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List of spacewalks

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List of spacewalks

For spacewalks that have taken place since the beginning of 2000, see List of spacewalks since 2000.


This list contains all spacewalks and moonwalks performed from 1965 to 1999 where an astronaut has fully or partially left a spacecraft. Entries for moonwalks are shown with a gray background while entries for all other EVAs are uncolored.

All spacewalks have had the astronauts tethered to their spacecraft except for seven spacewalks by the United States, (six in 1984 using the Manned Maneuvering Unit, and one in 1994 testing the SAFER rescue device). All moonwalks were performed with astronauts untethered, and some of the astronauts traveled far enough to lose visual contact with their craft (they were up to 7.6 km away from it using the Lunar Rover). One lunar EVA was not a moonwalk, but rather a stand-up EVA partially out the top hatch of the LM, where it was thought that the extra height would help with surveying the area prior to conducting the moonwalks. Only three deep-space EVAs have ever been conducted, where the activity was neither on the lunar surface nor in Low Earth Orbit, but far away from both the Moon and the Earth.

1965–1969 Spacewalks and moonwalks

Spacewalk beginning and ending times are given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
1. Voskhod 2 Soviet Union Alexei Leonov March 18, 1965,
08:34:51
March 18, 1965,
08:47:00
0 h, 12 min
Leonov conducted the first EVA in history.[1] Leonov had difficulty fitting back into the spacecraft due to spacesuit stiffness in vacuum, and vented air from his spacesuit in order to bend back into the capsule.[2]
2. Gemini 4 United States Edward White June 3, 1965,
19:46:00
June 3, 1965,
20:06:00
0 h, 20 min
White conducted the second EVA in history and the first American EVA.[3] White also had difficulty returning to the Gemini spacecraft. Although he was very fit and athletic, the effort left him exhausted.[4]
3. Gemini 9A United States Eugene Cernan June 5, 1966,
15:02:00
June 5, 1966,
17:09:00
2 h, 7 min
A complex work EVA was planned for Cernan, which involved him moving to the rear of the Gemini spacecraft and donning the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit, developed by the U.S. Air Force.[5] Cernan expended four to five times the expected effort, raising his pulse as high as 180 beats per minute. Excess heat and respiration completely fogged Cernan's visor, and the EVA was cut short. Cernan also had difficulty returning to the spacecraft and closing the hatch.[6]
4. Gemini 10 - EVA 1 United States Michael Collins July 19, 1966,
21:44:00
July 19, 1966,
22:33:00
0 h, 49 min
Collins performed a stand-up EVA. Instead of climbing completely out of the spacecraft, Collins extended his torso outside the spacecraft to take photos before and after capsule sunrise. Color photography after sunrise was only partly completed due to severe eye irritation of both Collins and Command Pilot Young. Handling the camera proved difficult due to the stiffness of Collins' gloves.[7]
5. Gemini 10 - EVA 2 United States Michael Collins July 20, 1966,
23:01:00
July 20, 1966,
23:40:00
0 h, 39 min
Collins performed an umbilical EVA. With more difficulty than expected, Collins collected the micrometeorite collection package from the exterior of the Gemini spacecraft. Then, using the Hand Held Maneuvering Unit, he pushed to the nearby Agena Target Vehicle to collect its micrometeorite collection package. Collins then pulled on the umbilical cord to return and re-enter the spacecraft.[8]
6. Gemini 11 - EVA 1 United States Richard Gordon September 13, 1966,
14:44:00
September 13, 1966,
15:17:00
0 h, 33 min
Gordon attached a tether between the Gemini and Agena Target Vehicle for later orbital mechanics testing. While making the attachment, his workload exceeded the capacity of the spacesuit cooling system, and his vision became obscured by a fogged visor and sweat in his eyes. Planned activities were curtailed by Command Pilot Conrad and Gordon returned to the spacecraft.[9]
7. Gemini 11 - EVA 2 United States Richard Gordon September 14, 1966,
12:49:00
September 14, 1966,
14:57:00
2 h, 08 min
Gordon performed a stand-up EVA, extending through the hatch to take astronomical photos. Conrad reported the spacewalk was so relaxing they both fell asleep for a moment after sunrise.[10]
8. Gemini 12 - EVA 1 United States Buzz Aldrin November 12, 1966,
16:15:00
November 12, 1966,
18:44:00
2 h, 29 min
Aldrin performed a stand-up EVA. Aldrin took UV still photos and 16 mm color movie pictures, collected external experimental samples, and conducted a light exercise routine.[11]
9. Gemini 12 - EVA 2 United States Buzz Aldrin November 13, 1966,
15:34:00
November 13, 1966,
17:40:00
2 h, 06 min
Aldrin’s walk was the first completely successful umbilical EVA, with all objectives achieved. He was able to control his movements and restrict his workload using techniques developed using underwater zero gravity simulations. Aldrin also benefited from the experiences of the previous American EVAs. Aldrin was able to move around the outside of the craft, deploy and recover various experimental packages, install and remove cameras, and practice work techniques using a ratchet-type wrench.[12]
10. Gemini 12 - EVA 3 United States Buzz Aldrin November 14, 1966,
14:52:00
November 14, 1966,
15:47:00
0 h, 55 min
Aldrin performed another stand-up EVA. Aldrin again extended outside the hatch to take photographs and repeat the light exercise experiment. Exertion levels during exercise were comparable to preflight simulations. Equipment and waste food containers not needed for re-entry were jettisoned from the spacecraft.[13]
11. Soyuz 4 & Soyuz 5 Soviet Union Yevgeny Khrunov,
Soviet Union Aleksei Yeliseyev
January 16, 1969,
12:43:00
January 16, 1969,
01:15:00
0 h, 37 min
Khrunov and Yeliseyev conducted the first two-man spacewalk. Both cosmonauts launched in Soyuz 5, which then docked with Soyuz 4. Khrunov and Yeliseyev performed an EVA to transfer to Soyuz 4. Although docked together, Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 did not make an internal connection, necessitating the EVA. Khrunov and Yeliseyev returned to Earth aboard Soyuz 4.[14]
12. Apollo 9 United States Rusty Schweickart,
United States David Scott (Stand up only)
March 6, 1969,
16:45:00
March 6, 1969,
18:02:00
1 h, 17 min
Schweickart exited the Lunar Module hatch, wearing the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) backpack. Schweickart's backpack provided oxygen, communications, and cooling, independent of his spacecraft. Scott extended out of the Command Module hatch but remained supported by the Command Module through an umbilical cord. Plans for Schweickart to move to the Command Module hatch were scrubbed due to severe space sickness he had suffered the day before.[15]
13. Apollo 11 - Moonwalk United States Neil Armstrong,
United States Buzz Aldrin
July 21, 1969,
02:39:33
July 21, 1969,
05:11:39
2 h, 31 min, 40 s
Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon. Aldrin followed, describing the Moon as "magnificent desolation."[16] During their 2½ hour EVA, the team deployed the Early Apollo Scientific Experimental Package, took a call from President Nixon, collected rock and core samples, raised a US Flag, and took photographs.[17] Armstrong reported moving around on the Moon was easier than the simulation.[16]
14. Apollo 12 - First Moonwalk United States Pete Conrad,
United States Alan Bean
November 19, 1969,
11:32:35
November 19, 1969,
15:28:38
3 h, 56 min, 03 s
During the first Apollo 12 moonwalk, Conrad and Bean deployed the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly, collected and stowed the contingency sample, erected the solar wind foil, collected core samples and more surface samples, and deployed the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package.[18] Early in the moonwalk, Bean accidentally pointed the color TV camera toward the Sun and destroyed the camera. Communication to the ground for the remainder of their moonwalks became radio-only.[19] The two were surprised to find photocopies of Playboy Playmate pictures inserted into some pages of their cuff checklist, a prank done by their backup crew.
15. Apollo 12 - Second Moonwalk United States Pete Conrad,
United States Alan Bean
November 20, 1969,
03:54:45
November 20, 1969,
07:44:00
3 h, 49 min, 15 s
Conrad and Bean collected additional core and rock samples and traveled over 600 feet to Surveyor 3 to collect some parts (including the TV camera) off the robotic lander. They also retrieved the solar wind foil deployed on their earlier moonwalk.[20]


