Junta (Spanish American Independence)

Junta (Spanish pronunciation: ) during Spanish American independence was the type of government formed as a patriotic alternative to the Spanish colonial government during the first phase of Spanish American wars of independence (1808-1810). The formation of juntas was usually an urban movement. Most juntas were created out of the already-existing ayuntamientos (municipal councils) with the addition of other prominent members of society.

Juntas emerged in Spanish America as a result of Spain facing a political crisis due to the abdication of Ferdinand VII and Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion. Spanish Americans reacted in much the same way the Peninsular Spanish did, legitimizing their actions through traditional law, which held that there was a retroversion of the sovereignty to the people in the absence of a legitimate king. The majority of Spanish Americans continued to support the idea of maintaining a monarchy under Ferdinand VII, but did not support retaining absolutism.

Spanish Americans wanted auto-governance. The juntas in the Americas did not accept the governments of the Europeans, neither government set up for Spain by the French nor the various Spanish governments set up in response to the French invasion. The juntas do not accept the Spanish regency, which was under siege in the city of Cadiz. They also reject the Spanish Constitution of 1812. The triumph of the republican ideas (from the American and French revolutions), transform the juntas into true independence movements.

Chronology

Year Date Name Place Current Country Heads of Junta
1808 August 5 Junta 1808 México Viceroyalty of Nueva Spain México
Francisco Primo de Verdad
Melchor de Talamantes
José de Iturrigaray
1808 September 21 Junta de Montevideo Río de la Plata Uruguay
Francisco Javier de Elío
1809 May 25 Junta of Chuquisaca Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Bolivia
Bernardo de Monteagudo
Jaime de Zudáñez
1809 July 16 Junta Tuitiva (created by La Paz revolution) Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Bolivia
Pedro Murillo
1809 August 10 Junta of Quito Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada Ecuador
Juan Pío Montúfar
1810 April 19 Junta Suprema de Caracas Capitancy of Venezuela Venezuela
José de las Llamozas
Martín Tovar Ponte
1810 May 22 Junta de Cartagena Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada Colombia
José María García de Toledo
1810 May 25 Primera Junta de Buenos Aires Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Argentina
Cornelio Saavedra
Mariano Moreno/Juan José Paso
Juan José Castelli/Miguel de Azcuénaga/Manuel Belgrano/Manuel Alberti/Domingo Matheu/Juan Larrea
1810 July 3 Junta extraordinaria de Santiago de Cali Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada Colombia
Joaquín de Caycedo y Cuero
1810 July 20 Junta de Santa Fe Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada Colombia
Francisco José de Caldas
Camilo Torres
1810 September 16 (created after the Grito de Dolores) Viceroyalty of New Spain México
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
1810 September 18 Government Junta of Chile (1810) Captaincy General of Chile Chile
Juan Martínez de Rozas
Mateo de Toro y Zambrano
1811 February 27 (created after the Cry of Asencio) Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Uruguay
Pedro José Viera
Venancio Benavides
1811 May 15 Junta del Paraguay Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Paraguay
Pedro Caballero
Fulgencio Yegros
Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
1811 November 5 Primera Junta de San Salvador, in 1811 Independence Movement Captaincy General of Guatemala El Salvador
José Matías Delgado
Manuel José Arce
Pedro Pablo Castillo
Juan Manuel Rodríguez
1814 August 3 Junta de Gobierno del Cuzco Viceroyalty of Perú Perú
Mateo Pumacahua
Domingo Luis Astete
Tomás Moscoso
Hermanos Angulo

References

  • John Lynch. The Spanish American Revolutions, 1808–1826 (2nd edition). New York, W. W. Norton & Company, 1986. ISBN 0-393-95537-0

See also

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