World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

List of African-American firsts

Article Id: WHEBN0007650310
Reproduction Date:

Title: List of African-American firsts  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Lists of African Americans, African-American history, African-American culture, African-American studies, Black Power
Collection: African American-Related Lists, Lists of Firsts
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

List of African-American firsts

African Americans are a demographic minority in the United States. The first achievements by African Americans in various fields historically establish a foothold, providing a precedent for more widespread cultural change. The shorthand phrase for this is "breaking the color barrier".[1][2]

One commonly cited example is that of Jackie Robinson, who was the first African American of the modern era to become a Major League Baseball player, ending 60 years of segregated leagues. Segregated Negro Leagues had been established for decades.[3]

Contents

18th century
19th century: 1800s • 1810s • 1820s • 1830s • 1840s • 1850s • 1860s • 1870s • 1880s • 1890s
20th century: 1900s • 1910s • 1920s • 1930s • 1940s • 1950s • 1960s • 1970s • 1980s • 1990s
21st century: 2000s • 2010s
See also
References

18th century

1730s-1770s

1738

1760

  • First known African-American published author: Jupiter Hammon (poem "An Evening Thought: Salvation by Christ with Penitential Cries", published as a broadside)[4]

1768

1773

1778

1780s-1790s

1783

  • First African American to formally practice medicine in the U.S.: James Derham, who did not hold an M.D. degree[10] (See also: 1847)

1792

1793

1794

19th century

1800s

1804

  • First African American ordained as an Episcopal priest in the U.S.: Absalom Jones in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania[11]

1810s

1816

1820s

1821

1822

  • First African-American captain to sail a whaleship with an all-black crew: Absalom Boston[13]

1823

1827

1830s

1836

  • First African American elected to public office and to serve in a state legislature: Alexander Twilight, Vermont[14] (See also: 1823)

1837

1840s

1845

  • First African American licensed to practice law in the U.S.: Macon Allen from the Boston bar [16]

1847

1849

1850s

1851

  • First African-American member of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), Patrick Francis Healy.[20] (See also: 1866, 1874)

1853

1854

1858

1860s

1861

1862

1863

  • First college owned and operated by African Americans: Wilberforce University, Ohio.[28][Note 3] (See also: 1854)
  • First African-American president of a college: Bishop Daniel Payne (Wilberforce University)[29]

1864

1865

1866

1868

1869

1870s

1870

1872

1874

  • First African-American president of a major college/university: Father (See also: 1851, 1863, 1866) [20]

1875

  • First African-American Roman Catholic bishop: Bishop James Augustine Healy, of Portland, Maine.[23] (See also: 1854)

1876

1877

1878

  • First African-American police officer in Boston, Massachusetts: Sergeant Horatio Julius Homer.[47]

1879

  • First African American to graduate from a formal nursing school: Mary Eliza Mahoney, Boston, Massachusetts.[49]

First Black American Major League Baseball Player William Edward White http://articles/William_Edward_White

1880s

1880

  • First African American to command a U.S. ship: Captain Michael Healy.[50]

1881

1883

1884

1886

  • First African-American Roman Catholic priest publicly known at the time to be African-American: Augustine Tolton, Quincy and Chicago, Illinois[55] (See also: 1854)

1890s

1891

1892

1895

1898

1899

20th century

1901

1902

  • First African-American professional basketball player: Harry Lew (New England Professional Basketball League)[63] (See also: 1950)
  • First African-American boxing champion, Joe Gans a lightweight

1903

  • First Broadway musical written by African Americans, and the first to star African Americans: In Dahomey
  • First African-American woman to found and become president of a bank: Maggie L. Walker, St. Luke Penny Savings Bank (since 1930 the Consolidated Bank & Trust Company), Richmond, Virginia[64]

1904

  • First Greek-letter fraternal organization established by African Americans: Sigma Pi Phi
  • First African American to participate in the Olympic Games, and first to win a medal: [65]

1906

1907

  • First African-American [66]

1908

1909

1910s

1910

1911

1914

1915

1916

1917

1919

1920s

1920

1921

1924

1925

1926

1928

1929

1930s

1931

  • First African-American composer to have symphony performed by leading orchestra: William Grant Still, Symphony No. 1, by Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra

1932

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

  • First African American to star in her own television program: Ethel Waters, The Ethel Waters Show, on NBC[92]

1940s

1940

1941

  • First African American to give a White House Command Performance: Josh White[96]

1942

1943

  • Martin A. Martin, first African American to become a member of the Trial Bureau of the United States Department of Justice, was sworn in on May 31, 1943.[98]
  • First African-American artists to have a #1 hit on the Billboard charts: Mills Brothers ("Paper Doll"), topped "Best Sellers in Stores" chart on November 6 (See also: Tommy Edwards, 1958; The Platters, 1959)

