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Lindsey Graham

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Lindsey Graham

Lindsey Graham
United States Senator
from South Carolina
Assumed office
January 3, 2003
Serving with Tim Scott
Preceded by Strom Thurmond
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 3rd district
In office
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 2003
Preceded by Butler Derrick
Succeeded by Gresham Barrett
Member of the South Carolina House of Representatives
from the 2nd district
In office
January 12, 1993 – January 3, 1995
Preceded by Lowell Ross
Succeeded by William Sandifer
Personal details
Born Lindsey Olin Graham
(1955-07-09) July 9, 1955
Central, South Carolina, U.S.
Political party Republican
Alma mater University of South Carolina (B.A.) (J.D.)
Religion Southern Baptist
Website Senate website
Military service
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch United States Air Force
Years of service 1982–1988 (Active)
1989–1995 (Air National Guard)
1995–2015 (Reserve)
Rank Colonel
Unit U.S. Air Force Judge Advocate General's Corps

Lindsey Olin Graham (born July 9, 1955) is an American politician and member of the Republican Party, who has served as a United States Senator from South Carolina since 2003, and has been the senior Senator from South Carolina since 2005.

Born in Central, South Carolina, Graham graduated from the University of South Carolina in 1977. He received his Juris Doctor from the University of South Carolina School of Law in 1981. He served in the United States Air Force from 1982 to 1988 and served as a Guardsman first in the South Carolina Air National Guard then in the Air Force Reserves, attaining the rank of colonel. He worked as a lawyer in private practice before he was elected to the South Carolina House of Representatives in 1992, serving one term from 1993 to 1995. He then served in the United States House of Representatives, representing South Carolina's 3rd congressional district from 1995 to 2003. He was elected to four terms, receiving at least 60% of the vote each time.

In 2002, Graham ran for the U.S. Senate after eight-term Republican incumbent Strom Thurmond announced his retirement. Graham won the primary unopposed and defeated Democratic opponent Alex Sanders in the general election. Graham was re-elected to a second term in 2008, defeating Bob Conley. He won a third term in 2014, defeating Democrat Brad Hutto and Independent Thomas Ravenel.

Referred to by some as a "war hawk" and "interventionist",[1] Graham is known in the Senate for his advocacy of a strong national defense, his support of the military, and as an advocate of strong United States leadership in world affairs.[2] He is also known for his willingness to be bipartisan and work with Democrats on issues like global warming, tax reform and immigration reform and his belief that judicial nominees should not be opposed solely on their philosophical positions.[3][4][5][6][7][8] He is also a critic of the Tea Party movement, arguing for a more inclusive Republican Party.[7][9][10][11][12][13]

On May 18, 2015, Graham informally announced his candidacy for President of the United States,[14] followed by a formal announcement on June 1, 2015, in his hometown of Central, South Carolina.[15]


  • Early life and education 1
  • Military service 2
  • South Carolina House of Representatives 3
  • U.S. House of Representatives 4
    • Elections 4.1
    • Tenure 4.2
    • Committee assignments 4.3
  • U.S. Senate 5
    • Elections 5.1
    • Political positions 5.2
    • Committee assignments 5.3
    • Caucus memberships 5.4
  • Presidential politics 6
  • Electoral history 7
  • Personal life 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Early life and education

Graham was born in Central, South Carolina, where his parents, Millie and Florence James "F.J." Graham, ran a restaurant-bar-pool hall-liquor store, the "Sanitary Cafe".[16] After graduating from D. W. Daniel High School, Graham became the first member of his family to attend college, and joined the Reserve Officers' Training Corps. When he was 21, his mother died of Hodgkin's lymphoma aged 52, and his father died 15 months later of a heart attack aged 69.[16] Because his then-13-year-old sister was left orphaned, the service allowed Graham to attend University of South Carolina in Columbia so he could be near home and care for his sister, whom he adopted.[12] During his studies, he became a member of the Pi Kappa Phi social fraternity.[17]

He graduated from the University of South Carolina with a B.A. in Psychology in 1977, and from the University of South Carolina School of Law with a J.D. in 1981.[18]

Military service

Upon graduating, Graham was commissioned as an officer and Judge Advocate in the United States Air Force in 1982. He was placed on active duty and in 1984, he was sent to Europe as a military prosecutor and defense attorney, serving at Rhein-Main Air Base in Frankfurt, Germany.[19] In 1984, as he was defending an Air Force pilot accused of using marijuana, he was featured in an episode of 60 Minutes that exposed the Air Force's defective drug-testing procedures.[16][20] After four years in Europe, he returned to South Carolina and then left active duty in 1989.[19] He subsequently entered private practice as a lawyer.[16]

Lt. Gen. Jack L. Rives pins the Meritorious Service Medal on Col. Lindsey Graham.

