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Kenyah people

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Title: Kenyah people  
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Subject: Uma Baka', Ethnic groups in Indonesia, Bakumpai people, Tidung people, Melanau people
Collection: Dayak People, Ethnic Groups in Indonesia, Ethnic Groups in Malaysia, Ethnic Groups in Sarawak
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Kenyah people

Kenyah people
Dayak Kenyah
A young Kenyah family in East Kalimantan, pre-1944.
Total population
69,256 (year 2000 - Malaysia and Indonesia)[1][2]
Regions with significant populations

 Malaysia
Sarawak (15,000)[1]


 Indonesia
East Kalimantan (24,700)[3]
West Kalimantan

Languages
Kenyah languages, Mainstream Kenyah language
Religion
Christianity (predominantly), Islam and Bungan
Related ethnic groups
Kayan people

The Kenyah people are an indigenous, Austronesian-speaking people of Borneo, living in the remote Baram (Lio Matoh, Long Selaan, Long Moh, Long Anap, Long Mekaba, Long Jeeh, Long Belaong, Long San, Long Silat, Long Tungan, etc.), Data Kakus, Data Surau, Sg. Senep, Long Dungan, Long Busang, Long Beyak, Bintulu, Miri, Sungai ASAP resettlement for Bakun DAM, Long Bulan, Long Jawe and Belaga regions in Sarawak, Malaysia and the remote Apau Kayan, Bahau (Bau), Benua Lama & Baru and Mahakam regions in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Kenyah people are divided into various tribes including the Uma Bakah, Lepo Anan, Lepo Tau, Lepu Jalan, Lepo' Tepu, Uma Kelap, Badeng (Jamok, Lepo Aga'), Bakung, Lebu Kulit, Uma Alim, Uma Timai, Uma Lasan, Lepo Ma-ut, Sambop, Lepo Ke', Lepo Ngao, Ngurek, Kiput, Long Ulai, Long Tikan, Long Sabatu, Lepo Ga, Lepo Dikan, and Lepo Pua

Contents

  • Culture and economy 1
  • Religion 2
  • Population 3
  • Sub-ethnic groups 4
  • Origins 5
  • Languages 6
  • Folk songs 7
  • Notable Kenyah people 8
  • References 9
  • Further reading 10
  • External links 11

Culture and economy

Kenyah dance.

The Kenyah people, traditionally being swidden agriculturalists and living in longhouses (uma dado'), is an umbrella term for over 40 sub-groups that mostly share common migration histories, customs and related dialects. Kenyah people lived in longhouses in a small communities. Each longhouse consists of families who choose their own leader (headman). When they have any event or celebration such as harvest festival they will normally use the longhouse verandah (oseh bi'o) to gather and deliver speeches to guide their youngsters. Normally this harvest festival celebration (tau bio Ramay o o Ajau, pelepek uman) is a major festival because most of them are still farmers.

Kenyah people are very creative and they also have composed their popular songs and melody such as Lan e Tuyang, Kendau bimbin, Ilu Kenyah Kua Lo Te'a, Pabat Pibui, Atek Lan and Leleng Oyau Along Leleng. Our Kenyah popular music instruments are jatung utang, sampe, sampe bio (bass, with 1 string), lutong and keringut.

Religion

Almost all Kenyah people are Christian. Initial they believed in 'Bungan Malan Peselong Luan' (a traditional form of animism) before the conversion. But now there are only a small number of Kenyah people still believe in Bungan. When they die they believe they will be ascended to Alo Malau (seven heavens) with their ancestors (tepun).[4]

Population

Statistical figures, based on the Indonesian and Malaysian national censuses collected in 2000, recorded a total of 44,350 Kenyah people in East Kalimantan and 24,906 in Sarawak.[5]

Sub-ethnic groups

The Kenyah people are also divided into various sub-ethnic groups such as:-[6]

  • Kenyah Bakung
  • Kenyah Lepok Bam
  • Kenyah Lepok Jalan
  • Kenyah Lepok Tau'
  • Kenyah Lepok Tepu
  • Kenyah Lepok Ke
  • Kenyah Umag Tukung
  • Kenyah Uma Vaha
  • Kenyah Lepu Maut
  • Kenyah Lepu Agak
  • Kenyah Badeng
  • Kenyah Lepok Timai
  • Kenyah Lepok Kulit
  • Kenyah Umag Lasan
  • Kenyah Umag Lung
  • Kenyah Uma Kelep
  • Kenyah Lepo' Gah

Origins

Kenyah architecture, circa 1898-1900.