1944

1945

1947

1948

1949

1950s

1950

1951

1952

[131]

1953

1954

1955

  • First African-American member of the Metropolitan Opera: Marian Anderson[136]
  • First African-American male dancer in a major ballet company: Arthur Mitchell (New York City Ballet; also first African-American principal dancer of a major ballet company (NYCB), 1956.[137] (See also: 1969)
  • First African-American singer to appear in a telecast opera: Leontyne Price in NBC's production of Tosca
  • First African-American pilot of a scheduled US airline: August Martin (cargo airline Seaboard & Western Airlines)[138][139] (See also: 1964)
  • First African American to serve as a presidential executive assistant: E. Frederic Morrow, appointed by President Eisenhower as Administrative Officer for Special Projects.[140]

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960s

1960

  • First African-American U.S. presidential candidate: Rev. Clennon King, on the Independent Afro-American party

1961

  • First African American to win the Heisman Trophy: Ernie Davis
  • First African American to serve on a U.S. district court: James Benton Parsons, appointed to the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois
  • First African-American tenor to sing leading roles for the George Shirley
  • First African-American delegate to the Edith S. Sampson (See also: 1950)
  • First African-American to go over Niagara Falls: Nathan Boya a.k.a. William FitzGerald

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970s

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

  • First African-American woman elected officer of international labor union: Addie L. Wyatt
  • First African American appointed as a judge in Federal District Court in Virginia: Robert H. Cooley III (1939-1998), appointed to the Eastern District[168]

1977

1978

  • First African-American broadcast network news anchor: Max Robinson

1979

1980s

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

  • First African American to win a delegate-awarding U.S. presidential primary/caucus: Jesse Jackson (Louisiana, the District of Columbia, South Carolina, Virginia and one of two separate Mississippi contests).
  • First African-American coach to win the Georgetown)
  • First African-American New York City Police Commissioner: Benjamin Ward

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990s

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

21st century

2000s

2000

2001

2002

2003

  • First African American to win a Career Grand Slam in tennis: Serena Williams (See also: Althea Gibson, 1956; Arthur Ashe, 1968)

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010s

2011

2013

2014

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This claim is contested by the Savannah, Georgia (1777).
  2. ^ Because it was published in the U.K., the book is not the first African-American novel published in the United States. This credit goes to one of two disputed books: Harriet Wilson's Our Nig (1859), brought to light by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. in 1982; or Julia C. Collins' The Curse of Caste; or The Slave Bride (1865), brought to light by William L. Andrews, an English literature professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Mitch Kachun, a history professor at Western Michigan University, in 2006. Andrews and Kachun document Our Nig as a novelized autobiography, and argue that The Curse of Caste is the first fully fictional novel by an African American to be published in the U.S.
  3. ^ Founded earlier; not fully owned and operated by African Americans until 1863
  4. ^ Revels, the Mississippi State Senate's Adams County representative, was elected by the U.S. Senate in January 1870 to fill an unexpired term.
  5. ^ Rainey, a South Carolina state senator, was elected to fill the seat vacated by B. Franklin Whittemore. Rainey took his seat on December 12, 1870. John Willis Menard was actually the first African-American elected to the House (1868) but he was denied his seat.
  6. ^ Douglass did not seek the nomination or campaign after being nominated.
  7. ^ Parker graduated from Mount Holyoke when it was still a seminary.
  8. ^ This was previously thought to be Sarah E. Goode (for the cabinet bed, Chicago, Illinois).[54]
  9. ^ His son, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., was the first African-American general in the United States Air Force.
  10. ^ Gravely was also the first African American to command a U.S. Navy warship (1962), and the first promoted to the rank of admiral (1971).
  11. ^ L. Clifford Davis applied to the law school in 1946, and after several failed attempts was granted admission in September 1947, but was unable to enroll in classes. Hunt later enrolled on February 2, 1948.[111]
  12. ^ Clifton was the first to sign an NBA contract and subsequently play, Cooper was the first to be drafted by an NBA team, and Lloyd was the first to play in an NBA regular-season game because his team's opening game was one day before the others.
  13. ^ At that time, nominations were announced in November of the year of release, instead of early the following year.
  14. ^ While two black players won Gold Gloves that year, only Mays is African-American. The other, Minnie Miñoso, is Afro-Cuban.
  15. ^ In 1998, the award would be renamed the Oscar Robertson Trophy after its first recipient.
  16. ^ Harris' milestone came a year after Marlon Green, who had been rejected as a Continental Airlines applicant in 1957, won the United States Supreme Court case "Colorado Anti-Discrimination Commission v. Continental Airlines, Inc. 372 U.S. 714 no. 146" which found Green had been unlawfully discriminated against.[155]
  17. ^ a b c The first Black superhero, Marvel's Black Panther, introduced in Fantastic Four #52 (July 1966), is African, not African-American. This is also true of the first Black character to star in his own mainstream comic-book feature, Waku, Prince of the Bantu, who headlined one of four features in the multiple-character omnibus series Jungle Tales (Sept. 1954 – Sept. 1955), from Marvel's 1950s predecessor, Atlas Comics.
  18. ^ At the time, the NCAA had not yet adopted its three-division system. Illinois State was in the NCAA University Division, which became Division I in 1973. The NCAA retroactively considers University Division members to have been Division I members.
  19. ^ The NHL had fielded black players for more than 20 years, with the first being  
  20. ^ Cuban cosmonaut Arnaldo Mendez was the first person of African descent in space, in 1980.
  21. ^ Lewis Hamilton became the first black Formula One racer in 2006, but he is a British citizen of Grenadan ancestry, and not an African American. Ribbs did not compete in a race, but drove a Formula One car professionally in January 1986 as a tester for the Brabham-BMW at Estoril, Portugal.
  22. ^ Announced as Bobcats owner in December 2002, although team did not begin play until 2004.
  23. ^ Smith and Dungy both reached this milestone on the same day, although Smith was technically the first due solely to scheduling. The NFC and AFC Championship Games are always held on the same day. In the playoffs that followed the 2006 NFL season, the NFC game was played first.

