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List of royal consorts of Canada

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List of royal consorts of Canada

The line of monarchs who reigned over territories that would become Canadian or over Canada itself begins approximately at the turn of the 16th century.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] The date of the first establishment a monarchical form of government in parts of the territory which now forms Canada varies: some sources give the year as 1497, when King Henry VII claimed parts of Newfoundland,[11][12] while others put it at 1534, when New France was founded in the name of King Francis I.[13][14] Monarchical governance thenceforth evolved under a continuous succession of French and British sovereigns, and eventually the legally distinct Canadian monarchy.[4][5][11][14][15][16][17] Since John Cabot first lay claim to Canada in the name of Henry VII,[18] there have been 33 sovereigns of Canada, including two sets of co-sovereigns.[19][20]

While Canada became a kingdom in its own right within the British Empire upon Confederation in 1867,[21][22][23] the concept of a fully independent Canada sharing the person of the sovereign with the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms only emerged gradually over time through constitutional convention,[24] and was officially confirmed with the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931.[25] Since then,[20] the Canadian Crown has been legally distinct from those of the other Commonwealth realms, with its own separate and distinct monarch.[N 1] Though the term king of Canada was used as early as the beginning of the reign of George VI,[27] it was not until 1953 that the monarch's title was made official, with Elizabeth II being the first monarch to be separately proclaimed as Queen of Canada, as per the Royal Style and Titles Act.

Sovereigns of Canada

The French Crown (1534-1763)

No. Portrait Regnal name Reign Full name Consort
1 Francis I of France
(1534–1547)
House of Valois
24 July 1534 31 March 1547 Francis Eleanor of Austria
Territorial changes: Jacques Cartier laid claim to "Kanata" (Canada) in the name of King Francis I.[28]
2 Henry II of France
(1519–1559)
House of Valois
31 March 1547 10 July 1559 Henry Catherine de' Medici
3 Francis II of France
(1544–1560)
House of Valois
10 July 1559 5 December 1560 Francis Mary, Queen of Scots
4 Charles IX of France
(1550–1574)
House of Valois
5 December 1560 30 May 1574 Charles Maximilian Elisabeth of Austria
5 Henry III of France
(1551–1589)
House of Valois
30 May 1574 2 August 1589 Alexandre Édouard Louise of Lorraine
6 Henry IV of France
(1553–1610)
House of Bourbon
2 August 1589 14 May 1610 Henri de Bourbon Margaret of Valois,
Marie de' Medici
7 Louis XIII of France
(1601–1643)
House of Bourbon
14 May 1610 14 May 1643 Louis Anne of Austria
8 Louis XIV of France
(1638–1715)
House of Bourbon
14 May 1643 1 September 1715 Louis-Dieudonné Maria Theresa of Spain,
Françoise d'Aubigné
Territorial changes: Ceded Acadia, Placentia, and Hudson Bay to Anne, 1713.
9 Louis XV of France
(1710–1774)
House of Bourbon
1 September 1715 10 February 1763 Louis Marie Leszczyńska
Territorial changes: Ceded New France to George III, 1763.

The British Crown (1497-1931)

No. Portrait Regnal name Reign Full name Consort
1 Henry VII
(1457–1509)
House of Tudor
24 June 1497 21 April 1509 Henry Elizabeth of York
Territorial changes: John Cabot laid claim to what is now Canada in the name of King Henry VII.[19]
2 Henry VIII
(1491–1547)
House of Tudor
21 April 1509 28 January 1547 Henry Catherine of Aragon (1509), Anne Boleyn (1533), Jane Seymour (1536), Anne of Cleves (1540), Catherine Howard (1540), Catherine Parr (1543)
3 Edward VI
(1537–1553)
House of Tudor
28 January 1547 6 July 1553 Edward None
4 Mary I
(1516–1558)
House of Tudor
19 July 1553 17 November 1558 Mary Philip II of Spain (co-sovereign)
5 Elizabeth I
(1533–1603)
House of Tudor
17 November 1558 24 March 1603 Elizabeth None
6 James I
(1566–1625)
House of Stuart
25 July 1603 27 March 1625 Charles James Anne of Denmark
7 Charles I of England
(1600–1649)
House of Stuart
27 March 1625 30 January 1649 Charles Henrietta Maria of France
Cromwellian Era 30 January 1649 29 May 1660
8 Charles II of England and Scotland
(1630–1685)
House of Stuart
2 May 1670 3 September 1651 Charles Catherine of Braganza
Territorial changes: Created Rupert's Land through Royal Warrant for the Hudson's Bay Company.
9 James II of England and VII of Scotland
(1633–1701)
House of Stuart
6 February 1685 1 December 1688 James Mary of Modena
Vacant 1 December 1688 13 February 1689
10 William III of England and II of Scotland
(1650–1702)
House of Orange-Nassau
13 February 1689 8 March 1702 William Mary II of England
(co-monarch)
11 Anne of Great Britain
(1665–1714)
House of Stuart
8 March 1702 1 August 1714 Anne Prince George of Denmark
Territorial changes: Acquired Acadia, Placentia, and Hudson Bay from Louis XIV of France, 1713.
12 George I of Great Britain
(1660–1727)
House of Hanover
1 August 1714 11 June 1727 George Louis Sophia Dorothea of Celle
13 George II of Great Britain
(1683–1760)
House of Hanover
11 June 1727
old calendar
25 October 1760
new calendar
George Augustus Caroline of Ansbach
14 George III of Great Britain
(1738–1820)
House of Hanover
25 October 1760 29 January 1820 George William Frederick Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Territorial changes: Acquired New France from Louis XV of France, 1763. Created provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, 1790.
15 George IV of the United Kingdom
(1762–1830)
House of Hanover
29 January 1820 26 June 1830 George Augustus Frederick Caroline of Brunswick
16 William IV of the United Kingdom
(1765–1837)
House of Hanover
26 June 1830 20 June 1837 William Henry Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
British Empire
17 Queen Victoria
(1819–1901)
House of Hanover
20 June 1837 22 January 1901 Alexandrina Victoria Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Governors general:The Viscount Monck, the Lord Lisgar, the Earl of Dufferin, the Marquess of Lorne, the Marquess of Lansdowne, the Lord Stanley of Preston, the Earl of Aberdeen, the Earl of Minto
Prime ministers: John A. Macdonald, Alexander Mackenzie, John Abbott, John Thompson, Mackenzie Bowell, Charles Tupper, Wilfrid Laurier
Initial provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
Territorial changes: United Upper Canada and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada, 1841. United the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick into the Dominion Canada under a new Canadian crown, 1867. Later joined Rupert's Land, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Islandinto Canada. Established Manitoba, North-Western Territory (now Northwest Territories), British Columbia, and Yukon Territory (now Yukon)
18 Edward VII
(1841–1910)
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
22 January 1901 6 May 1910 Albert Edward Alexandra of Denmark
Territorial changes: Newfoundland granted status as an independent dominion within the British Commonwealth.
Governors general: The Earl of Minto, the Earl Grey
Prime minister: Wilfrid Laurier
New provinces: Saskatchewan, Alberta