Following his departure from the Air Force, he joined the South Carolina Air National Guard in 1989, where he served until 1995, then joining the U.S. Air Force Reserve.[19]

During the 1990-91 Gulf War, Graham was recalled to active duty, serving as a Judge Advocate at McEntire Air National Guard Station in Eastover, South Carolina, where he helped brief departing pilots on the laws of war.[21] In 1998, the Capitol Hill daily newspaper The Hill contended that Graham was describing himself on his website as an Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm veteran. Graham responded: "I have not told anybody I'm a combatant. I'm not a war hero, and never said I was.... If I have lied about my military record, I'm not fit to serve in Congress", further noting that he "never deployed."[22][23]

Between January 1995 and January 2005, Graham's military work totaled 108 hours, an average of less than a day and a half per year.[24] He was an Air Force Reserve appellate judge during part of the period.[20] In 1998, Graham was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. In 2004, he was received his promotion to

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Butler Derrick
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 3rd congressional district

Succeeded by
Gresham Barrett
Party political offices
Preceded by
Strom Thurmond
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from South Carolina
(Class 2)

2002, 2008, 2014
Most recent
United States Senate
Preceded by
Strom Thurmond
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from South Carolina
Served alongside: Ernest Hollings, Jim DeMint, Tim Scott
United States order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Lisa Murkowski
United States Senators by seniority
Succeeded by
Lamar Alexander
  • "Swing Conservative: The perilous bipartisanship of Lindsey Graham.", Washington Monthly, April 2005
  • "The American Ghosts of Abu Ghraib", Sam Provance, Consortium News, March 2007
  • "Lindsey Graham: Not a Nuclear Wussypants", Kate Sheppard, Mother Jones, October 2009
  • "As the World Burns", Ryan Lizza, The New Yorker, October 2010
  • "Lindsey Graham: The Senate's Republican Deal Maker", Matthew Kaminski, The Wall Street Journal, June 2013
  • "Who can beat Lindsey Graham?", Peter Hamby, CNN, August 2013
  • "Lindsey Graham Stares Down the Tea Party", Corey Hutchins, Free Times, April 2014
Further reading
  • Senator Lindsey Graham official U.S. Senate site
  • Lindsey Graham for President
  • Supporting PAC for Lindsey Graham for President

