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List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945)

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List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945)

Humboldt University, founded in Berlin in 1810, was a much emulated model of a modern university in the 19th century (photochrom from 1900).[1]

The list of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945) contains all universities which existed in Europe between the French Revolution and the end of World War II. Universities are regarded as comprising all institutions of higher education recognized as universities by the public or ecclesiastical authorities in charge and authorized to confer academic degrees in more than one faculty.[2] Temporary foundations are also included.

At the outset of the 19th century, European universities had been severely affected by the Napoleonic Wars, their number falling in the brief span of time between 1789 and 1815 by sixty to 83.[3] By 1840 their number recovered to 98 universities with approximately 80,000 students and 5,000 professors.[3] Notwithstanding the trend towards specialized institutions of higher learning – in France, for instance, the universities had been suppressed and replaced by Grandes écoles –, the size of the student and professor bodies multiplied over the next hundred years, attaining a size of 600,000 and 32,000 members respectively at around two hundred universities.[3] In total, the period saw about 220 universities in existence that are listed below.[2][A 1]


The list is sorted by the date of recognition. At places where more than one university was established, the name of the institution is given in brackets.

12th century

Recognized University Modern country
end 12th c.[2] Bologna Italy

13th century

Recognized University Modern country
beginning 13th c.[2] Paris France
beginning 12th c.[2] Oxford England
beginning 13th c.[2] Montpellier France
1209–25[2] Cambridge England
1218/19[2] Salamanca Spain
1222[2] Padua Italy
1224[2] Naples Italy
1233[2] Toulouse France
c.1235[2] Orléans France
1246[2] Siena Italy
end 13th c.[2] Valladolid Spain
1290[2] Lisbon Portugal
1297 Lleida Spain

14th century

Recognized University Modern country
1303[2] Rome (Sapienza) Italy
1308[2] Coimbra Portugal
1336 Camerino Italy
1308[2] Perugia Italy
1339[2] Grenoble France
1343[2] Pisa Italy
1348[2] Prague Czech Republic
1349[2] Florence Italy
1354[2] Huesca (Spanish) Spain
1361[2] Pavia Italy
1364/1400[2] Cracow Poland
1365[2] Vienna Austria
1379[2] Erfurt Germany
1385[2] Heidelberg Germany
1388[2] Cologne Germany
1391[2] Ferrara Italy
1395[2] Budapest Hungary

15th century

Recognized University Modern country
1402[2] Würzburg Germany
1404[2] Turin Italy
1409[2] Aix-en-Provence (French) France
1409[2] Leipzig Germany
1411[2] St Andrews Scotland
1414[2] Parma Italy
1419[2] Rostock Germany
1425[2] Leuven Belgium
1431[2] Poitiers France
1432[2] Caen France
1441[2] Bordeaux France
1444[2] Catania Italy
1450[2] Barcelona Spain
1451[2] Glasgow Scotland
1456[2] Greifswald Germany
1457[2] Freiburg Germany
1459[2] Basel Switzerland
1465[2] Pressburg Slovakia
1471[2] Genoa Italy
1474[2] Zaragoza Spain
1475[2] Copenhagen Denmark
1476[2] Tübingen Germany
1477[2] Uppsala Sweden
1489[2] Sigüenza Spain
1495[2] Aberdeen Scotland
1499[2] Alcalá de Henares Spain
1500[2] Valencia Spain

16th century

Recognized University Modern country
1502[2] Wittenberg Germany
1505[2] Seville Spain
1521[2] Toledo (Spanish) Spain
1526[2] Santiago de Compostela Spain
1527[2] Marburg Germany
1531[2] Granada Spain
1540[2] Macerata Italy
1540[2] Oñate (Spanish) Spain
1544[2] Königsberg Russia
1548[2] Messina Italy
1548[2] Osuna Spain
1552[2] Orihuela (Spanish) Spain
1555[2] Burgo de Osma (Santa Catalina) Spain
1556[2] Rome (Gregoriana) Italy
1556[2] Milan Italy
1558[2] Jena Germany
1559[2] Douai France
1559 Évora Portugal
1570[2] Olomouc Czech Republic
1574[2] Oviedo Spain
1575[2] Leiden Netherlands
1576[2] Ostroh Ukraine
1578[2] Palermo Italy
1578[2] Vilnius Lithuania
1582/83[2] Edinburgh Scotland
1585[2] Fermo Italy
1585[2] Franeker Netherlands
1585/86[2] Graz Austria
1587[2] El Escorial Spain
1592[2] Dublin (Trinity College) Ireland
1592 Valletta Malta

17th century

Recognized University Modern country
1606[2] Cagliari Italy
1607[2] Gießen Germany
1612[2] Groningen Netherlands
1614/16[2] Paderborn (German) Germany
1615[4] Kyiv-Mohyla Academy Ukraine
1617[2] Sassari Italy
1619[2] Salzburg Austria
1621[2] Strassburg France
1629[2] Münster Germany
1632[2] Tartu (Dorpat) Estonia
1636[2] Utrecht Netherlands
1640[2] Helsinki Finland
1665[2] Kiel Germany
1661[2] Lemberg Ukraine
1668[2] Innsbruck Austria
1668[2] Lund Sweden
1669[2] Zagreb Croatia
1671[2] Urbino Italy
1691[2] Besançon France
1693[2] Halle Germany

18th century

Recognized University Modern country
1702[2] Breslau Poland
1722[2] Dijon France
1724[2] Saint Petersburg (State University) Russia
1727[2] Camerino Italy
1737[2] Göttingen Germany
1743[2] Erlangen Germany
1755[2] Moscow (State University) Russia
1768[2] Nancy France
1772/73[2] Modena Italy