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Juguo, Zhang (2001). W. E. B. Du Bois: The Quest for the Abolition of the Color Line. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-93087-1
  2. ^ Herbst, Philip H (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1
  3. ^ Sailes, Gary Alan (1998). "Jackie Robinson: Breaking the Color Barrier in Team Sports". African Americans in Sport: Contemporary Themes, Transaction Publishers. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7658-0440-2
  4. ^ O'Neale, Sondra (2002). "Hammon, Jupiter". In William L Andrews, Frances Smith Foster, Trudier Harris (eds.). The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
  5. ^ He was of mixed race, one-quarter African and three-quarters European, and listed in the census as white.
  6. ^ Shields, John C. (27 July 2010). Phillis Wheatley and the Romantics.  
  7. ^  
  8. ^ Brooks, Walter H. (1922-04-01). "The Priority of the Silver Bluff Church and its Promoters". The Journal of Negro History 7 (2): 172–196.  
  9. ^ Haverington, Christine (July 2012). Middletown. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8.  
  10. ^ Jacobs, Claude F. (2007). "James Derham (b. 1762)". In Junius P. Rodriguez (ed.). Slavery in the United States: a social, political, and historical encyclopedia 2. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.  
  11. ^ Shattuck, Gardiner H.; David Hein (2005-08-01). "Jones, Absalom". The Episcopalians. Church Publishing, Inc. pp. 235–236.  
  12. ^ Alexander, Leslie M. "Jennings, Thomas L.". Encyclopedia of African American History. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. pp. 455–457.  
  13. ^ "Whaling Museum and Peter Foulger Museum". Museum of African American History. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  14. ^ a b Melish, Joanne P. (1998). Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and "race" in New England, 1780-1860. Cornell University Press. p. 40.  
  15. ^ Byrd, W. Michael; Clayton, Linda A. (21 August 2000). An American Health Dilemma: A Medical History of African Americans and the Problem of Race: Beginnings to 1900. Taylor & Francis. p. 305.  
  16. ^ "Long Road to Justice: The African American Experienced in the Massachusetts Courts". The Massachusetts Historical Society. 1845. Retrieved February 15, 2008. 
  17. ^ Ward, Thomas J. (2003). Black physicians in the Jim Crow South. University of Arkansas Press. p. 47.  
  18. ^ Anzovin, Steven; Podell, Janet (2001). Famous first facts about American politics. H.W. Wilson. p. 136.  
  19. ^ a b Jackson, Sandra; Johnson, Richard Greggory (2011). The black professoriat: negotiating a habitable space in the academy. Peter Lang. pp. 2–4.  
  20. ^ a b c Potter, Joan (2009). African American Firsts: Famous, Little-known, and Unsung Triumphs of Blacks in America. Kensingston Publishing Corporation. pp. 26–27.  
  21. ^ Dinitia Smith (October 28, 2006). "A Slave Story Is Rediscovered, and a Dispute Begins".  
  22. ^ Sven Birkerts (October 29, 2006). "Emancipation Days".  
  23. ^ a b Militelio, Leo (September 1963). "The First Negro Catholic Bishop". Negro Digest 12 (11). pp. 28‒35. 
  24. ^ Zack, Naomi (1995). American mixed race: the culture of microdiversity. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 66.  
  25. ^  
  26. ^ Rubio, Philip F. (2010). There's Always Work at the Post Office: African American Postal Workers and the Fight for Jobs, Justice, and Equality. Univ. of North Carolina Press. p. 20.  
  27. ^ Logan, Rayford W. (1969). Howard University: The First Hundred Years, 1867 - 1967.  
  28. ^ Jackson, Cynthia L.; Nunn, Eleanor F.. (2003). Historically Black Colleges and Universities: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 2.  
  29. ^ Smith 2002, p. 134–135.
  30. ^ Konhaus, Timothy (2006). "Delany, Martin Robison". Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass 2. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 373–375.  
  31. ^ Finkelman, Paul (2007). "Not Only the Judges' Robes Were Black: African-American Lawyers as Social Engineers". In Steve Sheppard (ed.). The History of Legal Education in the United States: commentaries and primary sources 1. Clark, N.J: The Lawbook Exchange. pp. 913–948.  
