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Lapland (Finland)

Lapland
Lapin maakunta
Lapplands landskap
Region
Coat of arms of Lapland
Coat of arms
Location of Lapland
Coordinates:
Country Finland
Capital Rovaniemi
Area
 • Total 98,984 km2 (38,218 sq mi)
Population (2014-12-31)
 • Total 181,815
 • Density 1.8/km2 (4.8/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
ISO 3166 code FI-10
Website lapinliitto.fi
Symbols
Animal Reindeer
Bird Bluethroat
Fish Salmon
Flower Globe-flower

Lapland (Finnish: Lappi; Northern Sami: Lappi; Swedish: Lappland; Russian: Лапландия) is the largest and northernmost region of Finland. The municipalities in the region cooperate in a Regional Council. Lapland borders the Region of North Ostrobothnia in the south. It also borders the Gulf of Bothnia, Norrbotten County in Sweden, Finnmark County and Troms County in Norway, and Murmansk Oblast in Russia.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Economy 2
  • Population 3
    • Regional Council 3.1
    • Politics 3.2
    • Sami Domicile Area 3.3
    • Municipalities 3.4
  • Heraldry 4
  • Lapland's impact on Finnish numismatics 5
  • Gallery 6
  • Notes 7
  • See also 8
  • External links 9

History

The area of Lapland was split between two counties of the Swedish Realm from 1634 to 1809. The northern and western areas were part of Västerbotten County, while the southern areas were part of Ostrobothnia County (after 1755 Oulu County). The northern and western areas were transferred in 1809 to Oulu County, which became Oulu Province. Under the royalist constitution of Finland during the first half of 1918, Lapland was to become a Grand Principality and part of the inheritance of the proposed king of Finland. Lapland Province was separated from Oulu Province in 1938.

During the Interim Peace and beginning of the Continuation War the government of Finland allowed the Nazi German Army to station itself in Lapland as a part of Operation Barbarossa. After Finland made a separate peace with the Soviet Union in 1944, the Soviet Union demanded that Finland expel the German army from her soil. The result was the Lapland War, during which almost the whole civilian population of Lapland was evacuated. The Germans used scorched earth tactics in Lapland, before they withdrew to Norway. Forty to forty-seven percent of the dwellings in Lapland and 417 km of railroads were destroyed, 9,500 km of roadways were mined, destroyed or were unusable, and 675 bridges and 3,700 km of telephone lines were destroyed. Ninety percent of Rovaniemi, the capital of Lapland, was burned to the ground, with only a few pre-war buildings surviving the destruction.

After the Second World War, Petsamo municipality and part of Salla municipality were ceded to the Soviet Union. The decades following the war were a period of rebuilding, industrialization and fast economic growth. Large hydroelectric plants and mines were established and cities, roads and bridges were rebuilt from the destruction of the war. In the late 20th century the economy of Lapland started to decline, mines and factories became unprofitable and the population started to decline rapidly across most of the region.

The provinces of Finland were abolished on January 1, 2010, but Lapland was reorganised as one of the new regions that replaced them.[1]

Economy

Economic facts and figures (2012)[2]
Jobs 73,300
GDP (million euros) 5,600
GDP (per capita) €30,635

(84% Finland average)

Private and public offices 10,400
Private sector revenues (million euros) 10,000
Exports (million euros) 3,400
Private and public sector workers 64,800
Unemployment 15.3% [3]




Lapland's economy (2012)

  Public sector (33%)
  Retail/Lodging/Restaurants (15%)
  Industry (14%)
  Business services (14%)
  Construction (7%)
  Traffic and transportation (6%)
  Primary production (6%)
  Household services (5%)

Population

Lapland is the home of about 3.4% of Finland's population, and is by far the least densely populated area in the country. The biggest towns in Lapland are Rovaniemi (the regional capital), Tornio, and Kemi. In 2011, Lapland had a population of 183,320 of whom 177,950 spoke Finnish, 1,526 spoke Sami, 387 spoke Swedish and 3,467 spoke some other languages as their mother language.[4] Of the Sami languages, Northern Sami, Inari Sami and Skolt Sami are spoken in the region.

Lapland's population has been in decline since 1990.

Population of Lapland
Year Population
1950 169,211
1955 189,176
1960 208,788
1965 221,162
1970 197,429
1975 195,131
1980 196,288
1985 200,571
1990 201,652
1995 200,579
2000 189,288
2005 184,935
2010 183,484
2014 181,815

Regional Council

The 21 Region, where they cooperate in the Lapland Regional Council, Lapin liitto or Lapplands förbund.

Politics

Results of the Finnish parliamentary election, 2011 in Lapland:

Sami Domicile Area

The northernmost municipalities of Lapland where the Sami people are the most numerous, form the Sami Domicile Area. Sami organization exists in parallel with the provincial one.

Municipalities

Municipalities by population (cities marked as bold)
Municipality Population (2014) Area (km²) Density (pop. per km²)
Rovaniemi 61,568 8,016.84 8.02
Tornio 22,333 1,348.85 18.84
Kemi 21,939 747.51 232.23
Sodankylä 8,825 12,415.48 0.76
Keminmaa 8,474 647.23 13.69
Kemijärvi 7,889 3,930.91 2.29
Inari 6,818 17,333.54 0.45
Kittilä 6,469 8,262.94 0.79
Ylitornio 4,454 2,212.38 2.22
Ranua 4,093 3,694.80 1.21
Kolari 3,842 2,617.77 1.51
Salla 3,789 5,873.08 0.68
Pello 3,674 1,863.68 2.17
Posio 3,636 3,544.81 1.20
Simo 3,299 2,086.39 2.34
Tervola 3,238 1,592.04 2.12
Muonio 2,375 2,037.80 1.25
Enontekiö 1,892 8,391.35 0.24
Utsjoki 1,259 5,372.01 0.25
Savukoski 1,100 6,495.95 0.17
Pelkosenniemi 949 1,881.57 0.53
Total 181,815 100,366.93 1.97


Heraldry

The Regional Council of Lapland uses the Finnish variation of the coat of arms for Laponia. The coat of arms for the Province of Lapland was composed out of the coats of arms of Laponia and Ostrobothnia.

Lapland's impact on Finnish numismatics

Most of the gold used to mint Finnish gold coins comes from Lapland. Lapland itself has been the main motif for a recent commemorative coin, the First Finnish gold euro commemorative coin, minted in 2002. On the reverse side, the midnight sun above a lake in Lapland can be observed.

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ "New regional administration model abolishes provinces in 2010". Helsingin Sanomat International Edition. Sanoma Corporation. 31 December 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  2. ^ "Lapin suhdannekatsaus 2013" (PDF). Lapin liitto. 19 August 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2013. 
  3. ^ http://yle.fi/uutiset/tyottomyyden_musta_siipi_varjostaa_lappia/6953635
  4. ^ Statistics Finland – Statistical databases

See also

External links

  • Lapland Regional Council – Official site
  • Lapland State Provincial Office – Official site
  • Lapland Club
  • Finnish Lapland travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences – video portal – Videos about Lapland experiences and lifestyle.
  • Levi-Lapland – Information on Lapland, the ski resorts and the Lapland Super Pass.
  • Midnight Sun Film Festival
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