1970–1979 Spacewalks and moonwalks

Spacewalk beginning and ending times are given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
16. Apollo 14
First Moonwalk
United States Alan Shepard,
United States Edgar Mitchell
February 5, 1971,
14:42:13
February 5, 1971,
19:30:50
4 h, 47 min, 50 s
Shepard and Mitchell deployed the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly, grabbed a contingency sample, and successfully set up the color TV camera. They erected an American flag and the solar wind foil. They then deployed the ALSEP and proceeded to collect core samples and several large moon rocks.[21]
17. Apollo 14
Second Moonwalk
United States Alan Shepard,
United States Edgar Mitchell
February 6, 1971,
08:11:15
February 6, 1971,
12:45:56
4 h, 34 min, 41 s
Shepard and Mitchell trekked 1300 meters (almost a mile) up the side of Cone crater, collecting rock samples, taking photographs and deploying a portable magnetometer. Although they came close, the team didn’t find the rim of the crater due to the difficulty of navigating the stark lunarscape.[22] Before re-entering the Lunar Module, Shepard used a modified sample tool to hit a couple of golf balls.[23]
18. Apollo 15
Stand up EVA
United States David Scott July 31, 1971,
00:16:49
July 31, 1971,
00:49:56
33 min, 07 s
Scott stood in the top hatch of the Lunar Module, visually surveying and photographing the landing site. He identified future EVA destinations and confirmed suitability for Lunar Rover access.[24]
19. Apollo 15
First Moonwalk
United States David Scott,
United States James Irwin
July 31, 1971,
13:12:17
July 31, 1971,
19:45:59
6 h, 32 min, 42 s
Scott and Irwin were the first team to ride the Lunar Rover on the moon. After securing the contingency sample, they drove the rover (equipped with a TV camera beaming video back to Houston) to Elbow Crater and then to St. George Crater, collecting rock samples and taking photographs on the 5.6-mile (9.0 km) trip. On return to the Lunar Module, the moonwalkers deployed the ALSEP.[25]
20. Apollo 15
Second Moonwalk
United States David Scott,
United States James Irwin
August 1, 1971,
11:48:48
August 1, 1971,
19:01:02
7 h, 12 min, 14 s
Scott and Irwin traveled a southbound loop of 6.8 miles (10.9 km) in the Lunar Rover, collecting rock and soil samples, photographs, and a core sample. They stopped at the Apennine front, Spur Crater, and Dune Crater. At the Spur Crater rim Scott and Irwin spotted and collected a white rock later estimated to be 4.5 billion years old. Almost as old as the Moon itself, sample 15415 has become known as Genesis Rock, the oldest rock recovered during the Apollo missions.[26] After returning to the Lunar Module, they completed work around the ALSEP before re-entering the LM.[27]
21. Apollo 15
3rd Moonwalk
United States David Scott,
United States James Irwin
August 2, 1971,
08:52:14
August 2, 1971,
13:42:04
4 h, 49 min, 50 s
The spacewalkers' last Lunar Rover ride traveled 2.8 miles (4.5 km) westward toward Hadley Rille. Sample collections and photographs were taken at Scarp Crater, Rim Crater, and The Terrace on the rim of the Hadley Rille. Returning to the Lunar Module, Scott and Irwin collected the long core sample from the area of the ALSEP.[28]
22. Apollo 15
Transearth EVA
United States Alfred Worden,
United States James Irwin (Stand up only)
August 5, 1971,
15:31:12
August 5, 1971,
16:10:19
39 min, 07 s
First ever deep space EVA. Worden made three trips to the Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) on the Service Module to recover the film cassettes from the panoramic and mapping cameras and to examine the SIM for anomalies.[29] Irwin stood in the hatch to assist and photograph the spacewalk.[30]
23. Apollo 16
First Moonwalk
United States John W. Young,
United States Charles Duke
April 21, 1972,
16:47:28
April 21, 1972,
23:58:40
7 h, 11 min, 02 s
Young and Duke deployed the ALSEP. Then the moonwalkers boarded the Lunar Rover and traveled to Flag, Spook, and Buster Craters to collect rock and soil samples and to take photographs. At Buster Crater the lunar portable magnetometer was deployed.[31]
24. Apollo 16
Second Moonwalk
United States John W. Young,
United States Charles Duke
April 22, 1972,
16:33:35
April 22, 1972,
23:56:44
7 h, 23 min, 09 s
Astronauts Young and Duke traveled to the slopes of Stone Mountain, stopping at nine sites to collect samples, take photographs, and deploy a lunar portable magnetometer.[32] The round trip on the Lunar Rover totaled 7.2 miles (11.6 km).[33]
25. Apollo 16
Third Moonwalk
United States John W. Young,
United States Charles Duke
April 23, 1972,
15:25:28
April 23, 1972,
21:05:31
5 h, 40 min, 03 s
Young and Duke climbed back onto the Lunar Rover and traveled to Palmetto and End Crater, finally reaching the rim of North Ray Crater.[34] At the North Ray rim, they left to the LM and walked to the largest boulder (dubbed ‘’House Rock’’) sampled by the Apollo missions.[35] Young and Duke set the lunar land speed record of 10.5 miles per hour (16.9 km/h) during the third EVA.[33]
26. Apollo 16
Transearth EVA
United States Thomas Mattingly,
United States Charles Duke (Stand up only)
April 25, 1972,
20:33:46
April 25, 1972,
21:57:28
1 h, 23 min, 42 s
Command Module Pilot Mattingly retrieved the panoramic and mapping camera film cassettes from the SIM bay. Lunar Module Pilot Duke stood in the hatch to support Mattingly and to operate the microbial ecology evaluation device.[36]
27. Apollo 17
First Moonwalk
United States Eugene Cernan,
United States Harrison Schmitt
December 11, 1972,
23:54:49
December 12, 1972,
07:06:42
7 h, 11 min, 53 s
Cernan and Schmitt deployed the ALSEP. Due to time restraints, their first trip on the Lunar Rover had to be shortened to a single stop near Emory Crater. This first EVA trip looped 2.2 miles (3.5 km) to collect about 31 pounds (14 kg) of geological samples.[37]:pp. 10–15
28. Apollo 17
Second Moonwalk
United States Eugene Cernan,