  32. ^ Sharfstein, Daniel J. (2011-02-22). "Orindatus Simon Bolivar Wall". Slate.  
  33. ^ Holland, Jesse J. (2007). Black Men Built the Capitol: Discovering African-American History In and Around Washington,. Globe Pequot. p. 149.  
  34. ^ Lynch, Matthew (31 October 2012). Before Obama: A Reappraisal of Black Reconstruction Era Politicians. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1–2.  
  35. ^ a b Stodghill, Ron (25 May 2008). "Driving Back Into History".  
  36. ^ Bartley, Abel A. (January 2003). "Bassett, Ebenezer Don Carlos". In James George Ryan and Leonard C. Schlup (eds.). Historical dictionary of the Gilded Age. M.E. Sharpe.  
  37. ^ Linda Joyce Brown (April 2006). "Coppin, Fanny Jackson". In Elizabeth Ann Beaulieu (ed.). Writing African American Women. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 220–222.  
  38. ^ Mary D. Teasley, Deloris Walker-Moses, Curators (2000). "African-American Firsts Remembered: Lest We Forget". Newark Public Library. Retrieved November 5, 2008. 
  39. ^  
  40. ^  
  41. ^ Hine, William C. "Joseph Hayne Rainey". In Walter B. Edgar (ed.). The South Carolina Encyclopedia. Columbia, SC: Institute for Southern Studies, University of South Carolina. Retrieved 2013-05-28. 
  42. ^ Harley, Sharon (1996). The timetables of African-American history: a chronology of the most important people and events in African-American history. New York: Simon & Schuster.  
  43. ^  
  44. ^  
  45. ^ Mickens, Ronald E. (2002). Edward Bouchet: The First African-American Doctorate. World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated.  
  46. ^ Flipper, Henry (1878). The Colored Cadet at West Point. U of Nebraska Press.  
  47. ^ Nicas, Jack (June 27, 2010). "Boston’s first black officer receives his long-overdue honors".  
  48. ^ Hoffbeck, Steven R. (2005). Swinging For The Fences: Black Baseball In Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 14.  
  49. ^ Darraj, Susan Muaddi (2009-01-01). Mary Eliza Mahoney. Infobase Publishing.  
  50. ^ O'Toole, James M. (2004). "Healy, Michael". In  
  51. ^ Sewell, George Alexander; Dwight, Margaret L. (20 January 2012). Mississippi Black History Makers. Univ. Press of Mississippi. pp. 16–17.  
  52. ^ Hine, Darlene Clark (2005). Black women in America 1. Oxford University Press. p. 385.  
  53. ^ Gendin, Sidney (1999). "Moses Fleetwood Walker: Jackie Robinson's accidental predecessor". In Joseph Dorinson. Jackie Robinson: Race, Sports, and the American Dream. Joram Warmund. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 22–29.  
  54. ^ a b Sluby, Patricia Carter (2004). The Inventive Spirit of African Americans: patented ingenuity. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 126.  
  55. ^ "Notes and comment". The Catholic Historical Review 4 (3): 379–388. 1919. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  56. ^ a b "A History of African Americans in the NYPD". New York City Police Museum. Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. 
  57. ^ Tardif, Elyssa (2013). Providence's Benefit Street. Arcadia Publishing. p. 70.  
  58. ^ Kinshasa, Kwando M. (2006). African American Chronology: chronologies of the American mosaic. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 71.  
  59. ^ Moore, Jacqueline M. (2003). Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, and the Struggle for Racial Uplift. The African American history series. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 50.  
  60. ^ Robert Henry Miller (1995). The Story of "Stagecoach" Mary Fields. Silver Burdett Press.  
  61. ^ Aaseng, Nathan (2003-01-01). "Taylor, Marshall Walker". African-American Athletes. Facts on File library of American history. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing. p. 218.  
  62. ^ Davis, Deborah (5 February 2013). Guest of Honor: Booker T. Washington, Theodore Roosevelt, and the White House Dinner That Shocked a Nation. Atria Books.  
  63. ^ Grasso, John (2010-11-15). "Lew, Harry Haskell "Bucky"". Historical Dictionary of Basketball. Scarecrow Press.  
  64. ^ Marlowe, Gertrude Woodruff (2003). A right worthy grand mission: Maggie Lena Walker and the quest for Black economic empowerment. Howard University Press.  