19th century

Recognized University Modern country
1803[2] Rennes France
1804[2] Kazan Russia
1804[2] Kharkiv Ukraine
1805[2] Clermont-Ferrand France
1808[2] Lyon France
1808[5] Belgrade Serbia
1808[2] Rouen France
1810[2] Berlin Germany
1810[2] Laibach Slovenia
1811[2] Christiania Norway
1816[2] Warsaw (University of) Poland
1816[2] Liège Belgium
1816/17[2] Ghent Belgium
1817[2] Lille France
1818[2] Bonn Germany
1822 Lampeter Wales
1823[2] Corfu Greece
1826[2] Munich Germany
1830 Moscow (Technical University) Russia
1832[2] Durham England
1833[2] Zurich Switzerland
1834[2] Bern Switzerland
1834[2] Bruxelles Belgium
1834[2] Kyiv Ukraine
1836[2] London England
1836[2] Madrid Spain
1836[2] Athens Greece
1837[2] Athens Greece
1845[2] Belfast Northern Ireland
1845[2] Cork Ireland
1845[2] Galway Ireland
1851[2] Manchester England
1854[2] Dublin (Catholic University) Ireland
1855[2] ETH Zurich Switzerland
1860 Iași Romania
1864[2] Bucharest Romania
1864[2] Odessa Ukraine
1869[2] Zagreb Croatia
1872[2] Geneva Switzerland
1872[2] Aberystwyth Wales
1872[2] Kolozsvár Romania
1875[2] Czernowitz Ukraine
1875[2] Angers France
1875[2] Lille (Catholic University) France
1875[2] Lyon France
1875[2] Paris France
1877[2] Toulouse France
1877[2] Amsterdam (University of) Netherlands
1877[2] Stockholm Sweden
1880[2] Amsterdam (Free University) Netherlands
1881[2] Nottingham England
1881[6] Dundee Scotland
1883[2] Liverpool England
1883[2] Cardiff Wales
1884[2] Bangor Wales
1886[7] Deusto Spain
1888[2] Sofia Bulgaria
1889[2] Fribourg Switzerland
1890[2] Lausanne Switzerland
1900[2] Birmingham England

20th century

Recognized University Modern country
1904[2] Leeds England
1904[2] Comillas Spain
1905[2] Sheffield England
1905[2] Belgrade Serbia
1908[2] Rome (Angelicum) Italy
1909[2] Bristol England
1909[2] Neuchâtel Switzerland
1909[2] Saratov Russia
1911[2] Reykjavík Iceland
1911[2] Porto Portugal
1912[2] Debrecen Hungary
1913[8] Mogilev (Mogilev State A. Kuleshov University) Belarus
1914[2] Frankfurt Germany
1915[2] Murcia Spain
1915[2] Rostov-on-Don Russia
1916[9] Nizhny Novgorod Russia
1917[2] Turku (Åbo Akademi) Finland
1917[2] Perm Russia
1918[2] Tbilisi Georgia
1918[2] Dnipropetrovsk Ukraine
1918[2] Smolensk Russia
1918[2] Petrograd (Communist University) Russia
1918[2] Moscow (State Pedagogical University) Russia
1918[2] Voronezh Russia
1919[2] Warsaw (Free Polish University) Poland
1919[2] Brno Czech Republic
1919[2] Hamburg Germany
1919 Ljubljana Slovenia
1919[2] Poznań Poland
1919[2] Riga Latvia
1919[2] Moscow (Sverdlov University) Russia
1919 Cluj-Napoca Romania
1920[2] Lublin Poland
1920[2] Turku (University of) Finland
1920[2] Milan (Sacro Cuore) Italy
1920[2] Samara Russia
1920[2] Swansea Wales
1920[2] Yekaterinburg Russia
1920[2] Erewan Armenia
1920 Timișoara Romania
1921[2] Minsk Belarus
1921[2] Moscow (KUNMZ) Russia
1921[2] Moscow (KUTV) Russia
1921[2] Pécs Hungary
1921[2] Szeged Hungary
1922[2] Kaunas Lithuania
1923[2] Nijmegen Netherlands
1923[2] Bari Italy
1923[2] Tbilisi Georgia
1924[2] Milan (University of) Italy
1924[2] Trieste Italy
1925[2] Thessaloniki Greece
1926[2] Reading England
1930[2] Lisbon (Technical University) Portugal
1934[2] Aarhus Denmark
1940[2] Salamanca (Pontifical University) Spain
1940 Chișinău Moldova


  1. ^ This number also includes Russian universities in the Asian part of the country which are not included in this list.


  1. ^ Rüegg 2004, pp. 4–6
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl Rüegg 2004, pp. 673–691
  3. ^ a b c Rüegg 2004, p. 3
  4. ^ See History of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.
  5. ^ "History of the University of Belgrade". University of Belgrade. Retrieved 2010-05-11. 
  6. ^ "About: Facts and figures".  
  7. ^ [1] University of Deusto website: History and Mission (retrieved 9 Sept 2012)
  8. ^ Гісторыя Магілёўскага дзяржаўнага універсітэта (1913—1940 гг.): дакументы і матэрыялы / аўт.-склад.: А. Р. Агееў, К. М. Бандарэнка, В. П. Клімковіч; пад агульн. рэд. К. М. Бандарэнкі. — Магілёў: МДУ імя А. А. Куляшова, 2008. — 216 с.
  9. ^ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Central Archives, fund 377.


  • Rüegg, Walter: "Themes", in: Rüegg, Walter (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. III: Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945), Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-36107-1, pp. 3–31
  • Rüegg, Walter: "European Universities and Similar Institutions in Existence between 1812 and the End of 1944: A Chronological List: Universities", in: Rüegg, Walter (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. III: Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945), Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-36107-1, pp. 673–691

Further reading

See also

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