United States Harrison Schmitt
December 12, 1972,
23:28:06
December 13, 1972,
07:05:02
7 h, 36 min, 56 s
Cernan and Schmitt rode almost 5 miles (8.0 km) miles in the Lunar Rover toward the South Massif, stopping at Hole-in-the-Wall and Ballet Crater to collect samples. At Shorty Crater, Schmitt discovered orange-colored soil.[38]
29. Apollo 17
Third Moonwalk - Last moonwalk as of 2013
United States Eugene Cernan,
United States Harrison Schmitt
December 13, 1972,
22:25:48
December 14, 1972,
05:40:56
7 h, 15 min, 08 s
On their last moonwalk, Cernan and Schmitt drove the Lunar Rover toward the North Massif.[39] They explored a large split boulder called Tracy’s Rock, (named for Cernan’s daughter) taking samples, making photographs, and providing oral descriptions of the area.[38] The moonwalkers also visited the Sculptured Hills and Van Serg Crater as they finished their 7.5 miles (12.1 km) final ride.[37]:pp. 10–16 Cernan is the last person to date to walk on the lunar surface.
30. Apollo 17
Transearth EVA
United States Ronald Evans,
United States Harrison Schmitt (Stand up only)
December 17, 1972,
20:27:40
December 17, 1972,
21:33:24
1 h, 05 min, 44 s
Last deep space EVA in history. No problems were encountered as Evans recovered the panoramic and mapping film cassettes and the lunar sounder tape from the SIM bay on the Service Module, and handed them to Schmitt in the Command Module hatch.[37]:pp. 10–43
31. Skylab 2 CM - EVA 1 United States Paul J. Weitz May 26, 1973,
00:40
May 26, 1973,
01:20
40 min
Using a 10-foot (3.0 m) long tool, Pilot Weitz stood in the open hatch of the Command Module (as Science Pilot Joseph Kerwin held onto his legs) and tried to remove a strap preventing the release of a solar array wing on Skylab.[40]
32. Skylab 2 - EVA 2 United States Pete Conrad,
United States Joseph Kerwin
June 7, 1973,
15:15
June 7, 1973,
18:40
3 h, 25 min
Conrad and Kerwin used long-handled cable cutters to remove debris that prevented the remaining solar array wing from deploying (the other was sheared off from the station during its launch). They then forced the solar wing to deploy, providing Skylab with the electrical power needed to operate.[41]
33. Skylab 2 - EVA 3 United States Pete Conrad,
United States Paul Weitz
June 19, 1973,
10:55
June 19, 1973,
12:31
1 h, 36 min
Conrad and Weitz ventured outside the station to replace exposed film cassettes in the Apollo Telescope Mount with fresh film. Conrad also fixed an electrical relay by whacking it with a hammer.[42]
34. Skylab 3 - EVA 1 United States Owen Garriott,
United States Jack Lousma
August 6, 1973,
17:30
August 7, 1973,
00:01
6 h, 31 min
Garriot and Lousma erected a twin-pole solar shield to improve temperature control in Skylab. They also replaced film cassettes in the Apollo Telescope Mount solar observatory and installed micrometeoroid detection panels.[43]
35. Skylab 3 - EVA 2 United States Owen Garriott,
United States Jack Lousma
August 24, 1973,
16:24
August 24, 1973,
20:55
4 h, 31 min
Garriott and Lousma disconnected external cabling, installed a new gyroscope selection box, and reconnected the cabling to the box. They also replaced the film in the solar observatory.[44]
36. Skylab 3 - EVA 3 United States Owen Garriott,
United States Alan Bean
September 22, 1973,
11:18
September 22, 1973,
13:59
2 h, 41 min
Garrett and Bean replaced the film in the solar observatory. They also collected the Thermal Coatings Experiment Panel for return to Earth.[45]
37. Skylab 4 - EVA 1 United States Edward Gibson,
United States William Pogue
November 22, 1973,
17:42
November 23, 1973,
00:15
6 h, 33 min
Gibson and Pogue spent 6½ hours on their first EVA replacing the film on the solar observatory and repairing the antenna for the Earth Resources Experiment Package.[46]
38. Skylab 4 - EVA 2 United States Gerald Carr,
United States William Pogue
December 25, 1973,
16:00
December 25, 1973,
23:01
7 h, 01 min
Carr and Pogue used the extreme ultraviolet electronographic camera and the coronagraph contamination camera to photograph Comet Kohoutek. They also replaced the film in the solar observatory.[47]
39. Skylab 4 - EVA 3 United States Gerald Carr,
United States Edward Gibson
December 29, 1973,
17:00
December 29, 1973,
20:29
3 h, 29 min
Carr and Gibson photographed Comet Kohoutek as it appeared from behind the Sun. They also recovered the Thermal Control Coatings Experiment panel.[48]
40. Skylab 4 - EVA 4 United States Gerald Carr,
United States Edward Gibson
February 3, 1974,
15:19
February 3, 1974,
20:38
5 h, 19 min
Carr and Gibson retrieved film from the solar observatory for the last time. They also photographed Kohoutek using the electronographic camera.[47]
41. Salyut 6 - PE-1 Soviet Union Yuri Romanenko (Stand up only),
Soviet Union Georgi Grechko
December 19, 1977,
21:36
December 19, 1977,
23:04
1 h, 28 min
The EVA by Romaneko and Grechko was the first Russian EVA in over eight years and the first use of the Orlan-D spacesuit.[49] Grechko inspected the front docking port for damage from the failed Soyuz 25 docking and found no damage. Romaneko, assisting Grechko from the hatch, pushed away from the station without a secure line, and was rescued by Grechko.[50]
42. Salyut 6 - PE-2 Soviet Union Vladimir Kovalyonok (Stand up only),
Soviet Union Aleksandr Ivanchenkov
July 29, 1978,
04:00
July 29, 1978,
06:20
2 h, 05 min
Ivanchenkov retrieved samples and experiments attached to the outside of Salyut 6. Kovalyonok assisted with the retrievals and used a color television camera to transmit EVA images to TsUP.[51]
43. Salyut 6 - PE-3 Soviet Union Valery Ryumin,
Soviet Union Vladimir Lyakhov
August 15, 1979,
14:16
August 15, 1979,
15:39
1 h, 23 min
Ryumin and Lyakhov removed the KRT-10 antenna that had failed to separate from Salyut 6 and had obstructed the station's aft docking port target. After disposing of the antenna, Ryumin collected samples of damaged insulation and a retrieved a micrometeroid detector.[52]

