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Joint Surveillance System

The former J-31 San Pedro JSS ARSR-1 radar site, California
USAF Battle Control System operators monitor the skies from the floor of the program’s Eastern Air Defense Sector location.

The Joint Surveillance System (JSS) is a joint United States Air Force and Federal Aviation Administration system for the atmospheric air defense of North America. It replaced the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system in 1983.

Contents

  • Overview 1
    • Air Route Surveillance Radar 1.1
    • Sector Operations Control Centers 1.2
  • Radar stations 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Overview

The JSS consists of long range surveillance radars, primarily operated and maintained by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), but providing communication and radar data to both FAA and United States Air Force control centers.

Air Route Surveillance Radar

FAA equipment is primarily a mixture of Long Range Air Route Surveillance Radars (ARSR) of various types, although some use legacy AN/FPS radars. They are co-located with UHF ground-air-ground (G/A/G) transmitter/receiver (GATR) facilities at many locations. Fourteen sites have VHF radios as well. The GATR facility provides radio access to fighters and Airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft from the Sector Operations Control Centers. The JSS has been enhanced under the FAA/Air Force Radar Replacement Program with 44 ARSR-4/FPS-130 radars to replace some of the many previous long-range radars. This provides common, high-performance, unattended radars. The ARSR-4/FPS-130 is a 3-D long range radar with an effective detection range of some 250 miles and has been fully integrated with JSS at all joint use sites.

These radars are generally unattended except for periodic FAA maintenance crews which visit the sites as necessary.

Sector Operations Control Centers

The USAF Air Combat Command portion of the JSS is composed of three Continental United States (CONUS) Sector Operations Control Centers (SOCC) equipped with Battle Control System-Fixed (BCS-F) displays. Three of the SOCCs are located in the Continental United States (CONUS) at the following locations:

A SOCC is located in Alaska at Elmendorf AFB, in Hawaii at Wheeler Field and two in Canada at CFB North Bay, Ontario. The mission of the SOCC network is peacetime air sovereignty and surveillance. Wartime functions are available if necessary. The SOCCs accept data from multiple sensors, automatically process this data and display data for detection, tracking and identification of air targets, and the assignment and direction of interceptor aircraft to ensure peacetime air sovereignty.

Each SOCC functions as the primary command and control center in each NORAD region during crisis or attack as long as they are capable.

CONUS SOCCs receive data from 46 JSS radar sites. Radar sites of the Alaska Radar System feeds data to Elmendorf AFB, Alaska and two radar sites supply data for the SOCC at Hickam Field, Hawaii. Radars from the North Warning System network in Canada feed data to two Canadian SOCCs located at CFB North Bay, Ontario.

Command and control can be transitioned to the E-3A Airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) for survivability as the tactical situation warrants. In peacetime, six of these aircraft are assigned to co-operate with the JSS. ROCC information is also passed to the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) Combat Operations Centre (COC) in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Radar stations