  65. ^ Conner, Floyd (31 October 2001). The Olympic's Most Wanted: The Top 10 Book of the Olympics' Gold Medal Gaffes, Improbable Triumphs, and Other Oddities. Potomac Books, Inc. p. 58.  
  66. ^ Manolis, Paul G (1981). "Raphael (Robert) Morgan, the First Black Orthodox Priest in America". Theologia Athinai 52 (3): 464–480. 
  67. ^ Smith, Charles R. (22 June 2010). Black Jack: The Ballad of Jack Johnson. Roaring Brook Press.  
  68. ^ Potter 2002, p. 345–346.
  69. ^ Susan Love Brown (2006). "Economic Life". In Paul Finkelman (ed.). Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895: from the colonial period to the age of Frederick Douglass 1. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 121–129.  
  70. ^ Jager, Steven J. "Lewis, William Henry (1868-1949)". BlackPast.org. 
  71. ^ Sawyers, June Skinner (2012). "Oscar De Priest". Chicago Portraits: New Edition. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press. pp. 90–91.  
  72. ^ Smith, Frederick D. (2009-01-01). "Pollard, Fritz". In Jessie Carney Smith, Linda T. Wynn (eds.). Freedom Facts and Firsts: 400 Years of the African American Civil Rights Experience. Visible Ink Press.  
  73. ^ Heinl, Nancy G. (May 1977). "Col. Charles Young: Pointman". The Crisis 84 (5). pp. 173‒176.  
  74. ^ Kilroy, David P. (2003-01-01). For race and country: the life and career of Colonel Charles Young. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group.  
  75. ^ Ryan Gail, "Legendary Ladies of the L.A.P.D.", Los Angeles Women Police Officers and Associates. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
  76. ^ Miller, Carroll L.; Pruitt-Logan, Anne S. (2012). Faithful to the Task at Hand: The Life of Lucy Diggs Slowe. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 2.  
  77. ^ Grant, Colin (2008). Negro with a Hat : The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey. Oxford University Press. p. 220.  
  78. ^  
  79. ^ a b Wilson, Joseph; David Addams (2006). "Football". In Paul Finkelman (ed.). Encyclopedia of African American history, 1619-1895 1. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 234–237.  
  80. ^ Lyght, Ernest S.;  
  81. ^ Uzelac, Constance Porter; Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham (2004-03-23). "Coleman, Bessie". In Henry Louis Gates (ed.). African American Lives. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 182–184.  
  82. ^ Malveaux, Julianne (1997). "Missed Opportunity: Sadie Teller Mossell Alexander and the Economics Profession". In Thomas D. Boston. A Different Vision: Africa American Economic Thought 1. Routledge Chapman & Hall. pp. 123–.  
  83. ^ "William Dehart Hubbard First Black to Win Gold in an Individual Event". Jet 90 (10). 1996-07-22. pp. 60–61.  
  84. ^ "Clifton R. Wharton Sr. Dies; Foreign Service Pioneer, 90". Jet 78 (5). 1990-05-14. p. 16.  
  85. ^  
  86. ^ Howard, Walter T. (5 April 2008). Black Communists Speak on Scottsboro: A Documentary History. Temple University Press. p. 156.  
  87. ^ Nordin, Dennis S. (1997). The New Deal's Black Congressman: A Life of Arthur Wergs Mitchell. Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press. p. 87.  
  88. ^ Baker, David. "Important Firsts: Groups and Their Leaders, and Groups and Personnel". Jazz in America. The Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz. Archived from the original on 2010-12-07. Retrieved 2013-06-06. 
  89. ^ Strunk, William Oliver;  
  90. ^ Wynn, Linda T.; Bobby L. Lovett (1995-12-15). Linda T. Wynn, Gayle Brinkley-Johnson (eds.), ed. "A Profile of African Americans in Tennessee History". Annual Local Conference on Afro-American Culture and History. Nashville, USA: Tennessee State University Library. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  91. ^  
  92. ^ a b c  
  93. ^ Carlton Jackson (1993). Hattie: The Life of Hattie McDaniel. Rowman & Littlefield.  
  94. ^  
  95. ^ Whitten, David O. (2006-01-01). "Davis, Benjamin Oliver, Sr.". In James Gilbert Ryan, Leonard C. Schlup (eds.). Historical Dictionary of The 1940s. M.E. Sharpe.  
  96. ^  
  97. ^ Williams, Janette (September 20, 2011). "Political activist Isabell Masters, whose presidential ambitions started in Pasadena, dies at 98".  
