World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

List of Negro league baseball teams

Article Id: WHEBN0002068229
Reproduction Date:

Title: List of Negro league baseball teams  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Negro league baseball, Philadelphia Tigers, Cleveland Tate Stars, Cleveland Red Sox, Cleveland Elites
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

List of Negro league baseball teams

This list of Negro league baseball teams is based in part on the list maintained by the Negro Leagues Baseball Museum of Kansas City, Missouri, in using the term "Negro leagues" for varying levels of black baseball during racial segregation in the United States. Many of these teams reorganized or relocated which necessitated changing of names and frequently its players, staff and owner.

Teams in bold are considered to have been of major league caliber for at least one season of their existence. Other teams were either a semi-pro, barnstorming or traveling team; a minor league team; or a team that existed after the integration of Major League Baseball (1946) when the talent level declined dramatically.

Alabama

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Birmingham Black Barons 1920 1961 NSL (1920–23, 26, 31–36)
NNL1 (1924–25, 27–30)
NAL (1937–38, 40–61)
  • NSL was a minor league every season except 1932
  • Did not field a team for 1939
[1]
Birmingham Giants 1907 1909 Independent (1907–09) [2]
Mobile Black Bears [3]
Mobile Tigers
Montgomery Grey Sox (I) 1920 1921 NSL (1920)
Independent (1921)
[4]
Montgomery Grey Sox (II) 1931 1932 Independent (1931)
NSL (1932)
[5]

Arkansas

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Little Rock Black Travelers [3]

California

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Los Angeles White Sox 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [6]
Oakland Larks 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [7]
San Diego Tigers 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [8]
San Francisco Sea Lions 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [9]

Colorado

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Denver White Elephants

Delaware

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Wilmington Potomacs
(See Washington Potomacs)
1925 1925 ECL (1925)
  • Disbanded mid-season 1925
[3]

District of Columbia

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Washington Black Senators 1938 1938 ECL (1938)
  • Disbanded in August before season ended
[3]
Washington Elite Giants
(See Baltimore Elite Giants)
1936 1937 NNL2 (1936–37) [10]
Washington Pilots 1932 1932 EWL (1932) [3]
Washington Potomacs club
  • Washington Potomacs (1923–24)
  • Wilmington Potomacs (1925)
1923 1925 Independent (1923)
ECL (1924–25)
[3]
Washington Homestead Grays
(See Homestead Grays)
1939 c. 1950s NNL2 (1939–48)
Independent (1949–c. 50s)
  • Split home games in Pittsburgh
  • Alternately known as Washington Grays later
  • Sparingly used Pittsburgh as home field after c. 1948
[11]

Florida

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Jacksonville Red Caps club
  • Jacksonville Red Caps (1938)
  • Cleveland Bears (1939–40)
  • Jacksonville Red Caps (1941–42)
1938 1942 NAL (1938–42)
  • Disbanded midway through 1942 season
[12]
Ethiopian Clowns
(See Indianapolis Clowns)
c. 1930s 1942 Independent (c. 1930s–42)
  • Based in Miami
  • Also known as Miami Giants c. 1930s

Georgia

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Atlanta Black Crackers (I) club
  • Atlanta Black Crackers (I) (1919–38)
  • Indianapolis ABCs (IV) (1939)
1919 1939 Independent (1919)
NSL (1920–37)
NAL (1938–39)
  • NSL was a minor league every season except 1932
  • Disestablished May 1939
[13][14]
Atlanta Black Crackers (II) 1940 1948 NSL (1940)
Independent (1941–48)
[13]