External links

  1. ^ a b Stephen F. Hayes (October 13, 2014). "The Return of the GOP Hawks". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  2. ^ Juanna Summers, "5 Things You Should Know About Lindsey Graham," NPR-All Politics, May 31, 2015.[8]
  3. ^ a b Jonathan Martin (May 9, 2013). "Lindsey Graham faces down primary challenge". Politico. Retrieved October 8, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b James Podgers (August 5, 2012). "Sen. Lindsey Graham: Qualifications of Judicial Nominees Should Count More Than Politics". ABA Journal. Retrieved October 8, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Harold Maass (May 9, 2013). "Is Lindsey Graham going to get primaried?". The Week. Retrieved October 8, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c d Linda Killian (June 10, 2014). "Lindsey Graham vs. the Tea Party". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 11, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c d Patrik Jonsson (June 11, 2014). "The un-Cantor: Sen. Lindsey Graham wins by poking eye of tea party (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved October 11, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Alex Altman (November 5, 2013). "Lindsey Graham: The Bipartisan Dealmaker Finds Issues to Please GOP Base". Time magazine. Retrieved October 11, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c Keith Wagstaff (August 26, 2013). "Can Lindsey Graham survive the Tea Party's wrath?". The Week. Retrieved October 8, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c d Manu Raju (April 23, 2014). "How Lindsey Graham outmaneuvered the tea party". Politico. Retrieved April 24, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Robert Draper (July 1, 2010). "Lindsey Graham, This Year’s Maverick". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Molly Ball (June 10, 2014). "How Lindsey Graham Stomped the Tea Party". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c d Patricia Murphy (June 10, 2014). "Lindsey Graham’s Tea Party Teflon". The Daily Beast. Retrieved October 11, 2014. 
  14. ^ a b Stableford, Dylan (May 18, 2015). "'"Lindsey Graham: 'I am running because the world is falling apart.  
  15. ^ Rappeport, Alan (June 1, 2015). "Lindsey Graham Announces Presidential Bid". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Lloyd Grove (October 7, 1998). "Lindsey Graham, a Twang of Moderation". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Pi Kappa Phi Fraternity". 
  18. ^ [9]
  19. ^ a b c d "United States Senator Lindsey Graham, South Carolina : About Senator Graham". Retrieved October 12, 2014. 
  20. ^ a b c "Plain talk from GOP senator". The Baltimore Sun. May 11, 2004. Retrieved October 12, 2014. 
  21. ^ "Enlightenment". The Experience Festival. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  22. ^ "S.C. Rep. Gulf War Past Questioned". Associated Press. February 19, 1998. Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  23. ^ Pareene, Alex (May 20, 2010). "Lindsey Graham’s war lie: Bigger than Richard Blumenthal’s". Salon. Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  24. ^ a b Whitlock, Craig (August 2, 2015). "Sen. Graham moved up in Air Force Reserve ranks despite light duties". The Washington Post (in en-US).  
  25. ^ United States v. Lane, 60 M.J. 781 (C.A.A.F. 2004),
  26. ^ "'"After Tour of Duty in Iraq, Graham Backs 'Surge. 
  27. ^ Day, Thomas L. (September 6, 2009). "Military Notebook: Robins to hold birthday bash for Air Force".  
  28. ^ "Lindsey Graham Supports Obama | McChrystal". Mediaite. June 23, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  29. ^ Bradner, Eric (May 30, 2015). "Lindsey Graham retires from Air Force ahead of expected White House run". CNN. Retrieved May 30, 2015. 
  30. ^ "". Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  31. ^ "". Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  32. ^ "". Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  33. ^ "". Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  34. ^ "". Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  35. ^ "". Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  36. ^ "104th Congress / House / 2nd session / Vote 300". Washington Post. July 11, 1996. Retrieved July 20, 2009. 
  37. ^ "The Education Of Senator Lindsey Graham". Business Week. February 27, 2005. Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  38. ^ "". Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  39. ^ "SC – Election Results". 
  40. ^ "". Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  41. ^ "2008 Race: South Carolina Senate". Open Secrets. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  42. ^ a b Tom Kludt (April 8, 2014). "Lindsey Graham Faces Big – But Weak – Field of Challengers". NBC News. Retrieved April 24, 2014. 
  43. ^ Tom Kludt (October 30, 2013). "Poll: Lindsey Graham's Approval Rating Tumbles In S.C". Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  44. ^ Rosen, James. "WASHINGTON: Graham: ‘I expect’ a primary challenge | News". The State. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  45. ^ Sullivan, Sean (September 20, 2012). "Lindsey Graham, 2014 target?". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 24, 2014. 
  46. ^ Jonathan Martin (June 10, 2014). "In South Carolina, Graham Prevails Without a Runoff". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2014. 
  47. ^ Clement, Scott (February 26, 2014). "Poll: Lindsey Graham trouncing crowded primary field". Washington Post. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  48. ^ "SC – Election Results". 
  49. ^ "Lindsey Graham a ‘yes’ on Sonia Sotomayor". Politico. July 23, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2015. 
  50. ^ a b "Lindsey Graham Dramatically Casts His Vote for Elena Kagan". The Atlantic. July 20, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2014. 
  51. ^ "Facing Primary Threat, Graham Rated 33rd Most Conservative". National Journal. February 21, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2014. 
  52. ^ Porteus, Liza (January 24, 2006). "Sparks Fly at Alito Hearing". Fox News. 
  53. ^ Sethi, Chanakya (November 18, 2005). "Alito '72 joined conservative alumni group". The Daily Princetonian. 
  54. ^ a b "Second round of Graham Questioning Judge Alito". Office of Senator Lindsey Graham. United States Senate. January 11, 2006. Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. 
  55. ^ Stefanski, Mark (January 11, 2006). "Alito disavows CAP". The Daily Pricetonian. 
  56. ^ Kelley, Tina; Nate Schweber (January 13, 2006). "Thrust Into Limelight and for Some a Symbol of Washington's Bite". The New York Times. 
  57. ^ Mataconis, Doug (April 3, 2011) Lindsey Graham On Koran Burning: “Freedom Of Speech Is A Great Idea But We’re In A War.”, Outside the Beltway
  58. ^ a b Greenwald, Glenn (April 4, 2011) The most uncounted cost of Endless War,
  59. ^ Andrew Sullivan (April 3, 2011) "Free Speech Is A Great Idea, But ...", The Atlantic
  60. ^ Hunter, Jack (April 7, 2011) Lindsey Graham’s War on Freedom, The American Conservative
  61. ^ "Lindsey Graham ‘glad’ NSA tracking phones". Politico. June 6, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2014. 
  62. ^ "GOP Sen. Graham says he’s ‘glad’ NSA is collecting phone records". The Washington Times. June 6, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2014. 
  63. ^ Military's Opposition to Harsh Interrogation Is Outlined, New York Times
  64. ^ Savage, Charlie, "Senate Declines to Clarify Rights of American Qaeda Suspects Arrested in U.S.," The New York Times, December 1, 2001:[10].
  65. ^ S8859, The Graham Amendment
  66. ^ ACLU Urges Congress to Reject Court Stripping Measure
  67. ^ Right To Trial Imperiled by Senate Vote by Jeremy Brecher & Brendan Smith
  68. ^ FRONTLINE Interview: Rumsfeld's War. Retrieved February 10, 2009.
