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Konkow language

Konkow
Koyoom k'awi
Native to United States
Region California
Ethnicity Maidu, Mechoopda
Native speakers
3  (1994)[1]
Maiduan
  • Konkow
Language codes
ISO 639-3 mjd
Glottolog nort2951[2]

The Konkow language (also called Concow-Maidu, Northwestern Maidu — or Koyoomk'awi, in the language itself)[3] is a part of the Maiduan language group. The word koyoo means, "meadow", with the additional 'm' being the adjective form of the word. 'Koyoo+ [m, adj.] k'awi + [m, adj.] Ma'a [tribe].' It is spoken in California and is a severely endangered language, as only two or three persons remain who speak it as a first language are still living. As part of an effort to regain official recognition of one of the Konkow groups as an officially recognized tribe from the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, an effort to provide language instruction amongst the descendants of the original tribe and affiliated family members has begun.

Contents

  • Dialects 1
    • Alternate names 1.1
    • Modern Konkow 1.2
  • References 2
  • External links 3

Dialects

One source supports the claim that Konkow had at least 9 dialects, designated today according to the locality in which each was spoken. These dialects were: Otaki; Mikchopdo; Cherokee; Eskeni; Pulga; Nemsu; Feather Falls; Challenge; and Bidwell Bar. Lexicon of each remains scant. In addition, there may have been many family variations within each dialect group; thus, certainly there was no one Konkow language, but Konkow means a phonologically distinct pronunciation from what is popularly defined as 'Maidu' or 'Mountain Maidu', namely in terms of stress patterns on lexicon. According to limited historical data, by the turn of the 19th century there were only four of these dialects still being spoken.

Alternate names

Alternate names for Konkow include: "Maidu; Maidu, Northwest; Meidoo; Tsamak; Michopdo; Concow; Holólupai; Konkau; Yuba; Secumne; Maiduan; Nákum; Sekumne; Northwest Maidu; Northwestern Maidu."[4]

Modern Konkow

Since 2002, a dialect which could be called "Modern Konkow," based on what is conventionally called the Cherokee dialect of Konkow, has come into limited use by some California native Americans with cultural and familial ties to the old Konkow tribe. This dialect is primarily based on the dialect as learned by Mary Jones, one of the last speakers of Old Konkow, who learned the dialect that was spoken in the vicinity of Cherokee, California. It is being promulgated with a DVD-based course of study called "Twenty-two Lessons in the Koyoongk'awi Language".

As of 2010, .mp3 learning materials of the Mechoopda dialect were also available, based on old recordings of Emma Cooper, made during the 1940s as a part of the war effort.[5] Also based on the Emma Cooper recordings, a "Konkow Toddler" app was released for iPhone, iPad, and other iOS devices in July 2012.[6]

Materials for study of the Konkow language, including the 22-lesson course mentioned above, have been made available on the website of the Konkow Maidu Cultural Preservation Association.[7]

References

  1. ^ Konkow at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Northwest Maidu". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ "Tribal History". Feather Falls Casino. Retrieved 2013-05-08. 
  4. ^ "Konkow - MultiTree". Retrieved 2012-08-30. 
  5. ^ Meridith J. Cooper (2010-09-30). "Preserving Mechoopda tradition - A young tribe member creates a learning program using old recordings of the native language". Chico News & Review. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  6. ^ "TinkR’ Labs launches Konkow Toddler for iOS devices". MacMegasite. 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  7. ^ "Konkow Maidu Cultural Preservation Association". Retrieved 2012-09-04. 

External links

  • Konkow language overview at the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages
  • Recording of Konkow Maidu
  • Language Instruction available on Konkow Maidu Cultural Preservation Association website
  • Chestnut, Victor King (1902). Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California.  
  • OLAC resources in and about the Northwest Maidu language
  • Concow language, California Language Archive
  • Konkow Bibliography
  • Konkow basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database
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