Illinois

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Chicago American Giants 1910 1952 Independent (1910–19)
NNL1 (1920–31)
NSL (1932)
NNL2 (1933–35)
Independent (1936)
NAL (1937–52)
  • Formed via 1909 split of Leland Giants
(See Leland Giants entry)
  • Known as Leland Giants (II) 1910
  • Also known as Cole’s American Giants 1932–35
  • Moved majority of home games temporarily to Indianapolis 1933
[15]
Chicago Brown Bombers 1945 1945 USBL (1945) [16]
Chicago Columbia Giants 1899 1900 Independent (1899–1900)
  • Merged with Chicago Unions to become Chicago Union Giants 1901
  • (See Leland Giants entry)
[17]
Chicago Giants 1910 1921 Independent (1910–19)
NNL1 (1920–21)
  • Formed via 1909 split of Leland Giants
(See Leland Giants entry)
[18]
Chicago Unions 1887 1900 Independent (1887–1900)
  • Merged with Chicago Columbia Giants to become Chicago Union Giants 1901
  • (See Leland Giants entry)
[19]
Leland Giants 1901 1909 Independent (1901–09)
  • Formed via 1901 merger of:
Chicago Unions (1887–1900)
Chicago Columbia Giants (1899–1900)
  • Known as Chicago Union Giants 1901–04
  • Split after 1909 to form:
Chicago Giants
(See Chicago Giants entry)
Leland Giants (II)
(See Chicago American Giants entry)
[20][21]

Indiana

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Cole’s American Giants
(See Chicago American Giants)
1933 1933 NNL2 (1933)
  • Played majority of home games temporarily in Indianapolis 1933
[15]
Indianapolis ABCs (I) c. 1913 1926 Independent (1913–19)
NNL1 (1920–26)
[14]
Indianapolis ABCs (II) club
  • Indianapolis ABCs (II) (1931–33)
  • Detroit Stars (II) (1933)
1931 1933 NNL1 (1931)
NSL (1932)
NNL2 (1933)
  • Relocated to Detroit shortly after opening day 1933
[14][22]
Indianapolis ABCs (III)
(See St. Louis Stars (III))
1938 1938 NAL (1938) [14][23]
Indianapolis ABCs (IV)
(See Atlanta Black Crackers (I))
1939 1939 NAL (1939)
  • Disestablished May 1939
[14]
Indianapolis Clowns club
  • Miami Giants (c. 1930s)
  • Ethiopian Clowns (c. 1930s–42)
  • Cincinnati Clowns (1943)
  • Indianapolis–Cincinnati Clowns (1944)
  • Cincinnati Clowns (1945)
  • Indianapolis Clowns (1946–62)
c. 1930s 1962 Independent (c. 1930s–42)
NAL (1943–55)
Independent (1956–62)
Indianapolis Athletics 1937 1937 NAL (1937) [3]
Indianapolis Crawfords
(See Pittsburgh Crawfords)
1940 1940 NAL (1940)
  • Folded after 1940 season
[24]

Kansas

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Kansas City Giants 1909 1911 Independent (1909–11) [25]

Kentucky

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Louisville Black Caps club
  • Louisville Black Caps (Apr–Aug)
  • Columbus Turfs (Aug–Sept)
1932 1932 NSL (1932)
  • Relocated to Columbus in August then folded at end of season
[3]
Louisville Black Colonels [3]
Louisville Buckeyes
(See Cleveland Buckeyes)
1949 1949 NAL (1949) [26]
Louisville Fall City 1887 1887 NCBBL (1887) [27]
Louisville White Sox 1931 1931 NNL1 (1931) [3]
Zulu Cannibal Giants 1934 1937 Independent (1934–37)
  • Based in Louisville
[19]

Louisiana

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Monroe Monarchs
New Orleans Black Eagles
New Orleans Crescent Stars
New Orleans Pelicans
Detroit–New Orleans Stars
(See Detroit Stars (IV))
1960 1961 NAL (1960–61)
  • Folded after 1961 season
New Orleans–St. Louis Stars
(See St. Louis Stars (III))
1939 1941 NAL (1939–41)
  • Known as St. Louis Stars (III) 1939
  • Played home games in New Orleans and St. Louis 1939–41
[23]
Shreveport Acme Giants

Maryland

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Baltimore Black Sox (I) 1916 1933 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–31)
EWL (1932)
NNL2 (1933)
[28]
Baltimore Black Sox (II) 1934 1934 NNL2 (1934)
  • Only played second half of season then folded
[28]
Baltimore Elite Giants club
  • Nashville Standard Giants (1919–20)
  • Nashville Elite Giants (1921–30)
  • Cleveland Cubs (1931)
  • Nashville Elite Giants (1932–34)
  • Columbus Elite Giants (1935)
  • Washington Elite Giants (1936–37)
  • Baltimore Elite Giants (1938–51)
1919 1951 Independent (1919–29)
NNL1 (1930–31)
NSL (1932)
NNL2 (1933–48)
NAL (1949–51)
  • Dissolved around 1951
[10]
Baltimore Lord Baltimores 1887 1887 NCBBL (1887) [29]