1980–1984 Spacewalks

Spacewalk beginning and ending times are given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
43. Salyut 7 - PE-1 Soviet Union Anatoli Berezovoy (Stand up only),
Soviet Union Valentin Lebedev
July 30, 1982,
02:39
July 30, 1982,
05:12
2 h, 33 min
Performing the first EVA from Salyut 7, Lebedev anchored himself with a foot restraint, while Berezovoy assisted from the hatch. After collecting and placing samples on the exterior surface of the spacecraft, Lebedev tested methods for assembly and disassembly work in space, including the Istok panel experiment of turning bolts with a special wrench.[53]
45. STS-6 - EVA 1 United States Story Musgrave,
United States Donald Peterson
April 7, 1983,
21:05
April 8, 1983,
01:15
4 h, 10 min
Musgrave and Peterson conducted the first spacewalk from a Space Shuttle.[54] They spent their time testing their spacesuits and tools for future space construction.[55]
46. Salyut 7
PE-2 - EVA 1
Soviet Union Vladimir Lyakhov,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Pavlovich Aleksandrov
November 1, 1983,
04:47
November 1, 1983,
07:36
2 h, 50 min
Lyakhov and Aleksandrov added a new solar panel to Salyut 7, using techniques tested in an earlier EVA by Lebedev.[56]
47. Salyut 7
PE-2 - EVA 2
Soviet Union Vladimir Lyakhov,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Aleksandrov
November 3, 1983,
03:47
November 3, 1983,
06:62
2 h, 55 min
Lyakhov and Aleksandrov added a second solar panel, raising the electrical output of Salyut 7 by 50%.[56]
48. STS-41-B
EVA 1
United States Bruce McCandless II,
United States Robert Stewart
February 7, 1984 February 7, 1984 5 h, 55 min
McCandless and Stewart rode on the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) during the first untethered EVAs in history. Both astronauts practiced using tools and procedures for the planned capture and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite to be performed in a subsequent flight.[57]
49. STS-41-B
EVA 2
United States Bruce McCandless,
United States Robert Stewart
February 9, 1984 February 9, 1984 6 h, 17 min
McCandless and Stewart continued testing the MMUs. They also continued practice with tools and procedures to be used with recovery and repair of the SMM satellite.[57]
50. STS-41-C
EVA 1
United States George Nelson,
United States James van Hoften
April 8, 1984,
14:18
April 8, 1984,
16:56
2 h, 38 min
Nelson rode the MMU to the SMM satellite. Van Hoften stood by in the payload bay to provide any needed assistance. After three unsuccessful attempts to capture the SMM with the Trunnion Pin Acquisition Device (TPAD) tool and one attempt to grab the satellite by hand, the spacewalkers returned to Challenger. The SMM was recovered the next day with the RMS.[58]
51. STS-41-C
EVA 2
United States George Nelson,
United States James van Hoften
April 11, 1984,
08:58
April 11, 1984,
15:42
6 h, 44 min
Nelson and Van Hoften completed repair of the SMM satellite and then continued testing of the MMU.[59]
52. Salyut 7
PE-3 - EVA 1
Soviet Union Leonid Kizim,
Soviet Union Vladimir Solovyov
April 23, 1984,
04:31
April 23, 1984,
08:46
4 h, 20 min
Kizim and Solovyov conducted the first of five EVAs to repair the ruptured main oxidizer line on Salyut 7. They installed a new ladder to reach the damaged line.[60]
53. Salyut 7
PE-3 - EVA 2
Soviet Union Leonid Kizim,
Soviet Union Vladimir Solovyov
April 26, 1984,
02:40
April 26, 1984,
07:40
4 h, 56 min
During the second of five EVAs to repair the ruptured oxidizer pipe, Kizim and Solovyov removed insulation and installed a valve in the spare line.[60]
54. Salyut 7
PE-3 - EVA 3
Soviet Union Leonid Kizim,
Soviet Union Vladimir Solovyov
April 29, 1984,
01:35
April 29, 1984,
04:20
2 h, 45 min
For the third of five EVAs to repair the damaged oxidizer line, Kizim and Solovyov installed a bypass line around the damaged section.[60]
55. Salyut 7
PE-3 - EVA 4
Soviet Union Leonid Kizim,
Soviet Union Vladimir Solovyov
May 3, 1984,
23:15
May 4, 1984,
02:00
2 h, 45 min
Kizim and Solovyov completed the fourth of the five oxidizer line repair EVAs by installing a second bypass line and replacing the thermal insulation.[60]
56. Salyut 7
PE-3 - EVA 5
Soviet Union Leonid Kizim,
Soviet Union Vladimir Solovyov
May 18, 1984,
17:52
May 18, 1984,
20:57
3 h, 05 min
Overcoming a broken winch handle, Kizim and Solovyov added another set of two solar arrays to Salyut 7.[60]
57. Salyut 7
VE-4 - EVA 1
Soviet Union Svetlana Savitskaya,
Soviet Union Vladimir Dzhanibekov
July 25, 1984,
14:55
July 25, 1984,
18:29
3 h, 35 min
Savitskaya and Dzhanibekov tested the URI multi-purpose tool with several metal samples. Savitskaya became the first woman in history to perform an EVA.[60]
58. Salyut 7
PE-3 - EVA 6
Soviet Union Leonid Kizim,
Soviet Union Vladimir Solovyov
August 8, 1984,
08:46
August 8, 1984,
13:46
5 h, 00 min
Kizim and Solovyov completed the last of five EVAs to repair the ruptured oxidizer line. They used a pneumatic press tool carried up by Soyuz T-12 to crimp the ends of the ruptured pipe.[61]
59. STS-41-G
EVA 1
United States David Leestma,
United States Kathryn D. Sullivan
October 11, 1984
15:38
October 11, 1984
19:05
3 h, 29 min
Sullivan and Leestma demonstrated the use of the Orbital Refueling System, including the installation of an ORS valve maintenance kit.[62] Sullivan was the first American woman and the second woman in history to conduct an EVA.[63]
60. STS-51-A
EVA 1
United States Joseph P. Allen,
United States Dale Gardner
November 12, 1984,
13:25
November 12, 1984,
19:25
6 h, 00 min
Allen rode the MMU to the Palapa B-2 satellite, and retrieved it into the payload bay of Discovery. Gardner and Allen secured the satellite in the payload bay for return to Earth.[64]
61. STS-51-A
EVA 2
United States Joseph Allen,
United States Dale Gardner
November 14, 1984
11:09
November 14, 1984
16:51
5 h, 42 min
In a procedure similar to the first EVA of STS-51-A, Gardner rode the MMU to the Westar VI satellite, and retrieved it into the payload bay. Allen and Gardner then secured the satellite in the payload bay for return to Earth.[64]