The Canadian Crown (1931-present)

Note that the British Crown continued to rule over the Dominion of Newfoundland until that country joined Canada in 1949.
No. Portrait Regnal name Reign Full name Consort
Commonwealth realms
1 George V
(1865–1936)
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (until 1917)
House of Windsor (after 1917)
6 May 1910 20 January 1936 George Frederick Ernest Albert Mary of Teck
Governors general: The Earl Grey, the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, the Duke of Devonshire, the Lord Byng of Vimy, the Marquess of Willingdon, the Earl of Bessborough, the Lord Tweedsmuir
Prime ministers: Wilfrid Laurier, Robert Borden, Arthur Meighen, William Lyon Mackenzie King, R. B. Bennett
2 Edward VIII
(1894–1972)
House of Windsor
20 January 1936 11 December 1936 Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David none
Governor general: The Lord Tweedsmuir
Prime minister: William Lyon Mackenzie King
3 George VI
(1895–1952)
House of Windsor
11 December 1936 6 February 1952 Albert Frederick Arthur George Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Governors general: The Lord Tweedsmuir, the Earl of Athlone, the Viscount Alexander of Tunis
Prime ministers: William Lyon Mackenzie King, Louis St. Laurent
Territorial change: Joined Newfoundland (now Newfoundland and Labrador) into Canada, 1949, thereby putting all of modern Canada under the Canadian Crown.
4 Elizabeth II
(b. 1926)
House of Windsor
6 February 1952 Present Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Governors general: The Viscount Alexander of Tunis, Vincent Massey, Georges Vanier, Roland Michener, Jules Léger, Edward Schreyer, Jeanne Sauvé, Ray Hnatyshyn, Roméo LeBlanc, Adrienne Clarkson, Michaëlle Jean, David Johnston
Prime ministers: Louis St. Laurent, John Diefenbaker, Lester B. Pearson, Pierre Trudeau, Joe Clark, John Turner, Brian Mulroney, Kim Campbell, Jean Chrétien, Paul Martin, Stephen Harper
New territory: Nunavut

Royal consorts of Canada

The Canadian monarchs' consort—his or her spouse—has no constitutional status or power, but is a member of the Canadian Royal Family. In the United Kingdom, all female consorts have had the right to and have held the title of Queen Consort; as Canada does not have laws or letters patent under the Great Seal of Canada laying out the styles of any Royal Family members besides the monarch, royal consorts are addressed in Canada using the style and title as they hold in the UK. After informal discussions amongst the various Commonwealth prime ministers between 1954 and 1957, it was decided that Prince Philip, husband of Elizabeth II, would not be granted the title of Prince Consort.[29][30]

Since Confederation, two sovereigns have reigned over Canada without a consort: Victoria's husband, Albert, who died before Confederation, and, as Wallis Simpson married the Duke of Windsor after his abdication, she was never queen consort of Canada. Though Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall (the current wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the throne of Canada), will technically become queen consort in the United Kingdom, Clarence House has stated that, due to public opinion regarding her relationship with the Prince of Wales, she will be styled there as Princess Consort.[31][32][33]

See also

Canadian politics portal

Notes

References

External links

  • Department of Canadian Heritage: The Kings and Queens of Canada: The Crown in Canadian History
  • Senate of Canada: Canada, A Constitutional Monarchy
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