see also: Alaska Radar System and Hawaii Region Air Operations Center
Site Number NORAD-ID Name State Radar Type Location USAF Sector FAA Sector Notes
QPC Haleyville AL AN/FPS-67B EADS ASO Southern Radar developed by Raytheon for SAGE system. [1]
MGM Montgomery AL ARSR-1D EADS ASO Southern In rural area, 13.2 miles (21.2 km) southeast of Montgomery.
QXR Z-237 Russellville AR AN/FPS-64A WADS ASW Southwest Former ADCOM SAGE radar site, still uses the FPS-64A.
TXK Texarkana AR AN/FPS-67B WADS ASW Southwest Replaced ADCOM SAGE Texarkana AFS M-91 site
J-29 Z-247 Humboldt Mountain AZ ASW Southwest Opened 1992 at former ADCOM Mount Lemmon AFS site. Closed 2000, replaced by J-29A
J-29A Ajo AZ ARSR-4 WADS ASW Southwest Opened 2000 at former ADCOM Ajo AFS site, replaced J-29 near Phoenix
QXP Seligman AZ ARSR-3 WADS AWP Western Pacific Remote site on top of mountain peak.
J-83 Z-33 Crescent City CA AWP Western Pacific Former ADCOM Klamath AFS, Closed 1995, replaced by J-83A
J-83A Rainbow Ridge CA ARSR-4 WADS AWP Western Pacific Replaced J-83 and J-34. Remote site on top of mountain peak.
J-34 Z-37 Point Arena CA AWP Western Pacific Former ADCOM SAGE Point Arena AFS, closed 1995. Replaced by J-83A
QMV Z-38 Mill Valley CA ARSR-4 WADS AWP Western Pacific Former ADCOM SAGE Mill Valley AFS, inactivated 1980. Now FAA site.
J-32 Z-236 Paso Robles CA ARSR-4 WADS AWP Western Pacific FAA site since 1960. Former USAF SAGE site Z-236, replacing Cambria AFS, Became JSS site in 1980
J-31 Z-39 San Pedro CA AWP Western Pacific Former ADCOM San Pedro Hill AFS inactivated 1995. JSS site closed, replaced by Navy ARSR-4 site J-36A on San Clemente Island.
J-36A San Clemente Island (USN) CA ARSR-4 WADS AWP Western Pacific New site established in late 1990s located on very remote location.
J-30 Z-76 Mount Laguna CA ARSR-4 WADS AWP Western Pacific Replaced ADCOM Mount Laguna AFS inactivated 1991. Second ARSR-4 installation
J-35 Vandenberg AFB CA ARSR-4 WADS USAF JSS site (not used by the FAA)
DNV Z-212 Denver CO ARSR-1D WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Opened in 1963 by FAA, was data tied-into the ADCOM SAGE network.
GJC Z-215 Grand Junction CO ARSR-2 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Opened in 1963 by FAA, was data tied-into the ADCOM SAGE network.
TCO Z-222 Trinidad CO ARSR-2 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Opened in 1963 by FAA, was data tied-into the ADCOM SAGE network.
J-04 Z-327 Whitehouse NOLF FL ARSR-4 EADS ASO Southern Replaced ADCOM M-114 SAGE site at NAS Jacksonville inactivated 1981.
J-05 Z-211 Patrick AFB FL ASO Southern Former ADCOM SAGE site, inactivated 1988. Used until 1996 by FAA.
J-05A Melbourne FL ARSR-4 WADS ASO Southern Replaced J-05 with new ARSR-4 installation.
J-06 Z-210 Richmond FL ARSR-1F ASO Southern Former ADCOM Richmond AFS, closed 1992, destroyed by Hurricane Andrew
J-06A Tamiami FL ARSR-4 EADS ASO Southern Replaced destroyed J-06 by FAA at new location with ARSR-4 radar.
J-07 Z-209 NAS Key West FL ARSR-4 EADS ASO Southern ADCOM SAGE site closed 1979, now joint-use Navy/FAA radar
J-09 Z-330 Fort Lonesome FL ASO Southern Opened in 1980 replacing ADCOM SAGE site M-129 at MacDill AFB. Closed 1998
J-09A Fort Green FL ARSR-4 EADS ASO Southern In agricultural area 32.9 miles (52.9 km) east-southeast of Tampa.
J-10 Z-333 Cross City FL ARSR-4 EADS ASO Southern New site opened in 1980 replaced ADCOM SAGE Cross City AFS TM-200.
J-11 Z-198 Tyndall AFB FL ARSR-4 EADS ASO Southern Opened in 1983, replaced ADCOM TM-198 site on the base.