1985–1989 Spacewalks

Spacewalk beginning and ending times are given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
62. STS-51-D
EVA 1
United States Jeffrey Hoffman,
United States S. David Griggs
April 16, 1985 April 16, 1985 3 h, 06 min
Griggs and Hoffman installed an improvised switch-pulling tool, called the "flyswatter", on Discovery's RMS robotic arm. The "flyswatter" was used in an effort to push the sequencer start lever on the Syncom IV-3 satellite in the proper position for deployment.[65] This attempted repair was the first unplanned spacewalk in NASA history.[66]
63. Salyut 7
PE-4 - EVA 1
Soviet Union Vladimir Dzhanibekov,
Soviet Union Viktor Savinykh
August 2, 1985,
07:15
August 2, 1985,
12:15
5 h, 00 min
Dzhanibekov and Savinykh, radio call name Pamir, installed the third pair of solar arrays on the Salyut 7[67]
64. STS-51-I
EVA 1
United States William Fisher,
United States James van Hoften
August 31, 1985 August 31, 1985 7 h, 20 min
Van Hoften rode the RMS to capture the Syncom IV-3 satellite and pulled it into Discovery's payload bay. Fisher and Van Hoften then secured and started repairs on the satellite in the payload bay. The retrieval was complicated by a malfunction of the RMS that made hindered its operation.[68]
65. STS-51-I
EVA 2
United States William Fisher,
United States James van Hoften
September 1, 1985 September 1, 1985 4 h, 26 min
Fisher and Van Hoften completed repairs on the Syncom IV-3 satellite. Then Van Hoften, riding the RMS, heaved the satellite out of the payload bay, imparting the spin needed for the satellite to fire its perigee motor.[68]
66. STS-61-B
EVA 1
United States Jerry L. Ross,
United States Sherwood Spring
November 29, 1985 November 29, 1985 5 h, 32 min
Ross and Spring practiced construction techniques in the payload bay of Atlantis. They assembled and disassembled the two experimental EASE/ACCESS structures.[69]
67. STS-61-B
EVA 2
United States Jerry L. Ross,
United States Sherwood Spring
December 1, 1985 December 1, 1985 6 h, 41 min
Ross and Spring conducted supplementary experiments on the EASE and ACCESS structures, including a test of the RMS to aid in the construction experiments.[69]
68. Salyut 7
PE-6 - EVA 1
Soviet Union Leonid Kizim,
Soviet Union Vladimir Solovyov
May 28, 1986,
05:43
May 28, 1986,
09:33
3 h, 50 min
Kizim and Solovyov retrieved test panels from the outside of Salyut 7 and assembled a test "girder-constructor" apparatus in preparation for work on Mir.[70]
69. Salyut 7
PE-6 - EVA 2
Soviet Union Leonid Kizim,
Soviet Union Vladimir Solovyov
May 31, 1986,
04:57
May 31, 1986,
09:57
5 h, 00 min
Kizim and Solovyov conducted additional tests on the experimental construction equipment, including the welding of several girder joints.[70]
70. Mir PE-2 - EVA 1 Soviet Union Yuri Romanenko,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Laveykin
April 11, 1987,
19:41
April 11, 1987,
23:21
3 h, 40 min
Romanenko and Laveykin made an unplanned spacewalk to examine the Kvant docking port, because it had failed to make a hard dock with Mir. They were able to remove debris lodged in the docking mechanism, allowing for a complete dock.[71]
71. Mir PE-2 - EVA 2 Soviet Union Yuri Romanenko,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Laveykin
June 12, 1987,
16:55
June 12, 1987,
18:48
1 h, 53 min
Romanenko and Laveykin expanded the electrical capacity of the Mir space station. They installed the first half of the solar array brought to orbit in Kvant.[71]
72. Mir PE-2 - EVA 3 Soviet Union Yuri Romanenko,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Laveykin
June 16, 1987,
15:30
June 16, 1987,
18:45
3 h, 15 min
Romanenko and Laveykin completed the expansion of electrical capacity on the Mir by installing the second half of the solar array carried to orbit in Kvant.[71]
73. Mir PE-3 - EVA 1 Soviet Union Vladimir G. Titov,
Soviet Union Musa Manarov
February 26, 1988,
09:00
February 26, 1988,
13:55
4 h, 25 min
Titov and Manarov replaced part of the array installed the previous year by Romanenko and Laveykin. They also found time to clear the portholes, which had become covered with dust.[72] p.
74. Mir PE-3 - EVA 2 Soviet Union Vladimir G. Titov,
Soviet Union Musa Manarov
June 30, 1988,
05:33
June 30, 1988,
10:43
5 h, 10 min
Titov and Manarov attempted to replace Kvant's X-ray telescope during a spacewalk that was not planned or rehearsed before launch. They trained by watching a videotape and talking to cosmonauts who had practiced the repair in a pool. The repair ended prematurely when a special wrench broke.[73]
75. Mir PE-3 - EVA 3 Soviet Union Vladimir G. Titov,
Soviet Union Musa Manarov
October 20, 1988,
05:59
October 20, 1988,
10:11
4 h, 12 min
Using new tools delivered to orbit on Progress 38, Titov and Manarov completed the replacement of Kvant's X-ray telescope.[74]
76. Mir PE-4 - EVA 1 Soviet Union Alexander A. Volkov,
France Jean-Loup Chrétien
December 9, 1988,
09:57
December 9, 1988,
15:57
6 h, 00 min
The first EVA by a French citizen commenced when Volkov and Chrétien ventured outside Mir to install hardware and experiments. The Soviet-French spacewalking team installed handrails, installed and wired the Enchantillons rack, and installed the ERA experimental package. At first, the ERA package failed to unfold when commanded from inside Mir. A swift kick from Volkov was needed for it to properly unfold.[75]

1990–1994 Spacewalks

Spacewalk beginning and ending times are given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

1990 spacewalks

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
77. Mir PE-5 - EVA 1 Soviet Union Alexander Viktorenko,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Serebrov
January 8, 1990,
20:23
January 8, 1990,
23:19
2 h, 56 min
Viktorenko and Serebrov installed new star tracker sensors brought up in the Kvant-2 module onto Kvant.[76]
78. Mir PE-5 - EVA 2 Soviet Union Alexander Viktorenko,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Serebrov
January 11, 1990,
18:01
January 11, 1990,
20:55
2 h, 54 min
Viktorenko and Serebrov closed out experimental racks, either retrieving for return to Earth, or discarding into space. They also modified the docking node for the arrival of the Kristall module.[76]
79. Mir PE-5 - EVA 3 Soviet Union Alexander Viktorenko,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Serebrov
January 26, 1990,
12:09
January 26, 1990,
15:11
3 h, 02 min
Viktorenko and Serebrov tested the new Orlan-DMA spacesuit. This spacewalk team was the first use of the EVA airlock hatch on the Kvant-2 module. During the spacewalk a mooring post was attached outside the airlock, and a Kurs antenna was removed to enable future EVAs.[76]
80. Mir PE-5 - EVA 4 Soviet Union Alexander Viktorenko,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Serebrov
February 1, 1990,
08:15
February 1, 1990,
13:14
4 h, 59 min
Viktorenko and Serebrov tested the SPK "flying armchair", analogous to NASA's MMU. The SPK did not fly free, but remained tethered to Kvant-2 during the tests.[76]
81. Mir PE-5 - EVA 5 Soviet Union Alexander Viktorenko,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Serebrov
February 5, 1990,
06:08
February 5, 1990,
09:53
3 h, 45 min
Viktorenko and Serebrov conducted more tests of the SPK. Viktorenko reached as far as 45 metres (148 ft) from Mir.[76]
82. Mir PE-6 - EVA 1 Soviet Union Anatoly Solovyev,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Balandin
July 17, 1990,
13:06
July 17, 1990,
20:22
7 h, 00 min
At the start of their EVA to repair torn insulation on Soyuz TM-9, Solovyev and Balandin damaged the hatch on Kvant-2 by opening it before the airlock was completely depressurized. The spacewalking team repaired the insulation on Soyuz, but time constraints required returning to Kvant-2 before they collected their tools and ladders. Unable to securely close the damaged hatch, they used the center section of Kvant-2 as a back-up airlock.[77]
83. Mir PE-6 - EVA 2 Soviet Union Anatoly Solovyev,
Soviet Union Aleksandr Balandin
July 26, 1990,
11:15
July 26, 1990,
14:46
3 h, 31 min
Solovyev and Balandin left Mir through the damaged Kvant-2 hatch. They transmitted images of the damaged hatch to TsUP. They also recovered the ladders and tools left outside earlier. After removing debris lodged in the hinge of the airlock hatch, it was able to close and seal for repressurization.[77]
84. Mir PE-7 - EVA 1 Soviet Union Gennadi Manakov,
Soviet Union Gennady Strekalov
October 29, 1990,
21:45
October 30, 1990,
00:30
2 h, 45 min
Manakov and Strekalov exited Mir through the damaged Kvant-2 airlock hatch. After removing insulation around the hatch, the found the hatch to be more heavily damaged than previously understood. Although unable to completely repair the hatch, they added hardware to the hatch and returned to Mir.[78]