Massachusetts

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Boston Resolutes 1887 1887 NCBBL (1887) [30]
Boston Royal Giants IL (1906)
  • Based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1906
  • Known as Quaker Giants 1906
[31]
Boston Blues 1946 1946 USBL (1946) [32]

Michigan

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Detroit Stars (I) 1919 1931 Independent (1919)
NNL1 (1920–31)
[22]
Detroit Stars (II)
(See Indianapolis ABCs (II))
1933 1933 NNL2 (1933)
  • Relocated from Indianapolis shortly after opening day 1933
[14][22]
Detroit Stars (III) 1937 1937 NAL (1937) [22]
Detroit Stars (IV) club
  • Detroit Stars (IV) (1954–57)
  • Detroit Clowns (1958)
  • Detroit Stars (IV) (1959)
  • Detroit–New Orleans Stars (1960–61)
1954 1961 NAL (1954–61)
Detroit Wolves 1932 1932 EWL (1932)
  • Only season in existence
[33]
Page Fence Giants 1895 1898 Independent (1895–98)
  • Based in Adrian, Michigan
[34]

Minnesota

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
St. Paul Colored Gophers 1907 1911 Independent (1907–11)
  • Played as the Twin City Gophers 1911
[35]
Twin City Colored Giants

Missouri

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Kansas City Monarchs 1920 1965 NNL1 (1920–31)
Independent (1932–36)
NAL (1937–61)
Independent (1962–65)
  • Later based in Grand Rapids, MI 1956–65
[36]
St. Louis Stars (I) 1906 1931 Independent (1906–19)
NNL1 (1920–31)
  • Known as St. Louis Giants 1906–21
[23]
St. Louis Stars (II) 1937 1937 NAL (1937)
  • Only season in existence
[23]
St. Louis Stars (III) club
  • Indianapolis ABCs (III) (1938)
  • St. Louis Stars (III) (1939)
  • New Orleans–St. Louis Stars (1940–41)
  • Harrisburg–St. Louis Stars (1943)
1938 1943 NAL (1938–41)
NNL2 (1943)
  • Played home games in New Orleans and St. Louis 1939–41
  • Did not field a team for 1942; team merged with New York Black Yankees of NNL
  • Played all home games in Harrisburg; none in St. Louis 1943
[14][23]

New Jersey

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Bacharach Giants (I) 1916 1929 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
Cuban Giants 1885 c. 1915 Independent (1885–1906)
NA (1907–09)
Independent (1910–c. 15)
  • Based in Trenton
  • Part of team split after 1896 to form Cuban X-Giants
  • After split, known as Genuine Cuban Giants or Original Cuban Giants
[37]
Cuban X-Giants 1897 1907 Independent (1897–1905)
IL (1906)
NA (1907)
  • Formed via 1896 split of Cuban Giants
  • Based in Trenton
[38]
Jersey City Colored Athletics
Newark Browns 1932 1932 EWL (1932) [39]
Newark Dodgers 1933 1935 Independent (1933)
NNL2 (1934–35)
  • Merged with Brooklyn Eagles to become Newark Eagles 1936
  • (See Newark Eagles entry)
[40]
Newark Eagles club
  • Newark Eagles (1936–48)
  • Houston Eagles (1949–50)
1936 1950 NNL2 (1936–48)
NAL (1949–50)
  • Formed via 1936 merger of:
Newark Dodgers (1933–35)
Brooklyn Eagles (1935)
[40]
Newark Stars 1926 1926 ECL (1926) [41]

New York

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Brooklyn Eagles 1935 1935 NNL2 (1935)
  • Merged with Newark Dodgers to become Newark Eagles 1936
  • (See Newark Eagles entry)
[40]
Brooklyn Royal Giants 1905 1942 Independent (1905–06)
NA (1907–09)
Independent (1910–22)
ECL (1923–27)
Independent (1928–42)
  • Deteriorated to minor league status by the 1930s
[42]
Harlem Stars
Lincoln Giants 1911 1930 Independent (1911–22)
ECL (1923–26)
Independent (1927)
ECL (1928)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930)
  • Based in New York City
[43]
Lincoln Stars 1914 1917 Independent (1914–17)
  • Based in New York City
[44]
New York Black Yankees 1931 1959 Independent (1931–35)
NNL2 (1936–48)
Independent (1949–59)
  • Known as Harlem Black Bombers 1931
[45]
New York Cubans 1935 1950 NNL2 (1935–36)
NNL2 (1939–48)
NAL (1949–50)
  • Did not field a team 1937–38
[46]