  69. ^ FRONTLINE Interview: The Choice 2008. Retrieved February 10, 2009.
  70. ^ Invisible Men: Did Lindsey Graham and Jon Kyl mislead the Supreme Court?, by Emily Bazelon – Slate Magazine
  71. ^ "I Just Saw This on Sen. Graham on Gitmo detainees". CNN. Retrieved May 7, 2010. 
  72. ^ "Kennedy alliance costly to GOP senators" The Washington Times
  73. ^ "Immigration stance hurts Graham at home, poll finds". June 22, 2007. 
  74. ^ "RNC official inches toward Graham battle". November 14, 2007. 
  75. ^ "Graham romps to easy win over challenger Witherspoon".  
  76. ^ Chuck Schumer; Lindsey Graham (March 19, 2010). "The right way to mend immigration". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 11, 2014. 
  77. ^ a b "Sens. Chuck Schumer and Lindsey Graham give bipartisan push to immigration reform plan". New York Daily News. November 11, 2012. Retrieved October 11, 2014. 
  78. ^ Elyse Siegel (July 29, 2010). "'"Lindsey Graham: 'Birthright Citizenship Is A Mistake,' 'We Should Change Constitution. The Huffington Post. 
  79. ^ Jessica Vaitis (January 20, 2012). "Graham visits NMB Republican Club". North Myrtle Beach Times. 
  80. ^ "Births to Illegal Immigrants Studied" The New York Times, August 11, 2010, p. A-19
  81. ^ "Senators Reach a Bipartisan Agreement for Comprehensive Immigration Reform". The National Law Review. Fowler White Boggs P.A. January 31, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2013. 
  82. ^ Isenstadt, Alex. "Graham: We're close to 70 votes on immigration reform". Politico. Retrieved June 24, 2013. 
  83. ^ "Graham won't join gun legislation filibuster". CNN. March 31, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2014. 
  84. ^ "Why NRA says background checks lead to confiscation". The Houston Chronicle. March 30, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2014. 
  85. ^ """Senator Lindsey Graham Calls Current Gun Laws "Broken. WSAV3. Retrieved November 1, 2014. 
  86. ^ "Graham introduces background check bill with NRA backing". CNN. March 6, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2014. 
  87. ^ "U.S. Senate: Roll Call Vote". January 27, 2015. 
  88. ^ "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  89. ^ Jim Tankersley; Richard Simon (April 28, 2010). "Sen. Lindsey Graham's bipartisan efforts bog down". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 11, 2014. 
  90. ^, Green Energy Reporter
  91. ^, New York Times
  92. ^ New York Times
  93. ^ "Lindsey Graham Said What About Climate Change?".  
  94. ^ Broder, John M. (April 24, 2010). "Graham Pulls Support for Major Senate Climate Bill". The New York Times. 
  95. ^ "Foreign Policy’s Bipartisan Trio Becomes Republican Duo". The New York Times. November 26, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  96. ^ "Sen. Ayotte offers GOP an influential new voice". The Washington Post. November 30, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  97. ^ "Ayotte and the Amigos". National Review. November 29, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  98. ^ "In the right place at the right time". The Boston Globe. July 31, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  99. ^ "Republican Senator Lindsey Graham calls for pre-emptive strike to 'neuter' Iran – Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. 
  100. ^ Burns, Robert (April 11, 2011) Pentagon Has Second Thoughts About U.S. Troop Withdrawal From Iraq, Associated Press
  101. ^ "Obama Will Nominate Chuck Hagel as Next Defense Secretary – ABC News". January 6, 2013. Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  102. ^ Breanna Edwards. "Lindsey Graham: 'Hillary Clinton got away with murder’". POLITICO. 
  103. ^ """Sen Graham: Benghazi Report is "full of crap. CNN. November 23, 2014. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  104. ^ Jacqueline Klimas (November 23, 2014). "Lindsey Graham: House Benghazi report is ‘full of crap’". The Washington Times. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  105. ^ Jake Miller (November 23, 2014). """Lindsey Graham: House Benghazi report "full of crap. CBS News. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  106. ^ "Awesome". Senators on Automatic Spending Cuts Feb 28, 2013. C-Span. February 28, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  107. ^ Jeremy Herb (February 28, 2013). "OVERNIGHT DEFENSE: Senate bills fail on sequester’s eve". The Hill. Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  108. ^ Dan Friedman (February 28, 2013). "Capitol Hill lawmakers still show no desire to compromise to lessen economic impact of $85 billion in automatic spending cuts, set to hit books March 1". New York Daily News. Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  109. ^ Kara Rowland (February 28, 2013). "Senator Lindsey Graham blasts fellow Republicans and President Obama". Fox News. Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  110. ^ Hunt, Kasie. "Graham: US should consider Olympic boycott over possible Snowden asylum". NBC News. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  111. ^ "Senators press Obama to crank up Russia punishment, warn of Ukraine ‘civil war’". Fox News. May 4, 2014.
  112. ^ The Washington Post
  113. ^ Karl, J.; et al. "Top conservative says read my lips: Don't sign 'no new tax' pledge" Spinners and Winners, ABC News, June 12, 2012.
  114. ^ National Taxpayers Union - Lindsey Graham,  
  115. ^ National Taxpayers Union - Lindsey Graham,  
  116. ^ "Free Trade, Free Markets: Rating the Congress".  
  117. ^ "Free Trade, Free Markets: Rating the Congress".  
  118. ^ "Lindsey Graham: I've Never Sent an Email". NBC. March 8, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015. 
  119. ^ "'"Lindsey Graham defends Confederate flag: 'It works here. TheHill.  Retrieved 2015-06-21
  120. ^ Castillo, Walbert – "Lindsey Graham on Charleston shooter: 'It's him ... not the flag'," CNN Politics, June 20, 2015.[11] Retrieved 2015-06-21
  121. ^ Drucker, David M. – "Lindsey Graham: 'No doubt' Charleston shooting was racially motivated", Washington Examiner, June 20, 2015.[12] Retrieved 2015-06-21
  122. ^
  123. ^ "Lindsey Graham Republican (Elected 2003), SC Senate district". MapLight. Retrieved October 8, 2014. 
  124. ^ International Republican Institute web site, Retrieved July 16, 2010.
  125. ^ Gay Stolberg, Sheryl. "In the Senate, a Chorus of Three Defies the Line". 11-21-2005 (New York Times). Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  126. ^ Sarah B. Boxer (April 10, 2012). "Romney racks up more endorsements as Santorum exits". CBS. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  127. ^ Dana Bash (February 18, 2012). "Where is all the support for Santorum in the Senate?". CNN. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  128. ^ Sarah B. Boxer (April 10, 2012). "Floodgates open on Romney endorsements". The Hill. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  129. ^ Topaz, Jonathan (October 3, 2014). "Lindsey Graham: Marco Rubio ‘not quite ready’".  
  130. ^ Noyes, Ron (March 11, 2015). "As POTUS, Sen. Graham Vows U.S. Military Force Against Non-Compliant Congress". (Ben Swann). Retrieved April 13, 2015. 
  131. ^ Schwarz, Hunter – "Lindsey Graham says He’s ’91 percent’ Sure He’ll Run for President", The Washington Post, April 19, 2015.[13]
  132. ^ Rappeport, Alan (June 1, 2015). "Lindsey Graham Announces Presidential Bid". The New York Times.  
  133. ^ a b "Election Statistics". Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives. Retrieved August 8, 2007. 
  134. ^ Alan Rapperport, "Lindsey Graham Enters White House Race With Emphasis on National Security," New York Times, June 1, 2015.[14]
  135. ^ "United States Senator Lindsey Graham, South Carolina : About Senator Graham". December 18, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2014. 