1991 spacewalks

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
85. Mir PE-8 - EVA 1 Soviet Union Viktor M. Afanasyev,
Soviet Union Musa Manarov
January 7, 1991,
17:03
January 7, 1991,
22:21
5 h, 18 min
Afanasyev and Manarov successfully repaired the damaged hatch on the Kvant-2 airlock. The spacewalk team also positioned equipment for installation in a later EVA.[79]
86. Mir PE-8 - EVA 2 Soviet Union Viktor M. Afanasyev,
Soviet Union Musa Manarov
January 23, 1991,
10:59
January 23, 1991,
16:32
5 h, 33 min
Afanasyev and Manarov exited Mir through the newly repaired hatch on Kvant-2. They then installed the new Stela boom on the base block.[79]
87. Mir PE-8 - EVA 3 Soviet Union Viktor M. Afanasyev,
Soviet Union Musa Manarov
January 26, 1991,
09:00
January 26, 1991,
15:20
6 h, 20 min
Afanasyev and Manarov spent more than 6 hours installing supports on Kvant to hold the solar arrays on Kristall.[79]
88. STS-37 - EVA 1 United States Jerry L. Ross,
United States Jerome Apt
April 7, 1991, April 7, 1991, 4 h, 26 min
When the boom antenna on the GRO satellite would not extend, Ross and Apt exited the shuttle on an unplanned EVA to extend the boom to prepare the satellite for its final release into orbit.[80]
89. STS-37 - EVA 2 United States Jerry L. Ross,
United States Jerome Apt
April 8, 1991, April 8, 1991, 5 h, 47 min
Ross and Apt installed and tested several monorail-type mobility tools for future space station construction.[80]
90. Mir PE-8 - EVA 4 Soviet Union Viktor M. Afanasyev,
Soviet Union Musa Manarov
April 25, 1991,
20:29
April 26, 1991,
00:03
3 h, 34 min
Manarov inspected and filmed the Kurs antenna on Kvant, finding that one of the antenna dishes was missing. Then Afanasyev and Manarov re-installed the camera on Kvant-2 that they had earlier removed and repaired.[81]
91. Mir PE-9 - EVA 1 Soviet Union Anatoly Artsebarsky,
Soviet Union Sergei Krikalev
June 24, 1991,
21:11
June 25, 1991,
02:09
4 h, 58 min
Artsebarsky and Krikalev started the EVA from the Kvant-2 airlock, climbed across Mir to the opposite end, and replaced the damaged Kurs antenna. Before returning to the airlock, they also performed assembly tests on an experimental structural joint.[82]
92. Mir PE-9 - EVA 2 Soviet Union Anatoly Artsebarsky,
Soviet Union Sergei Krikalev
June 28, 1991,
19:02
June 28, 1991,
22:26
3 h, 24 min
Artsebarski and Krikalev attached TREK,[83] a type of cosmic ray detector developed at the University of California, to the outside of Mir.[82]
93. Mir PE-9 - EVA 3 Soviet Union Anatoly Artsebarsky,
Soviet Union Sergei Krikalev
July 15, 1991,
11:45
July 15, 1991,
17:41
5 h, 56 min
Using the Stela boom, Artsebarsky and Krikalev moved ladders and the base platform parts for the Sofora girder from the Kvant-2 airlock and installed the components on the Kvant module.[82]
94. Mir PE-9 - EVA 4 Soviet Union Anatoly Artsebarsky,
Soviet Union Sergei Krikalev
July 19, 1991,
11:10
July 19, 1991,
16:38
5 h, 28 min
Artsebarsky and Krikalev started construction of the Sofora girder. Three of 20 structural pieces were installed.[82]
95. Mir PE-9 - EVA 5 Soviet Union Anatoly Artsebarsky,
Soviet Union Sergei Krikalev
July 23, 1991,
09:15
July 23, 1991,
14:57
5 h, 42 min
Artsebarsky and Krikalev continued the construction of the Sofora girder. Eleven more of the 20 girder pieces were installed.[82]
96. Mir PE-9 - EVA 6 Soviet Union Anatoly Artsebarsky,
Soviet Union Sergei Krikalev
July 27, 1991,
08:44
July 27, 1991,
15:33
6 h, 49 min
Artsebarsky and Krikalev completed assembly of the Sofora girder and the spacewalking team mounted a small Soviet flag on top of the structure. Artsebarsky had trouble with fogging on his visor, due to overexertion, but Krikalev was able to lead him back to the airlock.[82]

1992 spacewalks

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
97. Mir PE-10 - EVA 1 Russia Alexander A. Volkov,
Russia Sergei Krikalev
February 20, 1992,
20:09
February 21, 1992,
00:21
4 h, 12 min
Volkov and Krikalev performed maintenance activities on the outside of Mir, including cleaning camera lenses. Volkov had problems with the cooling system on his Orlan space suit, and was limited in his mobility.[84]
98. STS-49 - EVA 1 United States Pierre Thuot,
United States Richard Hieb
May 10, 1992,
20:40
May 11, 1992,
00:23
3 h, 43 min
Thuot attempted to capture the Intelsat VI satellite using a capture bar carried up in Endeavour while Hieb stood by to assist with placement in the payload bay. After multiple attempts to catch Intelsat VI, the spacewalkers returned to the airlock to consider the failed attempts.[85]
99. STS-49 - EVA 2 United States Pierre Thuot,
United States Richard Hieb
May 11, 1992,
21:05
May 12, 1992,
02:35
5 h, 30 min
Thuot tried five more times to capture Intelsat VI while Hieb stood by to assist. Once again Thuot was unable to engage the capture bar to the satellite.[85]
100. STS-49 - EVA 3 United States Pierre Thuot,
United States Richard Hieb,
United States Thomas Akers
May 13, 1992,
21:17
May 14, 1992,
05:46
8 h, 29 min
Thuot, Hieb and Akers captured Intelsat VI with their hands. The trio then pulled the satellite into the payload bay, added a new perigee kick motor, and launched the satellite away from Endeavour. This spacewalk was the first three-person spacewalk in history. The three spacewalkers also set a new record for elapsed spacewalk time.[85]
101. STS-49 - EVA 4 United States Thomas Akers,
United States Kathryn Thornton
May 14, 1992, ~21:00 May 15, 1992, ~04:45 7 h, 44 min
Akers and Thornton tested space station assembly techniques on an experimental structure, the Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity Methods (ASEM). The experiments with ASEM were intended to help with the design of the planned Space Station Freedom.[85]
102. Mir PE-11 - EVA 1 Russia Alexander Viktorenko,
Russia Alexander Kaleri
July 8, 1992,
12:38
July 8, 1992,
14:41
2 h, 03 min
Viktorenko and Kaleri inspected several gyrodynes, located on the Kvant-2 module, near the airlock. Their inspection provided data needed to prepare for the planned repair and replacement work.[86]
103. Mir PE-12 - EVA 1 Russia Sergei Avdeyev,
Russia Anatoly Solovyev
September 3, 1992,
13:32
September 3, 1992,
17:28
3 h, 56 min
Avdeyev and Solvyev moved the VDU thruster unit and prepared the Sofora girder for installation of the VDU.[87]
104. Mir PE-12 - EVA 2 Russia Sergei Avdeyev,
Russia Anatoly Solovyev
September 7, 1992,
11:47
September 7, 1992,
16:55
5 h, 08 min
Avdeyev and Solvyev installed the electrical and control cables needed by the VDU thruster for operation on the Sofora truss. They also recovered the Soviet flag installed on the Sofora truss the year before, which had been destroyed by UV radiation and micrometeoroids.[87]
105. Mir PE-12 - EVA 3 Russia Sergei Avdeyev,
Russia Anatoly Solovyev
September 11, 1992,
10:06
September 11, 1992,
15:50
5 h, 44 min
Avdeyev and Solvyev completed install of the VDU thruster on Sofora truss, and moved the truss into its extended position.[87]
106. Mir PE-12 - EVA 4 Russia Sergei Avdeyev,
Russia Anatoly Solovyev
September 15, 1992,
07:49
September 15, 1992,
11:22
3 h, 33 min
Avdeyev and Solvyev collected samples of a solar array and relocated the Kurs docking antenna on the Kristall module in preparation for the arrival of Soyuz TM-16.[87]