Ohio

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Akron Black Tyrites 1933 1933 NNL2 (1933)
  • Merged/replaced the Columbus Blue Birds mid-season 1933
  • Folded/replaced by the Cleveland Giants for last month of 1933
[47]
Dayton Marcos c. 1910s c. 1930s Independent (c. 1910s–19)
NNL1 (1920)
Independent (1921–25)
NNL1 (1926)
Independent (1927–c. 30s)
[48]
Toledo Crawfords
(See Pittsburgh Crawfords)
1939 1939 NAL (1939) [24]
Toledo Rays
Toledo Tigers 1923 1923 NNL1 (1923)
  • Folded mid-season 1923
[49]

Cincinnati

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Cincinnati Browns 1887 1887 NCBBL (1887)
  • Played no league games due to NCBBL folding
  • Played independent of a league briefly, then folded
Cincinnati Buckeyes
(See Cleveland Buckeyes)
1942 1942 NAL (1942) [26]
Cincinnati Clowns
(See Indianapolis Clowns)
1943 1945 NAL (1943–45)
  • Played home games in Indianapolis and Cincinnati 1944–45
  • Also known as Indianapolis–Cincinnati Clowns 1944–45
Cincinnati Cuban Stars
(See Cuban Stars (West))
1921 1921 NNL1 (1921)
Cincinnati Tigers 1934 1937 Independent (1934–36)
NAL (1937)
[50]

Cleveland

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Cleveland Bears
(See Jacksonville Red Caps)
1939 1940 NAL (1939–40) [12]
Cleveland Browns 1924 1924 NNL1 (1924) [51]
Cleveland Buckeyes club
  • Cincinnati-Cleveland Buckeyes (1942)
  • Cleveland Buckeyes (1943–48)
  • Louisville Buckeyes (1949)
  • Cleveland Buckeyes (1950)
1942 1950 NAL (1942–50)
  • Half of 1942 home schedule in Cincinnati, half in Cleveland
  • Disbanded mid-season 1950
[26]

[52]

Cleveland Cubs
(See Baltimore Elite Giants)
1931 1931 NNL1 (1931) [10]
Cleveland Elites (1926)
Cleveland Hornets (1927)
Cleveland Tigers (1928)
1926 1928 NNL1 (1926–28)
  • Teams are considered separate but closely linked
[53]
[54]
[55]
Cleveland Giants 1933 1933 NNL2 (1933)
  • Formed from remnants of the Akron Black Tyrites for end of 1933
[56]
Cleveland Red Sox 1934 1934 NNL2 (1934)
  • Only season in existence
[57]
Cleveland Stars 1932 1932 EWL (1932)
  • Folded mid-season 1932
[58]
Cleveland Tate Stars 1922 1923 NNL1 (1922-1923)
  • Played as NNL team in 1922, played as associate team in 1923
[59]

[60]

Columbus

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Columbus Blue Birds 1933 1933 NNL2 (1933)
  • Dissolved/merged with Akron Black Tyrites mid-season 1933
[61]
Columbus Buckeyes 1921 1921 NNL1 (1921)
  • Only season in existence
[62]
Columbus Elite Giants
(See Baltimore Elite Giants)
1935 1935 NNL2 (1935) [10]
Columbus Turfs
(See Louisville Black Caps)
1932 1932 NSL (1932)
  • Relocated from Louisville in August then folded at end of season
[3]

Oregon

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Portland Rosebuds 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [63]

Pennsylvania

Harrisburg

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Harrisburg Giants 1922 1927 Independent (1922–23)
ECL (1924–27)
[64]
Harrisburg Monrovians
Harrisburg–St. Louis Stars
(See St. Louis Stars (III))
1943 1943 NNL2 (1943)
  • Played all home games in Harrisburg; none in St. Louis
  • Disbanded mid-season 1943
[23]