See also

Graham currently lives in Seneca, South Carolina, and is a member of the Corinth Baptist Church.[135]

Graham has never been married and has no children.[11] He helped to raise his sister, Darline Graham Nordone, after his mother's and then a year later his father's death when he was 22 and she was 13. Experiencing the early deaths of his parents, Graham says, made him mature more quickly, and Nordone, who introduced her brother at his formal announcement of his candidacy for the 2016 presidential race, said she hoped to be with him on the campaign trail frequently to show voters his softer side. "He's kind of like a brother, a father and a mother rolled into one," she said. "I've always looked up to Lindsey."[134]

Personal life

*Write-in and minor candidate notes: In 2002, write-ins received 667 votes. In 2014, write-ins received 4,774 votes.

Senate elections in South Carolina (Class II): Results 2002–2014[133]
Year Democratic Votes Pct Republican Votes Pct 3rd Party Party Votes Pct 3rd Party Party Votes Pct
2002 Alex Sanders 487,359 44% Lindsey Graham 600,010 54% Ted Adams Constitution 8,228 1% Victor Kocher Libertarian 6,648 1% *
2008 Bob Conley 785,559 42% Lindsey Graham 1,069,137 58% Write-ins 608 <1%
2014 Brad Hutto 480,933 39% Lindsey Graham 672,941 54% Thomas Ravenel Independent 47,588 4% Victor Kocher Libertarian 33,839 3% *

*Write-in and minor candidate notes: In 1994, write-ins received 13 votes. In 2000, Natural Law candidate LeRoy J. Klein received 1,122 votes and write-ins received 33 votes. George Brightharp ran under both the Democratic and United Citizens Parties and received 2,253 votes on the United Citizen line.

South Carolina's 3rd congressional district: Results 1994–2000[133]
Year Democratic Votes Pct Republican Votes Pct 3rd Party Party Votes Pct
1994 James E. Bryan, Jr. 59,932 40% Lindsey Graham 90,123 60% *
1996 Debbie Dorn 73,417 39% Lindsey Graham 114,273 60% Lindal Pennington Natural Law 1,835 1%
1998 (no candidate) Lindsey Graham 129,047 100% Write-ins 402 <1%
2000 George Brightharp 67,170 30% Lindsey Graham 150,180 68% Adrian Banks Libertarian 3,116 1% *

Electoral history

He made an official announcement of his candidacy for President on June 1, 2015.[132]

On April 19, 2015, Graham told Chris Wallace, on the Fox News Sunday show, that he was "91% sure" he would run for President. "If I can raise the money, I'll do it," he said.[131] And on On May 18, 2015, Graham informally announced that he would run for president on CBS This Morning, saying he was running because he thinks "the world is falling apart."[14]

During his Senate re-election race in October 2014, while discussing immigration and foreign policy issues with a reporter from The Weekly Standard, Graham said : “If I get through my general election, if nobody steps up in the presidential mix, if nobody’s out there talking . . . I may just jump in to get to make these arguments.”[129] And on March 7, 2015, at a “Politics and Pies” forum, Graham advocated the reversal of defense spending cuts and quipped: "If I were President of the United States, I wouldn't let Congress leave town until we fix this. I would literally use the military to keep them in if I had to."[130]

In 2012, Graham's endorsement was highly sought,[126] but he declined to endorse one of the Republican candidates ahead of the January 2012 South Carolina Republican primary.[127] After Rick Santorum withdrew from the race in April 2012, leaving Mitt Romney as the presumptive nominee, Graham endorsed Romney.[128]

Graham is a close friend of Arizona Senator John McCain. He supported McCain's presidential bid in 2000 and served as national co-chairman of McCain's 2008 presidential bid.[11][125]

Presidential politics

Graham is a member of the board of directors of the International Republican Institute.[124]

Caucus memberships

Previous assignments

Committee assignments

In July 2015, Graham called Donald Trump a "jackass" during an interview on CNN. In response, Trump criticized Graham for asking him for help to get on Fox & Friends and gave out Graham's mobile phone number.[122]

In a statement issued later, Graham said: "There can be no doubt that the shooting . . . was racially motivated and signals to all of us that the scars of our history are still with us today. This murderer said he wanted to start a race war; he has failed miserably. In Charleston this weekend, I saw a community coming together. I saw people seeking solace in what they share together, not in what makes them different."[121]

Following a multiple shooting incident at an historic African-American church in Charleston on June 17, 2015, Graham canceled all campaign events to return to South Carolina. In response to questions from the press regarding the calls from some, following the incident, to remove the Confederate flag at a war memorial on the South Carolina State Capitol grounds, Graham said: "Well, at the end of the day it's time for people in South Carolina to revisit that decision. [That] would be fine with me, but this is part of who we are." He continued, "The flag represents to some people a civil war, and that was the symbol of one side. To others it's a racist symbol, and it's been used by people – it's been used in a racist way."[119] Regarding the shooter responsible for the incident, Graham said, "We're not going to give this a guy an excuse about a book he might have read, or a movie he watched, or a song he listened to, or a symbol out anywhere. It's him ... not the flag."[120]