QHN Ashburn GA ARSR-1E EADS ASO Southern In rural location, 25.2 miles (40.6 km) east-northeast of Albany, GA
QNK Lincolnton GA ARSR-3 EADS ASO Southern Replaced ADCOM SAGE site at Aiken AFS, South Carolina (SM-159)
QJO Arlington IA ARSR-3 WADS ACE Central In rural location, 41.7 miles (67.1 km) east-northeast of Waterloo, IA
QVA Ashton ID ARSR-2 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Opened 1963. On mountain peak 2.3 miles (3.7 km) south-southewest of Yellowstone National Park Airport, ID
BOI Z-223 Boise ID ARSR-2 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Opened in 1963 by FAA. Located atop Snowbank Mountain. Began feeding information into the ADCOM SAGE network in 1963.
JOL Elwood IL ARSR-3 EADS AGL Great Lakes In rural location, 7.2 miles (11.6 km) south of Joilet, IL
Z-63 Hanna City IL ARSR EADS AGL Great Lakes FAA site since 1969, former Hanna City AFS[2]
IND Indianapolis IN ARSR-1E EADS AGL Great Lakes In urban area, 2.3 miles (3.7 km) north of Indianapolis International Airport; 7102 Howard St, Indianapolis, IN 46241
QTZ La Grange IN ARSR-1E EADS AGL Great Lakes Located in suburbs, 1 mile (1.6 km) south of La Grange, IN.
GCK Z-226 Garden City KS ARSR-2 WADS ACE Central FAA site since 1964 in highly agricultural area, was data tied-into the ADCOM SAGE network. 21.3 miles (34.3 km) south of Garden City, KS.
QBZ Oskaloosa KS ARSR-2 WADS ACE Central In rural area, 17.3 miles (27.8 km) north of Larwence, KS.
J-14 Z-248 Lake Charles AFS LA ASW Southwest Former ADCOM SAGE site at former Lake Charles AFB. Closed in the 1990s and moved to J-14A
J-14A Lake Charles LA ARSR-4 WADS ASW Southwest New site located in rural area 23.5 miles (37.8 km) east-northeast of former site.
J-13 Z-246 Slidell LA ARSR-4 EADS ASW Southwest Former ADCOM SAGE site, on north side of Lake Pontchartrain, 32.5 miles (52.3 km) north-northeast of New Orleans
QHA Cummington MA AN/FPS-66B EADS ANE New England Located atop Bryant Mountain. Using ADCOM SAGE radar.
J-53 Z-10 North Truro MA ARSR-4 EADS ANE New England On former ADCOM North Truro AFS closed in 1994.
J-54 Z-110 Bucks Harbor ME ARSR-4 EADS ANE New England On former ADCOM Bucks Harbor AFS closed in 1979
J-63 Caribou ME ARSR-4 EADS ANE New England Former Army Nike IFC L-58C of Loring AFB Defense Area
CPV Coopersville MI AN/FPS-66 EADS AGL Great Lakes Using ADCOM SAGE Radar
J-58 Z-34 Empire MI ARSR-4 EADS AGL Great Lakes Former ADCOM Empire AFS. Became a USAF-FAA joint-use site in 1964, USAF inactivated 1978
J-62 Z-397 Canton MI ARSR-4 EADS AGL Great Lakes First, was a temporary data-tie (Z-61 radar change-out). Now a permanent data-tie site in the JSS, replacing Port Austin AFS (Z-61/J-57).
QJE Minneapolis MN ARSR-1E WADS AGL Great Lakes Located 10.8 miles (17.4 km) south-southwest of Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport in urban area. Address is 13591 Harwell Path Apple Valley, MN 55124
J-60 Z-306 Nashwauk MN ARSR-4 WADS AGL Great Lakes New FAA/USAF JSS radar site; replaced Finland AFS, MN (Z-69) and Baudette AFS, MN (Z-132).
QJC Tyler MN ARSR-2 WADS AGL Great Lakes In rural area of southwest Minnesota, 154.7 miles (249.0 km) west-southwest of Minneapolis.
STL St. Louis MO ARSR-1E WADS ACE Central In urban area, address is 2310 Ashby Rd St Louis, MO 63114
QMH Newport MS ARSR-3 EADS ASO Southern In very rural area
J-77 Z-147 Malmstrom AFB MT ANM Northwest Mountain ADCOM site closed 1996, Moved to J-77A.
J-77A Bootlegger Ridge MT ARSR-4 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Replacement JSS site for Malmstrom AFB radar site (Z-147 / J-77); Bootlegger Ridge ARSR-4 site is about 7 miles northeast of Great Falls.