Philadelphia

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Bacharach Giants (II) 1931 1942 Independent (1931–33)
NNL2 (1934)
Independent (1935–42)
Hilldale Club 1916 1932 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–31)
EWL (1932)
  • Also known as Hilldale Daisies, Darby Daisies
  • Based near Philadelphia
[65]
Philadelphia Pythians 1867 1887 Independent (1867–86)
NCBBL (1887)
[66]
Philadelphia Giants 1902 1916 Independent (1902–05)
IL (1906)
NA (1907–09)
Independent (1910–16)
[67][68]
Philadelphia Stars 1933 1952 Independent (1933)
NNL2 (1934–48)
NAL (1949–52)
[69]
Philadelphia Tigers 1928 1928 ECL (1928) [70]

Pittsburgh

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Homestead Grays club
  • Homestead Grays (c. 1912–38)
  • Washington Homestead Grays (1939–c. 50s)
  • Washington Grays (1939–c. 50s)
c. 1912 c. 1950s Independent (c. 1912–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–31)
EWL (1932)
Independent (1933–34)
NNL2 (1935–48)
Independent (1949–c. 50s)
  • Based near Pittsburgh
  • Started to split home games with Washington, D.C. 1939
  • Sparingly used Pittsburgh as home field after c. 1948
[11]
Pittsburgh Crawfords club
  • Pittsburgh Crawfords (1931–38)
  • Toledo Crawfords (1939)
  • Indianapolis Crawfords (1940)
1931 1940 Independent (1931–32)
NNL2 (1933–38)
NAL (1939–40)
[24]
Pittsburgh Keystones (I) 1887 1887 NCBBL (1887) [71]
Pittsburgh Keystones (II) 1921 1922 NNL1 (1921–22) [72]

Tennessee

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Chattanooga Black Lookouts 1920 1927 NSL (1920, 1926–27)
  • Folded after 1920 season; re-established 1926
  • Minor league farm team for Homestead Grays 1926–27
[73]
Chattanooga Choo-Choos 1940 1946 NSL (1940–46)
Memphis Red Sox 1923 1962 Independent (1923)
NNL1 (1924–25, 27–30)
NSL (1926, 31–36)
NAL (1937–62)
[74]
Nashville Elite Giants
(See Baltimore Elite Giants)
1919 1934 Independent (1919–29)
NNL1 (1930)
NSL (1932)
NNL2 (1933–34)
  • Known as Nashville Standard Giants 1919–20
  • Relocated as Cleveland Cubs 1931 then returned to Nashville
[10]

Texas

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Austin Black Senators
Houston Eagles
(See Newark Eagles)
1949 1950 NAL (1949–50)
  • Folded after 1950 season
[40][75]
San Antonio Black Bronchos 1908 1909 Independent (1908–09) [76]
San Antonio Black Indians

Washington

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Seattle Steelheads 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [77]

Wisconsin

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Milwaukee Bears 1923 1923 NNL1 (1923)
  • Only year in existence
[78]

Traveling teams

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
All Cubans 1899 1905 Independent
  • Precursor of Cuban Stars (West)
All Nations 1912 1925 Independent
  • Based out of Kansas City MO and Des Moines IA
Chappie Johnson's Stars
Colored House of David
Cuban Stars (East) club
  • New York Cuban Stars (1916–19)
  • Havana Cuban Stars (1920)
  • Cuban Stars (East) (1921–c. 34)
1916 c. 1934 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–c. 34)
  • Played road games primarily in the New York and northeast region of the US
Cuban Stars (West) club
  • Cuban Stars of Havana (1906–19)
  • Cincinnati Cuban Stars (1920–21)
  • Cuban Stars (West) (1922–32)
1906 1932 IL (1906)
NA (1907–09)
Independent (1910–19)
NNL1 (1920–30)
Independent (1931)
EWL (1932)
  • Played road games for its first five years primarily in the eastern states near New York City and Philadelphia
  • By 1916 the team was competing primarily in the northern midwestern states
  • Based in Cincinnati 1920–21 and then returned to playing only road games
Ethiopian Clowns
(See Indianapolis Clowns)
c. 1930s 1942 Independent (c. 1930s–42)
  • Generally based out of Miami
Mineola Black Spiders c. 1932 c. 1937 Independent
  • Generally based out of northern Iowa
New York Gorhams 1886 1892 Independent (1886)
NCBBL (1887)
Independent (1888–92)
  • Generally based out of various East coast cites from New Jersey to Connecticut
[79]
Tennessee Rats c. 1911 c. 1926 Independent
  • Generally not consider a Negro league team
  • Based out of Holden MO