  98. ^ "Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Catalog image caption". 
  99. ^ Stillwell, Paul (2003). The Golden Thirteen: Recollections of the First Black Naval Officers. Naval Institute Press. p. 8.  
  100. ^  
  101. ^ Olsen, Kirstin (1994). Chronology of Women's History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 263.  
  102. ^ Walton, Ben L. (May 2012). Great Black War Fighters: Profiles in Service. Strategic Book Publishing. p. 13.  
  103. ^ Brown, Nikki L. M.; Stentiford, Barry M. (30 September 2008). The Jim Crow Encyclopedia: Greenwood Milestones in African American History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 693.  
  104. ^ a b Parks, Gregory; Bradley, Stefan M. (2002). Alpha Phi Alpha: A Legacy of Greatness, The Demands of Transcendence. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. p. 361.  
  105. ^ "1st African-American Published Comic - All Negro #1- (1947) Comes to Auction". Metropolis Collectibles Inc. / ComicConnect Corp.  
  106. ^ Sperb, Jason (2012). Disney's Most Notorious Film: Race, Convergence, and the Hidden Histories of Song of the South. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 96.  
  107. ^ Hardesty, Von (2008). Black Wings: Courageous Stories of African Americans in Aviation and Space History. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 130.  
  108. ^ Smith, Catherine Parsons (2008). William Grant Still. American composers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 68.  
  109. ^ Smith 2002, p. 700.
  110. ^ Richard A. Buckelew (2012-10-03). "Silas Herbert Hunt (1922–1949)".  
  111. ^ Kilpatrick, Judith (2009). "Desegregating the University of Arkansas School of Law: L. Clifford Davis and the Six Pioneers".  
  112. ^ Hill, George H. (1986). Ebony Images: Black Americans and Television. Carson, CA: Daystar Publishing Company. p. 24.  
  113. ^ AllMusic Guide "One of the first TV shows hosted by a black man". African American Registry. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
  114. ^ O'Dell, Cary (December 15, 2012). June Cleaver Was a Feminist!: Reconsidering the Female Characters of Early Television. McFarland. p. 217.  
  115. ^ Schneller, Robert John (2005). Breaking the color barrier: the U.S. Naval Academy's first black midshipmen and the struggle for racial equality. New York: New York University Press.  
  116. ^  
  117. ^ Rosenberg, Aaron (2013). 42: The Jackie Robinson Story: The Movie Novel. Scholastic Inc. p. 133.  
  118. ^ "Blayton, Jesse B., Sr. (1879-1977)".  
  119. ^ Clarage, Elizabeth C; Elizabeth A Brennan, eds. (1999). Who's who of Pulitzer Prize winners. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press. p. 522.  
  120. ^ Henry, Charles P. (1999). Ralph Bunche: Model Negro Or American Other?. NYU Press.  
  121. ^ "History of the Federal Judiciary: First African American Judges", Federal Judicial Center
  122. ^ Harris, Cecil (2007). Charging the net: a history of Blacks in tennis from Althea Gibson and Arthur Ashe to the Williams sisters. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.  
  123. ^ Cook, Joan (1979-10-11). "Edith Sampson, 1st Black Woman Elected to Bench in Illinois, Is Dead; Advised to Become Lawyer". The New York Times.  
  124. ^ "1950-51 Season Overview". NBA's Color Line is Broken. NBA.com. Retrieved March 9, 2013. 
  125. ^ Howell, Dave. "Six Who Paved the Way". NBA.com. Archived from the original on April 23, 2013. 
  126. ^ Wagner, Jeremy. "9.Firsts For African-Americans". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on April 23, 2013. 
  127. ^ McDowell, Sam (2013-03-09). "Sumner grad Harold Hunter, first African-American to sign with NBA team, dies at 86".  
  128. ^ Smith 2003, p. 676.
  129. ^ Smith, Jessie Carney (1996). Notable Black American Women II. VNR AG. p. 63.  
  130. ^  
  131. ^  
  132. ^ "Thrower was first black QB to play in NFL".  
  133. ^ Catherine Reef (ed.), ed. (2010). "Brashear, Carl Maxie". African Americans in the Military. A to Z of African Americans. New York: Facts On File. pp. 40–42.  
  134. ^ a b Otfinoski, Steven (2010). "Dandridge, Dorothy". African Americans in the Performing Arts. A to Z of African Americans (Revised ed.). New York: Facts On File. pp. 51–52.  