1993 spacewalks

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
107. STS-54 - EVA 1 United States Gregory Harbaugh,
United States Mario Runco
January 17, 1993, January 17, 1993, 4 h, 28 min
Harbaugh and Runco tested space station construction techniques and mobility techniques. They proved that some techniques were useful, and some were not.[88]
108. Mir PE-13 - EVA 1 Russia Gennadi Manakov,
Russia Alexander Poleshchuk
April 19, 1993,
17:15
April 19, 1993,
22:40
5 h, 25 min
Manakov and Poleshchuk used the Strela boom to install an electric motor on the Kvant module for solar arrays originally installed on the Kristall module. After the installation, Poleshchuk noticed that one of the handles on the Strela boom had become loose and drifted away from Mir. The loss of the Strela handle meant the next EVA would have to be delayed until a new handle could be lifted to orbit the next Progress supply launch.[89]
109. Mir PE-13 - EVA 2 Russia Gennadi Manakov,
Russia Alexander Poleshchuk
June 18, 1993,
17:25
June 18, 1993,
21:58
4 h, 33 min
After receiving the replacement part, Manakov and Poleshchuk first repaired the Strela boom and then installed the second electric drive for the solar array.[89]
110. STS-57 - EVA 1 United States G. David Low,
United States Peter Wisoff
June 25, 1993, June 25, 1993, 5 h, 50 min
Low and Wisoff helped secure the antenna on the captured EURECA satellite in its stored position for return to Earth. Then both spacewalkers practiced space station construction maneuvers on the RMS.[90]
111. Mir PE-14 - EVA 1 Russia Vasili Tsibliyev,
Russia Aleksandr Serebrov
September 16, 1993,
05:57
September 16, 1993,
10:16
4 h, 18 min
Tsibliyev and Serebrov began assembly of the experimental Rapana truss structure.[91]
112. STS-51 - EVA 1 United States James H. Newman,
United States Carl Walz
September 16, 1993,
08:40
September 16, 1993,
15:45
7 h, 05 min
Newman and Walz carried out tests on tools, tethers, and a foot restraint system in anticipation of the repair of the Hubble Space Telescope. A stuck tool chest lid slowed the closeout of spacewalk for at least 45 minutes.[92]
113. Mir PE-14 - EVA 2 Russia Vasili Tsibliyev,
Russia Aleksandr Serebrov
September 20, 1993,
03:51:50
September 20, 1993,
07:05:40
3 h, 13 min
Tsibliyev and Serebrov completed the assembly of the Rapana truss. The experience gained from the construction of the truss was later used in future station designs, such as the International Space Station.[91]
114. Mir PE-14 - EVA 3 Russia Vasili Tsibliyev,
Russia Aleksandr Serebrov
September 28, 1993,
00:57
September 28, 1993,
02:48
1 h, 52 min
Tsibliyev and Serebrov inspected Mir's exterior for damage from the recent Perseid meteoroid shower. The most notable damage they found was a 5-millimetre (0.20 in) hole in one of the solar arrays.[91]
115. Mir PE-14 - EVA 4 Russia Vasili Tsibliyev,
Russia Aleksandr Serebrov
October 22, 1993,
15:47
October 22, 1993,
16:25
0 h, 38 min
Tsibliyev and Serebrov continued their inspection of Mir from damage from the Perseids.[91]
116. Mir PE-14 - EVA 5 Russia Vasili Tsibliyev,
Russia Aleksandr Serebrov
October 29, 1993,
13:38
October 29, 1993,
17:50
4 h, 12 min
Tsibliyev and Serebrov completed their inspection of the entire exterior of Mir. They observed several marks on the hull, but there were no complete penetrations. However, the spacewalking team noticed an unidentified piece of metal drifting by the station during their inspections.[91]
117. STS-61 - EVA 1 United States Story Musgrave,
United States Jeffrey Hoffman
December 5, 1993,
03:44
December 5, 1993,
11:38
7 h, 54 min
Musgrave and Hoffman replaced two sets of gyroscopes and electrical control units, as well as a set of 8 fuses on Hubble. The spacewalkers had considerable difficulty closing the latches on the gyro doors, probably due to thermal expansion of the closure bolts. Working closely with engineers on the ground, the team was able to force the door to latch closed. Before re-entering the shuttle, they prepared the payload bay for the next EVA.[93]
118. STS-61 - EVA 2 United States Kathryn C. Thornton,
United States Thomas Akers
December 6, 1993,
03:29
December 6, 1993,
10:05
6 h, 36 min
Thorton rode the RMS to handle the solar arrays while Akers made the cable connections as the team replaced two solar arrays on the Hubble. One array was discarded into space, and one array was furled and stowed for return to Earth.[93]
119. STS-61 - EVA 3 United States Story Musgrave,
United States Jeffrey Hoffman
December 7, 1993,
03:35
December 7, 1993,
10:22
6 h, 47 min
Musgrave and Hoffman replaced the Hubble WFPC with WFPC 2. They also replaced two magnetometers before returning to Endeavour.[93]
120. STS-61 - EVA 4 United States Kathryn C. Thornton,
United States Thomas Akers
December 8, 1993,
03:13
December 8, 1993,
10:03
7 h, 21 min
Thornton and Akers replaced Hubble's High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR). This replacement corrected the spherical aberration in Hubble's mirror. The HSP was stowed for return to Earth.[93]
121. STS-61 - EVA 5 United States Story Musgrave,
United States Jeffrey Hoffman
December 9, 1993,
03:30
December 9, 1993,
10:51
7 h, 21 min
Musgrave and Hoffman replaced the electronics for the solar array drive motors. They also placed some improvised covers over the new magnetometers to protect them from debris.[93]

1994 spacewalks

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
122. Mir PE-16 - EVA 1 Russia Yuri Malenchenko,
Russia Talgat Musabayev
September 9, 1994,
07:00
September 9, 1994,
12:06
5 h, 04 min
Malenchenko and Musabayev inspected a docking port on Kvant-2 for damage from a collision with Progress M-24.[94] They also inspected the Kristall module for damage from a collision with Soyuz TM-17 and repaired that module near where it connected to the base block of Mir.[95]
123. Mir PE-16 - EVA 2 Russia Yuri Malenchenko,
Russia Talgat Musabayev
September 13, 1994,
06:30
September 13, 1994,
12:32
6 h, 01 min
Malenchenko and Musabayev continued construction work in preparation of moving solar arrays from the Kristall module to the Kvant-2 module.[96]
124. STS-64 - EVA 1 United States Mark C. Lee,
United States Carl Meade
September 16, 1994,
14:42
September 16, 1994,
21:33
6 h, 51 min
Lee and Meade carried out successful untethered tests of the SAFER EVA rescue device.[97]