References

  1. ^ "Birmingham Black Barons". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  2. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Birmingham Giants". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Negro league teams". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  4. ^ "Montgomery Grey Sox". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  5. ^ "Montgomery, Alabama Negro League City Encyclopedia". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  6. ^ "1946 Los Angeles White Sox". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  7. ^ "1946 Oakland Larks". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  8. ^ "1946 San Diego Tigers". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  9. ^ "1946 San Francisco Sea Lions". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  10. ^ a b c d e "Baltimore Elite Giants". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  11. ^ a b "Homestead Grays". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  12. ^ a b "Jacksonville Red Caps". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  13. ^ a b "Atlanta Black Crackers". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "Indianapolis ABCs". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 
  15. ^ a b "Chicago American Giants". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-26. 
  16. ^ "1945 Chicago Brown Bombers". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  17. ^ "Chicago Columbia Giants". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  18. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Chicago Giants". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-02-26. 
  19. ^ a b "The Negro League Teams". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 
  20. ^ "Chicago Union Giants". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  21. ^ "Leland Giants". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  22. ^ a b c d "Detroit Stars". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f "St. Louis Stars". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  24. ^ a b c "Pittsburgh Crawfords". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 
  25. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Kansas City Giants". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  26. ^ a b c "Cleveland Buckeyes". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  27. ^ "1887 Louisville Falls City". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 
  28. ^ a b "Baltimore Black Sox". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  29. ^ "1887 Baltimore Lord Baltimores". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 
  30. ^ "1887 Boston Resolutes". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 
  31. ^ "1906 Quaker Giants". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-10. 
  32. ^ "1946 Boston Blues". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  33. ^ "Detroit Wolves". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-28. 
  34. ^ "Page Fence Giants". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  35. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Twin City Gophers". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  36. ^ "Kansas City Monarchs". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  37. ^ "Cuban Giants". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  38. ^ "Cuban X-Giants". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  39. ^ "1932 Newark Browns". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-19. 
  40. ^ a b c d "Newark Eagles". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  41. ^ "1926 Newark Stars". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-19. 
  42. ^ "Brooklyn Royal Giants". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  43. ^ "New York Lincoln Giants". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  44. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "New York Lincoln Stars". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  45. ^ "New York Black Yankees". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  46. ^ "New York Cubans". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  47. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Akron Grays". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-20. 
  48. ^ "Dayton Marcos". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-28. 
  49. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Toledo Tigers". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
  50. ^ "Cincinnati Tigers". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-28. 
  51. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Cleveland Browns". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
  52. ^ "1942 Cincinnati/Cleveland Buckeyes". Baseball.Reference.com. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  53. ^ "1926 Cleveland Elites". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  54. ^ "1927 Cleveland Hornets". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  55. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Cleveland Tigers". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  56. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Cleveland Giants". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-20. 
  57. ^ "1934 Cleveland Red Sox". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  58. ^ "1932 Cleveland Stars". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  59. ^ "1922 Cleveland Tate Stars". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  60. ^ "1923 Cleveland Tate Stars". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  61. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Columbus Blue Birds". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-20. 
  62. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Columbus Buckeyes". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-20. 
  63. ^ "1946 Portland Rosebuds". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  64. ^ "Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Negro League City Encyclopedia". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  65. ^ "Hilldale Daisies". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  66. ^ "1887 Philadelphia Pythians". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 
  67. ^ "Philadelphia Giants". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  68. ^ "1906 Philadelphia Giants". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-10. 
  69. ^ "Philadelphia Stars". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  70. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Philadelphia Tigers". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
  71. ^ "1887 Pittsburgh Keystones". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 
  72. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Pittsburgh Keystones". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
  73. ^ "Chattanooga Black Lookouts". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-28. 
  74. ^ "Memphis Red Sox". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  75. ^ "Houston, Texas Negro League City Encyclopedia". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  76. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "San Antonio Black Bronchos". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 
  77. ^ "Seattle Steelheads". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-28. 
  78. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Milwaukee Bears". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  79. ^ "1887 New York Gorhams". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.