J-78 Z-179 Lakeside (Kalispell) MT ARSR-4 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Located at former ADCOM Kalispell AFS.
QRL Benson NC ARSR-1E EADS ASO Southern FAA long-range radar site. Also known as Raleigh. Once considered as the JSS replacement for the ADCOM SAGE Fort Fisher AFS, NC (Z-115).
QRM Charlotte NC ARSR-1 EADS ASO Southern In rural area, 10.2 miles (16.4 km) southeast of Hickory, NC
J-02 Z-115 Fort Fisher NC ARSR-4 EADS ASO Southern Fort Fisher AFS was an active ADCOM site until 1988; FAA site at former GATR faciity.
J-75 Z-303 Finley ND ARSR-4 WADS AGL Great Lakes Opened November 1979 at new JSS site, replacing the original Finley AFS, ND (Z-29). [Located at old GATR site, ~ a mile or so WNW of the former USAF radar site.]
J-76 Z-300 Watford City ND ARSR-4 WADS AGL Great Lakes New FAA/USAF JSS radar site; replaced Fortuna AFS, ND (Z-27), Minot AFS, ND (Z-28), & Opheim AFS, MT (Z-26). Site is located at the former Alexander, ND, gap-filler radar site, Z-177B / Z-28E.
QHO Z-71 Omaha NE ANFPS-67A WADS ACE Central FAA site since 1968, former Omaha Air Force Station
NPL Z-217 North Platte NE ARSR-2 WADS ACE Central FAA site since 1963, Former ADCOM SAGE site Z-217
J-51 Z-63 Gibbsboro NJ ARSR-4 EADS AEA Eastern Former ADCOM Gibbsboro AFS. USAF site closed 1984
GAL Z-221 Gallup NM ARSR-2 WADS ASW Southwest Opened 1963 by FAA. Former ADCOM SAGE site Z-221. Also known as Farmington, NM; located above Washington Pass, north of Gallup.
QWC Z-234 Mesa Rica NM ARSR-1E WADS ASW Southwest Former ADCOM SAGE site Z-234.
J-28 Z-245 Silver City NM ASW Southwest Closed 1990s Located atop Brushy Mountain. Part of the 1972 Southern Air Defense System. Now replaced by new ARSR-4 JSS site at Deming, NM (J-28A).
J-28A Deming NM ARSR-4 WADS ASW Southwest Replaced JSS site at Silver City, NM (Z-245 / J-28).
BTM Z-214 Battle Mountain NV ARSR-2 WADS AWP Western Pacific Located on top of Mount Lewis, south of Battle Mountain. Earlier known as Elko.
J-52 Z-315 Riverhead NY ARSR-4 EADS AEA Eastern 'New' FAA/USAF JSS radar site; replaced Montauk AFS, LI, NY (Z-45).
J-55 Z-312 Remsen NY ARSR-4 EADS AEA Eastern New FAA/USAF JSS radar site; replaced Watertown AFS, NY (Z-49). Also called 'Starr Hill.
J-56 Z-309 Dansville NY ARSR-1E EADS AEA Eastern Replaced Lockport AFS, NY (Z-21).
QDB Cleveland OH ARSR-1E EADS AGL Great Lakes Located 13.7 miles (22.0 km) miles south of Cleveland.
QWO London OH ARSR-1E EADS AGL Great Lakes Located 3.3 miles (5.3 km) miles southwest of London, OH.
OEX Oklahoma City OK ARSR-4 WADS ASW Southwest FAA ARSR-4 Training Site. Located about a mile west of the Will Rogers World Airport.
QVN Fossil OR ARSR-3 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain On remote mountaintop, 138.3 miles (222.6 km) east-southeast of Portland, OR
J-81 Z-345 Salem OR ARSR-4 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Former ADCOM SAGE site. Also known as Laurel Mtn. and Dallas, OR. New FAA/USAF JSS radar site; replaced Mount Hebo AFS, OR (Z-100). FPS-90 came from Keno AFS, OR (Z-180); modified to FPS-116. First operational JSS site in the 25th NORAD Region, 1 May 1979, as OL AJ / 25th ADS.
QCF Clearfield PA ARSR-3 EADS AEA Eastern Located 6.1 miles (9.8 km) west of Clearfield, PA in rural area.
J-61 Trevose PA ARSR-1 AEA Eastern Temporary data-tie (during the Gibbsboro AFS {Z-63} JSS radar change-out). Then became a 'permanent' replacement for Z-63 until Gibbsboro re-opened with its ARSR-4 and closed in mid 1990s.