The Usun Apau (aka Usun Apo) plateau (in the Plieran river valley) or Apo Kayan Highlands (a remote forested plateau in Malaysian and Indonesian border) in the present-day Indonesian province of East Kalimantan was the largest concentration site of Kenyah populations between the late 19th century to the early 1980s.

Languages

The Kenyah languages are a small family of Austronesian languages. Their language is called is Kenyah.

Folk songs

  • Leleng-Leleng[7]
  • Leleng[8]
  • Ake' Mimbin Iko' Tuyang[9]
  • Pabat Pibui[10]

Notable Kenyah people

  • The late Dato' Sri Temenggong Oyong Lawai Jau(1950-1974) from Long San, Member of PANAS (Parti Negara Sarawak) then join SNAP (~1962), Paramount chief of Baram Kenyah
  • The late Datuk Seri Joseph Balan Seling, Assistant Agriculture and Community Development Minister (1976), Former state minister for local Government (1986), Senator (1998–2000), six-term assemblyman of Telang Usan[11]
  • Dato' Jacob Dungau Sagan, Baram, Miri MP, ex-Malaysian Deputy Minister of International Trade and Industry, Member of SPDP & Senior Vice-President of the Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP)
  • Dr. Drs. Marthin Billa, MM, ex-Bupati Malinau, East Kalimantan (2001–2011)[12]
  • YB Anyi Ngau, MP for Baram, ex-District officer for Tatau & ex-D/O for Limbang
  • Pastor Robin Ato, BEM, Miri, BEM Sarawak ex-Secretary-General[13]
  • Langit Bit - field of Kenyah traditional medicine
  • Raymond Abin, Environmentalist and social activist, Asian representative of the International Alliance of Indigenous peoples to the UNDRIP, Geneva, 2004-2006 and founder of Borneo Resources Institute Malaysia.
  • Lucas Kalang, footballer & MSNS Football Development director
  • Dr. Francis Jana Lian, Borneo rainforest vanilla, UBD Dept of Geography
  • Philip Lepun, academician UPM
  • Roland Engan, lawyer
  • David Abun Sui Anyit, (Sarawak Indigenous Lawyers Association / SILA), lawyer focused on NCR issues[14]
  • Jimpau Balan, Asang Lawai, Tegit Usat, Mathew Ngau Jau, Sageng Jateng & Ramli Ongka Bit, artiste for Sampe' Kenyah
  • Daniel Bampa & Desy Tepau from East Kalimantan, Kenyah artiste
  • Temenggong Joseph Ngau Lian, KM Long Silat
  • Pemanca Tony Kulleh, for Sg Asap
  • Penghulu Paul Kalang, Baram
  • Penghulu Surat Kuja, Belaga
  • Penghulu Nyurang Uloi, Lg Geng
  • Penghulu Katan Lawai, Sg Asap
  • Henry C. Belawing, Lg. San/Kuala Tutoh - Administrative Officer/Researcher (Adet Kayan-Kenyah 1994) Majlis Adat Istiadat, Sarawak
  • Vom Roy, The study on the migration of Kenyah[15] / President Of Kenyah Badeng Sarawak(KEBANA)
  • Peter Nicodimus Jalong Kallang, anti-dams activist and Chairman of SAVE Rivers

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ PeopleGroups
  3. ^
  4. ^ http://rensraul.blogspot.com/2008/12/penganut-kristen-long-busang.html
  5. ^ See 2000 National Census, Jawatan Perangkaan Malaysia, 2000 and 2000 Population Census /Sensus Penduduk 2000, Central Bureau of Statistics Indonesia, 2000
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^

Further reading

  • Into the Art of Borneo: The Kenyah-Kayan Tradition
  • Encyclopædia Britannica: Kayah

External links

  • Kenyah Uma Vaha website
  • United Nations University's Our World 2.0 "Forbidden forest of the Dayak people" Digital Video: In Setulang village, near the Malay-Indonesian border, lives the “Oma’lung” tribe — a particular sub-group of Kenyah Dayak, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, on the island of Borneo
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