2015 Charleston church shooting/Confederate flag issue

During an appearance on NBC's Meet the Press on March 8, 2015, in a discussion of Hillary Clinton's private email server controversy, Graham told host Chuck Todd that he would be happy to release all of his own emails, because he did not use email, and had never sent an email before.[118]


[117][116] voting record.subsidies and pro-protectionist's Center for Trade Policy Studies identifies Graham, during his U.S. House and U.S. Senate tenure, as having a mostly Cato Institute The [115][114] Although Graham had earlier signed

Taxation & Trade

In May 2015 Senator Graham said "If I’m president of the United States and you’re thinking about joining al-Qaeda or ISIL [Islamic State], I’m not gonna call a judge," Graham said. "I’m gonna call a drone and we will kill you."[112]


On July 16, 2013, Graham suggested the United States should consider boycotting the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, because of "what the Russian government is doing throughout the world."[110] Graham also said the U.S. should aim to "drive the Russian economy into the ground."[111]

On February 28, 2013, Graham criticized President Obama and both political parties on the Senate floor for allowing the budget reduction to occur with "two-thirds of the budget" exempt from reductions and said the impact on the Department of Defense would create a "hollow military" that "invites aggression".[106][107][108][109]

Secretary of State John Kerry meets with Senators John McCain, John Barrasso and Lindsey Graham in Jerusalem on January 3, 2014

On January 29, 2013, in an interview with Fox News, he claimed that Secretary of State Hillary Clinton "got away with murder", following her testimony about the 2012 Benghazi attack.[102] But the next year he would concede that the House Intelligence Committee report on Benghazi was, as he put it, "full of crap", and that the Administration had been cleared of many of the charges therein.[103][104][105]

Graham is a strong, unapologetic supporter of Israel, and threatened to derail the confirmation of President Obama's nomination for secretary of defense, Chuck Hagel, remarking that Hagel "would be the most antagonistic secretary of defense towards the state of Israel in our nation’s history."[101]

He is an advisor to The Atlantic Bridge.

In August 2011, Graham co-sponsored with Senator

On November 6, 2010, at the Halifax International Security Forum, Graham called for a pre-emptive military strike to weaken the Iranian regime.[99] He has also argued that "the U.S. needs to keep at least 10,000 troops in Iraq into 2012," saying that "If we're not smart enough to work with the Iraqis to have 10,000 to 15,000 American troops in Iraq in 2012, Iraq could go to hell."[100]

John McCain and Lindsey Graham, Al-Faw Palace, Iraq, 2007

Known as a leading war hawk, Graham supports an interventionist foreign policy.[1] Graham and his fellow Senators John McCain and Joe Lieberman, who were frequently dubbed "the three amigos", travelled widely, pushing for American military intervention, particularly after the September 11 attacks. Their influence reached its zenith in 2007 as President Bush advocated for his surge strategy in Iraq, declining shortly before Lieberman retired from the Senate in 2013.[95][96] Kelly Ayotte, who joined the Senate in 2011, has been considered Lieberman's replacement in the group.[97][98]

Foreign policy

Graham told reporters in June 2010 that "The science about global warming has changed. I think they've oversold this stuff, quite frankly. I think they've been alarmist and the science is in question. The whole movement has taken a giant step backward."[93] He also stated that he planned to vote against the climate bill that he had originally co-sponsored, citing further restriction of offshore drilling added to the bill and the bill's impact on transportation.[94]

On December 10, 2009, Graham co-sponsored a letter to President Barack Obama along with then Senators John Kerry and Joe Lieberman announcing their commitment to passing a climate change bill and outlining its framework.[89][90] Graham has been identified as a leading supporter of passing a climate change bill and was thought to be a likely sponsor for the final bill. The Senators have identified a green economy, clean air, energy independence, consumer protection, increasing nuclear power and regulating the world's carbon market as the key features to a successful climate change bill.[91] In response to Senate Democrats shifting their priorities to immigration issues, a reaction to Arizona's passage of an illegal immigration law, Graham withdrew his support for the climate bill, leaving its passage in doubt.[92]

Climate change

Graham is a cosponsor of the Healthy Americans Act.

Graham opposed President Barack Obama's health reform legislation; he voted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in December 2009,[87] and he voted against the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.[88]

Health care

[86].gun show loophole in introducing a bill that would close a loophole by flagging individuals who attempt to buy guns who have used an insanity defense, were ruled dangerous by a court or had been committed by a court to mental health treatment. It did not address the Mark Pryor and Mark Begich, Jeff Flake To this end, in March 2013, he joined with Senators [85] He has, however, called current gun laws "broken", citing an example of a woman who pled guilty by reason of insanity to attempting to kill President [84] saying that "universal background checks are going to require universal [gun] registration."[83] Graham opposes extending background checks,

Gun rights

In November 2012, Graham and Schumer re-opened their talks on comprehensive immigration reform.[77] On January 28, 2013, Graham was a member of a bi-partisan group of eight Senators which announced principles for comprehensive immigration reform.[81] On June 23, 2013, Graham said that the Senate was close to obtaining 70 votes to pass the reform package.[82]

In July 2010, Graham suggested that U.S. citizenship as an automatic birthright guaranteed by the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution should be amended, and that any children born of illegal immigrants inside the borders of the United States should be considered illegal immigrants.[78] Graham alleged that "Half the children born in hospitals on our borders are the children of illegal immigrants."[79] Responding to the Graham claim, The New York Times cited a Pew Foundation study estimating that illegal immigrants account for only 8 percent of births in the United States and that 80 percent of the mothers had been in the U.S. for more than one year.[80]