J-03 Z-324 Jedburg SC ARSR-4 EADS ASO Southern Replaced North Charleston AFS, SC (Z-113).
QOJ Z-235 Joelton TN ARSR-1E EADS ASO Southern Former ADCOM Joelton AFS closed in 1961 and taken over by FAA.
QYB Z-233 Memphis TN ARSR-1 EADS ASO Southern Former ADCOM SAGE Site Z-233.
QYS Rogers TX ARSR-1E WADS ASW Southwest In rural area, 2.7 miles (4.3 km) west-northwest of Rogers, TX
J-27 Z-244 El Paso TX WADS ASW Southwest Located in Horizon City, TX. Activated in 1963 part of Southern Air Defense System. Closed in 1997, replaced by new ARSR-4 JSS sites at Eagle Peak, TX (J-27A) and at Deming, NM (J-28A).
J-27A Eagle Peak TX ARSR-4 WADS ASW Southwest New site opened in late 1990s replacing J-27, 101.1 miles (162.7 km) SE of El Paso, TX in remote location on top of mountain.
J-15 Z-240 Ellington AFB TX WADS ASW Southwest ADCOM SAGE site closed in 1979. FAA took over, closed 1997. Now replaced by new ARSR-4 JSS site at Morales, TX (J-15A).
FTW Z-231 Keller TX ARSR-1D WADS ASW Southwest Also known as Fort Worth. Opened in 1960s, still using ARSR-1D.
J-15A Morales TX ARSR-4 WADS ASW Southwest Replaced Ellington ANGB, TX, radar site (Z-240/J-15), 111.3 miles (179.1 km) north-northeast of Corpus Christi, TX
J-26 Z-242 Odessa TX ASW Southwest Closed 1995, replaced by new ARSR-4 JSS site at King Mountain, TX (J-26A).
J-26A King Mountain TX ARSR-4 WADS ASW Southwest Replaced JSS site at Odessa / Andrews, TX (Z-243/J-26); located in remote West Texas.
J-16 Z-242 Oilton TX ARSR-4 WADS ASW Southwest Opened in 1972 as part of the Southern Air Defense System (SADS); Later ADCOM site 630th RADS OL-B, inactivated 31 December 1977.
J-25 Z-339 Sonora TX ARSR-3 ASW Southwest Former ADCOM SAGE site, closed 1995, Now replaced by Rocksprings, TX, ARSR-4 JSS site (J-25A).
J-25A Rocksprings TX ARSR-4 WADS ASW Southwest Replaced JSS Site at Sonora, TX (J-25).
CDR Z-216 Cedar City UT ARSR-2 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Opened in 1962 by FAA
SLC Z-213 Francis Peak UT ARSR-1E WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Opened in 1962 by FAA. Also called "Salt Lake City"
QHZ Horicon WI ARSR-2 EADS AGL Great Lakes In central Wisconsin in primarily agricultural area.
QBN Binns Hall VA ARSR-3 EADS AEA Eastern Once considered as the JSS replacement for Cape Charles AFS, VA (Z-56).
J-01 Z-321 NAS Oceana VA ARSR-4 EADS AEA Eastern Former ADCOM SAGE site, now FAA/USAF/Navy JSS radar site; replaced Cape Charles AFS, VA (Z-56).
J-50 Z-318 The Plains VA ARSR-3 EADS AEA Eastern Opened in 1980. Replaced the ADCOM radar site at Fort Meade, MD (Z-227) and the FAA radar site at Suitland, MD.
J-79 Z-151 Mica Peak WA ARSR-4 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Former ADCOM Mica Peak AFS (SM-151), deactivated in July 1975. Site transferred to FAA.
J-80 Z-44 Makah WA ARSR-4 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Former ADCOM Makah AFS (P-44), closed in 1982. Now USAF/FAA JSS site.
QSI Z-224 Lovell WY ARSR-2 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Located on Medicine Mountain. Earlier known as Cody.
LSK Z-219 Lusk WY ARSR-2 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Opened in 1963 by FAA
RKS Z-218 Rock Springs WY ARSR-2 WADS ANM Northwest Mountain Opened in 1962 by FAA

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

  1. ^ http://www.37000feet.com/report/262588/ATC-equipment-problem-radar-shut-down-for-maintenance-Non-detection-of-aircraft
  2. ^
  • Joint Surveillance System @ radomes.org

External links

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