  135. ^ "Charles Bush, First Negro Air Force Cadet". Jet 16 (10). July 1959. p. 8.  
  136. ^ Keiler, Allan (2002). Marian Anderson: A Singer's Journey. University of Illinois Press. p. 274.  
  137. ^ "The Black Presence in American Dance: Arthur Mitchell". (Biographical capsule)  
  138. ^ Kahn, Capt. Ken, ed. (n.d.). "Seaboard World Airlines Formerly Seaboard & Western Airlines". SeaboardAirlines.org. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. On November 3rd, 1955 Seaboard & Western became the first airline in the nation to hire an African-American pilot, August Martin. 
  139. ^ "Black Airline Pilots: August Martin (1919-1968)". AvStop.com / Aviation Online. n.d. Archived from the original on November 22, 2010. Between 1946 and 1955, he flew only part time for such airlines as Buffalo Skylines, El Al Airlines and World Airways. ... In 1955, August Martin gained a foothold in the world of US aviation when he was hired by Seaboard World Airlines as the first Black captain of a US scheduled air carrier. During a thirteen-year period with Seaboard, Martin got a chance to pilot the  
  140. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (July 21, 1994). "E. Frederic Morrow, 88, Aide In Eisenhower Administration". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2014. 
  141. ^ "Charles Gittens, 1st black Secret Service agent, dies".  
  142. ^ Wilber, Del Quentin (August 10, 2011). "Charles L. Gittens, first black Secret Service agent, dies at 82".  
  143. ^ Thamel, Pete (January 1, 2006). "Grier Integrated a Game and Earned the World's Respect".  
  144. ^ Company, Johnson Publishing (2003-10-13). "First Black Tennis Champion Althea Gibson Dies in East Orange, Nj, at 76". Jet 104 (16). pp. 51–52.  
  145. ^ Freedman, Lew (2007). "Don Newcombe". African American Pioneers of Baseball: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 99–108.  
  146. ^ Goldstein, Richard (January 11, 2001). "Lowell Perry, 69, Football Star and Ford Aide". The New York Times. 
  147. ^ Heaphy, Leslie A. (1 January 2006). Black Baseball and Chicago: Essays on the Players, Teams, and Games of the Negro Leagues' Most Important City. McFarland. p. 200.  
  148. ^ Conrard, Don (November 16, 2005). "Promoting Diversity". Alaska's World.  
  149. ^ Grammy Awards official site — list of winners for Grammy Award inaugural year, presented May 4, 1959, for recordings made in 1958
  150. ^ "Person of the Year: Martin Luther King Jr.". Time. 3 January 1963. Retrieved February 17, 2008. 
  151. ^ New York City Police Museum: A History of African Americans in the NYPD
  152. ^ July 1998 reprinted at"Chess Life"Gregory Kearse, "Historic Moments: A Legacy of Excellence", . Thechessdrum.net. Retrieved April 21, 2010. 
  153. ^ Chess Quiz" Question #43""". Chess.com. Retrieved April 21, 2010. 
  154. ^ Stewart, D. R. (February 28, 2008). "AA Honors First Black Airline Pilot".  
  155. ^ Colorado Anti-Discrimination Comm'n v. Continental Air Lines, Inc., 372 U.S., 714 (Supreme Court 1963-04-22).
  156. ^ Hudson, David. "Black Cinema", GreenCine.com, n.d. WebCitation archive. Update of Hudson, "SFBFF: Experience and Empowerment", GreenCine.com, June 10, 2003. WebCitation archive. Note: Asian-American interracial marriage had previously been portrayed.
  157. ^ Duncan, Randy; Smith, Matthew J. (29 January 2013). Icons of the American Comic Book: From Captain America to Wonder Woman. ABC-CLIO. p. 83.  [Note 17]
  158. ^ "NM Frank Street, Jr.". The ChessDrum.net. Retrieved April 21, 2010. 
  159. ^ Nancy Sinatra (May 2, 2000). Movin' with Nancy (DVD Commentary Track).  
  160. ^ "A. S. McWilliams, 77, Comic Strip Cartoonist".  
  161. ^  
  162. ^ "History of the Diocese". Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  163. ^ Bell, Gregory S. (2002). "Joe Searles". In In the Black: A History of African Americans on Wall Street. John Wiley and Sons. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-471-21485-4. Retrieved January 30, 2009.
  164. ^ Bould, Mark;  
  165. ^ The earliest known humorous interracial kiss was in the story "Home Cooking" in Premier Magazine's satirical comic book Nuts #1 (March 1954), per its listing at the Grand Comics Database.