In early 2010, Graham began working with Democratic New York Senator Chuck Schumer on immigration reform.[76] The talks broke down later in the year.[77]

Graham was a supporter of "comprehensive immigration reform" and of S. 2611, the McCain-Kennedy Immigration Reform Bill of 2006 as well as S. 1348 of 2007, the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007. His positions on immigration, and in particular collaborating with Senator Ted Kennedy, earned Graham the ire of conservative activists.[72] The controversy prompted conservative activists to support a primary challenge in 2008 by longtime Republican national committeeman Buddy Witherspoon,[73][74] but Graham won the nomination by a large margin.[75] 

Immigration reform

In a May 2009 CNN interview, Graham referred to the domestic internment of German and Japanese prisoners of war and U.S. Citizens as a model for domestic detention of Guantanamo detainees by saying, "We had 450,000 Japanese and German prisoners housed in the United States during World War II. As a nation, we can deal with this."[71]

In February 2006, Graham joined Senator Jon Kyl in filing an amicus brief in the Hamdan v. Rumsfeld case that argued "Congress was aware" that the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 would strip the Supreme Court of jurisdiction to hear "pending cases, including this case" brought by the Guantanamo detainees.[70]

Graham further explained that military lawyers had long observed the provisions of the Uniform Code of Military Justice and the Geneva Convention, but that those provisions had not been considered by the Bush administration in decisions regarding the treatment of detainees in Guantanamo Bay. He has claimed that better legal oversight within the military’s chain of command will prevent future detainee abuse.[69]

Graham has said he amended the Department of Defense Authorization Act in order to give military lawyers, as opposed to politically appointed lawyers, a more independent role in the oversight of military commanders. He has argued that two of the largest problems leading to the detainee abuse scandals at Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib were this lack of oversight and troops' confusion over legal boundaries.[68]

In response to this and a June 2004 U.S. Supreme Court decision allowing detainees to file habeas corpus petitions to challenge their detentions, Graham authored an amendment to a Department of Defense Authorization Act[65] attempting to clarify the authority of American courts. The amendment passed in November 2005 by a vote of 49–42 in the Senate despite opposition from human rights groups and legal scholars who contended that it limited the rights of detainees.[66][67]

Regarding U.S. Citizens accused of supporting terrorism, senator Lindsey Graham has stated before the senate, "When they say, ‘I want my lawyer,’ you tell them: ‘Shut up. You don’t get a lawyer. You are an enemy combatant, and we are going to talk to you about why you joined Al Qaeda.’"

U.S. Senator Lindsey Graham, 2011[64]

In July 2005, Graham secured the declassification and release of memoranda outlining concerns made by senior military lawyers as early as 2003 about the legality of the interrogations of prisoners held at Guantanamo Bay.[63]

Detainee interrogations

In response to the 2013 disclosures about the United States National Security Agency and its international partners' global surveillance of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens, Graham said that he was "glad" the NSA was collecting phone records. He said: "I'm a Verizon customer. I don’t mind Verizon turning over records to the government if the government is going to make sure that they try to match up a known terrorist phone with somebody in the United States. I don't think you're talking to the terrorists. I know you're not. I know I'm not. So we don’t have anything to worry about."[61][62]

National Security Agency surveillance

On May 23, 2005, Graham was one of the so-called filibuster and the Republican "nuclear option" as described in the media. Under the agreement, the Democrats would retain the power to filibuster a Bush judicial nominee only in an "extraordinary circumstance", and subsequently, three conservative Bush appellate court nominees (Janice Rogers Brown, Priscilla Owen and William H. Pryor, Jr.) received a vote by the full Senate.

Gang of 14

During an appearance on Face the Nation on April 3, 2011,[57] Graham "suggested that Congress take unspecified though formal action against the Koran-burning by Florida preacher Terry Jones," in light of an attack on United Nations personnel triggered by Jones' actions.[58] In asserting that "Congress might need to explore the need to limit some forms of freedom of speech,"[59] Graham argued that "Free speech is a great idea, but we’re in a war," and claimed that "during World War II, we had limits on what you could say if it would inspire the enemy."[58][60]

Graham (far right) at the signing of the Fair Sentencing Act in 2010
Free speech

[56][55] Alito's wife and sister characterized Graham's statements as supportive.[54] While Graham allowed that Alito might just be saying this because he wanted the nomination, Graham concluded that he had no reason to believe that because "you seem to be a decent, honorable man."[54] During the Judiciary Committee's

Alito confirmation hearings

In the National Journal's ideological rankings of Senators, Graham was named 41st most-conservative in 2003, 38th most-conservative in 2004, 43rd most-conservative in 2005, 33rd most-conservative in 2006, 24th most-conservative in 2007, 15th most-conservative in 2008, 26th most-conservative in 2009, 24th most-conservative in 2010, 42nd most-conservative in 2011, 33rd most-conservative in 2012 and 40th most-conservative in 2013.[51]

Graham, explaining his vote to confirm Elena Kagan to the Supreme Court.
We lost. President Obama won. I've got a lot of opportunity to disagree, but the Constitution, in my view, puts an obligation on me not to replace my judgment for his, not to think of the hundred reasons I would pick someone different... I view my duty as to protect the Judiciary and to ensure that hard-fought elections have meaning in our system. I'm going to vote for her [Kagan] because I believe this election has consequences. And this president chose someone who is qualified to serve on this court and understands the difference between being a liberal judge and a politician. At the end of the day, it wasn't a hard decision... She would not have been someone I would have chosen, but the person who did choose, President Obama, chose wisely.[50]

