. 123–126
  5. ^ Randy Moore, Mark Decker, Sehoya Cotner (2010). Chronology of the Evolution-creationism Controversy. ABC-CLIO. p. 69
  6. ^ "'"Author Query for 'Dawson.  

Clark, T.H. (1970–80). "Dawson, John William".

Professional and academic associations
New institution President of the Royal Society of Canada
1882–1883
Succeeded by
Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography OnlineBiography at the
  • Biography from the Museum of Nova Scotia
  • Genealogical detail, traced by his great-grandson
  • Sir John William Dawson in 1874
  • Sir John William Dawson in 1884
  • Sir John William Dawson in 1895
  • Works by John William Dawson at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by or about John William Dawson at Internet Archive

External links

 

Further reading

 

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