  166. ^ "Sammy's Visit". All in the Family. Season 2. Episode 34. February 12, 1972. CBS. In the comedy All in the Family, at the last moment as a picture is taken, Sammy Davis, Jr., playing himself, chides the bigoted but celebrity-fawning Archie Bunker with a humorous kiss on the cheek.
  167. ^ "A Dozen Who Made a Difference". Time. January 5, 1976. Retrieved February 14, 2008. 
  168. ^ "Robert H. Cooley III", Getting Word Project, Monticello, Cctober 1995
  169. ^ Seabaugh, Cathy (February 1994). "BLK: Focused Coverage for African-American Gays & Lesbians". Chicago Outlines.
  170. ^ Chestnut, Mark (June 1992). "BLK: Getting Glossy". Island Lifestyle.
  171. ^ Stevens, William K. (December 28, 1977). "A Detroit Black Woman's Roots Lead to a Welcome in the D.A.R.; Black Woman's Roots Lead to a Welcome in D.A.R". The New York Times. 
  172. ^ Mitchell, Gail (October 29, 2005). "From One Man's Vision To An Empire: BET". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.) 117 (44): 24.  
  173. ^ Jones, Stanley P.; Tripp, L. Octavia; Amram, Fred (1 January 1998). African-American Astronauts. Capstone. p. 13.  
  174. ^  
  175. ^ a b c Woods' mixed ancestry — ¼ Chinese, ¼ Thai, ¼ African-American, ⅛ white, and ⅛ Native American — also makes him the first Asian American to achieve this feat. He is also the first of only four golfers of primarily non-European descent to win a men's major, with the others being Vijay Singh (an Indian Fijian), Michael Campbell (a Māori from New Zealand), and Y.E. Yang (South Korean).
  176. ^ "Reason Is Navy's First Black Four-Star Admiral". U.S. Department of Defense. February 19, 1998. Archived from the original on October 27, 2006. Retrieved October 30, 2006. 
  177. ^ Historic Listing of National Park Service Officials, USDI, NPS, May 1, 1991, by Harold Danz. Updates after publication by Public Affairs.
  178. ^ Farmer, Paula (August 1999). "The First African American To Head A Fortune 500 Company, Franklin D. Raines Takes Over Fannie Mae". The Black Collegian. Retrieved November 7, 2008. 
  179. ^ "Profile of Shirley Ann Jackson, Ph.D.". Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  180. ^ Meghan Barr (May 6, 2007). "Cancer Survivor, 75, Skis to North Pole". The Seattle Times. Retrieved February 17, 2008. 
  181. ^ "Duke Ellington becomes first African American on U.S. coin". CNN.com. February 24, 2009. Retrieved April 21, 2010. 
  182. ^ "Federal BOP Website". 
  183. ^ Moore, Stephen (2012-12-21). "Tim Scott: Meet the New Senator From South Carolina". Wall Street Journal.  
  184. ^ "Cheryl Boone Isaacs elected first African-American head of Oscars". Goldderby.com. 2013-07-31. Retrieved 2013-08-02. 
  185. ^ "Jeh Johnson confirmed as secretary of homeland security". Washington Post. 
  186. ^ Lamothe, Dan (July 1, 2014). "Adm. Michelle Howard becomes first four-star woman in Navy history".  
  187. ^ "Chicago wins U.S. title in Little League World Series". 
  188. ^ Sean Gregory. "All Black Team Could Be First to Win Little League World Series".  
  189. ^ Lindsay Deutsch, USA TODAY Network (5 November 2014). "Political firsts: How history was made this midterm election". Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  190. ^ Lindsay Deutsch, USA TODAY Network (5 November 2014). "Political firsts: How history was made this midterm election". Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  191. ^ Jeremy Diamond, CNN (5 November 2014). "Among 2014 midterm winners many historic firsts - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 

Bibliography

  • Smith, Jessie Carney (2002). Black Firsts (2 ed.). Detroit: Visible Ink Press.  
  • Potter, Joan (2002). African-American Firsts: famous, little-known and unsung triumphs of Blacks in America (Rev. and expanded ed ed.). New York: Dafina Books.  

External links

  • President Obama's Speech to the NAACP on July 16, 2009 – full video by MSNBC
  • Weiner, David * "African-American Firsts In New York", The Huffington Post, August 4, 2009
  • Mance, Ajuan "Timeline: Black Firsts in Higher Education", Blackoncampus.com, November 5, 2009
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.