Much of the Tea Party criticism focuses on his willingness to be bipartisan and work with Democrats on issues like climate change, tax reform and immigration reform and his belief that judicial nominees should not be opposed solely on their philosophical positions.[3][4][5][6][7][8] He voted to confirm both of President Obama's Supreme Court nominees, Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan.[49][50] For his part, Graham has criticised and confronted the Tea Party, arguing for a more inclusive Republican Party.[7][9][10][11][12][13]

Graham has been referred to by Tea Party opponents as, a "moderate Republican".[9][10] He describes himself, however, as a "Reagan-style Republican", and has been described as a fairly conservative Republican with "a twang of moderation" and as having "an independent streak".[6][16][20]

Political positions

In the run-up to the Republican primary, Graham's approval rating improved. According to a Winthrop poll from February 2013, he held a 59% positive rating among Republican likely voters.[47] In the primary, held on June 10, 2014, Graham won with 178,833 votes (56.42%). His nearest challenger, State Senator Lee Bright, received 48,904 votes (15.53%). In the general election, he defeated Democratic State Senator Brad Hutto and Independent Thomas Ravenel, a former Republican State Treasurer.[48]

However, a serious challenger to Graham failed to emerge and he was widely viewed as likely to win,[6][13][42] which has been ascribed to his "deft maneuvering" and "aggressive" response to the challenge. He befriended potential opponents from the state's congressional delegation and helped them with fundraising and securing their preferred committee assignments; he assembled a "daunting multimillion-dollar political operation" dubbed the "Graham machine" that built six regional offices across the state and enlisted the support of thousands of paid staffers and volunteers, including over 5,000 precinct captains; he assembled a "staggering" campaign warchest and "blanketed" the state with positive ads; he focused on constituent services and local issues; and he refused to "pander" to the Tea Party supporters, instead confronting them head-on, arguing that the Republican party needs to be more inclusive.[10][11][12][13][46]

[45] He expected a primary challenge from conservative activists, including the [43][42] Of all the Republican Senators up for re-election in the 2014 cycle, Graham was considered one of the most vulnerable to a primary challenge, largely due to his low approval ratings and reputation for working with and compromising with Democrats.


When Graham ran for a second term in 2008, he was challenged in the Republican primary by National Executive Committeeman of the South Carolina Republican Party Buddy Witherspoon. Graham defeated him by 186,398 votes (66.82%) to 92,547 (33.18%), winning all but one of South Carolina's 46 counties. Graham then defeated Democratic pilot and engineer Bob Conley in the general election by 1,076,534 votes (57.53%) to 790,621 (42.25%),[40] having out-spent Conley by $6.6 million to $15,000.[41]


In 2002, long-time Republican U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond decided to retire. Graham ran to succeed him and won the Republican primary unopposed. In the general election, he defeated Democrat Alex Sanders, the former President of the College of Charleston and former Chief Judge of the South Carolina Court of Appeals, by 600,010 votes (54%) to 487,359 (44%).[38] Graham thus became South Carolina's first new U.S. Senator since 1965. He served as the state's Junior Senator for only two years, serving alongside Democrat Ernest Hollings until he retired in 2005.[39]



U.S. Senate

During his service in the House, Graham served on the following committees:

Committee assignments

He was a member of the Judiciary Committee during the impeachment of President Bill Clinton in 1998.[37] He was the only Republican on the Committee to vote against any of the articles of impeachment (the second count of perjury in the Paula Jones case), famously asking: "Is this Watergate or Peyton Place?"[12][16]

In 1997, he took part in an abortive coup against House Speaker Newt Gingrich.[16]

In 1996, Graham voted for the Defense of Marriage Act.[36]


[35] In 1996, he was challenged by Debbie Dorn, the niece of Butler Derrick and daughter of Derrick's predecessor, 13-term Democratic Congressman

In 1994, 20-year incumbent Democratic U.S. Congressman Butler Derrick of South Carolina's northwestern-based 3rd congressional district decided to retire. Graham ran to succeed him and, with Republican U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond campaigning on his behalf, he won the Republican primary with 52% of the vote, defeating Bob Cantrell (33%) and Ed Allgood (15%).[31] In the general election, Graham defeated Democratic State Senator James Bryan, Jr. by 60% to 40%.[32] As a part of that year's Republican Revolution, Graham became the first Republican to represent this district since 1877.[11]


U.S. House of Representatives

In 1992, Graham was elected to the South Carolina House of Representatives from the 2nd district, located in Oconee County. He defeated Democratic incumbent Lowell W. Ross by 60% to 40% and served one term, from 1993 to 1995.[30]

South Carolina House of Representatives

In 2015, Graham retired from the Air Force with over 33 total years of service, after reaching the statutory retirement age of 60 for his rank.[29]

In 2007, Graham served in Iraq as a reservist on active duty for a short period in April and for two weeks in August, where he worked on detainee and rule-of-law issues.[26] He also served in Afghanistan during the August 2009 Senate recess.[27] He was then assigned as a senior instructor for the U.S. Air Force JAG Corps.[19][28]

[25] That year, the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces held that it was improper for Graham to serve as a military judge while a sitting member of the Senate.[24]

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