1995–1999 Spacewalks

Spacewalk beginning and ending times are given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

1995 spacewalks

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
125. STS-63 - EVA 1 United States Michael Foale,
United States Bernard Harris
February 9, 1995,
11:56
February 9, 1995,
16:35
4 h, 39 min
Foale and Harris conducted a test of moving large mass objects. They also tested the effectiveness of new spacesuit temperature control underwear by being lofted outside the payload bay by the RMS.[98] Harris was the first African-American to perform an EVA.
126. Mir PE-18 - EVA 1 Russia Vladimir N. Dezhurov,
Russia Gennady Strekalov
May 12, 1995,
04:20:44
May 12, 1995,
10:35:16
6 h, 14 min, 32 s
Dezhurov and Strekalov made preparations for the arrival of the Spektr module. They installed some electrical cable attachements, adjusted solar array actuators, and practiced folding the Kristall solar arrays for the future move to Kvant.[99]
127. Mir PE-18 - EVA 2 Russia Vladimir N. Dezhurov,
Russia Gennady Strekalov
May 17, 1995,
02:38
May 17, 1995,
09:20
6 h, 52 min
Dezhurov and Strekalov moved the solar arrays from Kristall to Kvant. Their suits ran low on oxygen before they were able to re-install the arrays on Kvant. They secured the arrays and tools to Kvant and returned to Mir.[99]
128. Mir PE-18 - EVA 3 Russia Vladimir N. Dezhurov,
Russia Gennady Strekalov
May 22, 1995,
00:10:20
May 22, 1995,
05:25:11
5 h, 14 min, 51 s
Dezhurov and Strekalov completed installation of the relocated solar array on Kvant. They also retracted some solar panels to prepare for moving Kristall.[99]
129. Mir PE-18 - EVA 4 Russia Vladimir N. Dezhurov,
Russia Gennady Strekalov
May 28, 1995,
22:22
May 28, 1995,
22:43
0 h, 21 min
Conducting a spacewalk inside the transfer compartment of the Mir base block, Dezhurov and Strekalov relocated the docking cone from the -X port to the -Z port.[100]
130. Mir PE-18 - EVA 5 Russia Vladimir N. Dezhurov,
Russia Gennady Strekalov
June 1, 1995,
22:05:30
June 1, 1995,
22:28:20
0 h, 23 min, 50 s
Again working from the depressurized base block transfer compartment, Dezhurov and Strekalov prepared to move the recently arrived Spektr module by relocating the docking cone from the -Z port to the -Y port.[101]
131. Mir PE-19 - EVA 1 Russia Anatoly Solovyev,
Russia Nikolai Budarin
July 14, 1995,
03:56
July 14, 1995,
09:30
5 h, 34 min
Solovyev and Budarin used the Strela boom to move to the Spektr module and freed the stuck solar array. They also inspected the -Z docking port and found it to be undamaged.[102]
132. Mir PE-19 - EVA 2 Russia Anatoly Solovyev,
Russia Nikolai Budarin
July 19, 1995,
00:39
July 19, 1995,
03:47
3 h, 08 min
Solovyev had problems with his Orlan-DMA spacesuit cooling system, and had to stay tethered to an umbilical at Kvant-2. Budarin was able work his way to the far end of Spektr and do some preparations for the installation of the Mir infrared spectrometer (MIRAS). He also collected the American TREK cosmic ray panel that had been installed on Kvant-2 since 1991.[103]
133. Mir PE-19 - EVA 3 Russia Anatoly Solovyev,
Russia Nikolai Budarin
July 21, 1995,
00:28
July 21, 1995,
06:18
5 h, 35 min
Solovyev and Budarin used the Strela boom to reach the Spektr module, where they completed the installation of MIRAS.[104]
134. STS-69 - EVA 1 United States James S. Voss,
United States Michael Gernhardt
September 16, 1995,
08:20
September 16, 1995,
15:06
6 h, 46 min
Voss and Gernhardt installed thermal instruments in the payload bay of Endeavour and tested construction techniques in support of the International Space Station. They also tested redesigned spacesuit helmet lights and spacesuit heaters.[105]
135. Mir PE-20 - EVA 1 Russia Sergei Avdeyev,
Germany Thomas Reiter
October 20, 1995,
11:50
October 20, 1995,
17:06
5 h, 16 min
Reiter completed the first European Space Agency EVA. Avdeyev and Reiter used the Strela boom to move to the Spektr module. Afterwards they installed several experiments on the European Space Exposure Facility before returning to the airlock.[106]
136. Mir PE-20 - EVA 2 Russia Sergei Avdeyev,
Russia Yuri Gidzenko
December 8, 1995,
19:23
December 8, 1995,
19:52
0 h, 37 min
From inside the depressurized base block transfer compartment, Avdeyev and Gidzenko moved the Konus docking cone from the -Z port to the +Z port.[107]

1996 spacewalks

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
137. STS-72 - EVA 1 United States Leroy Chiao,
United States Daniel Barry
January 15, 1996,
05:35
January 15, 1996,
11:44
6 h, 09 min
Chiao and Barry practiced construction techniques for the upcoming International Space Station. Their activities included installing a cable tray, hooking up cables and fluid lines, handling small screws and bolts, and grappling large objects at the end of the RMS.[108]
138. STS-72 - EVA 2 United States Leroy Chiao,
United States Winston E. Scott
January 17, 1996,
05:40
January 17, 1996,
12:34
6 h, 53 min
Chiao and Scott continued testing of construction techniques. They worked with utility boxes, slidewires and a portable work station attached to the RMS. Scott also tested the heating capabilities of his spacesuit by riding the RMS during the night while Endeavour’s payload bay was oriented toward space.[109]
139. Mir PE-20 - EVA 3 Germany Thomas Reiter,
Russia Yuri Gidzenko
February 8, 1996,
14:03
February 8, 1996,
17:08
3 h, 06 min
Reiter and Gidzenko moved a YMK maneuvering unit from the Kvant-2 airlock and secured it on the module's exterior. They then collected experiments deployed earlier on the ESEF. The team was unable to remove an antenna from Kristall when they were unable to loosen some bolts on the antenna.[110]
140. Mir PE-21 - EVA 1 Russia Yuri Onufriyenko,
Russia Yury Usachev
March 15, 1996,
01:04
March 15, 1996,
06:55
5 h, 51 min
To improve access to the outside of the Kristall module, Onufriyenko and Usachev installed a second Strela boom on the Mir base block. The team also prepared cables and connectors for the future installation of the Mir Cooperative Solar Array.[111]
141. STS-76/Mir PE-21 United States Michael R. Clifford,
United States Linda Godwin
March 27, 1996,
06:34
March 27, 1996,
12:36
6 h, 02 min
Godwin and Clifford added four canisters of experiments, called the Mir Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP), to the outside of the Mir docking module. They also tested new tethers and foot restraints for future use on Mir and the upcoming International Space Station.[112]
142. Mir PE-21 - EVA 2 Russia Yuri Onufriyenko,
Russia Yury Usachev
May 20, 1996,
22:50
May 21, 1996,
04:10
5 h, 20 min
Onufriyenko and Usachev moved the Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) from its stowage position on Kristal to a final location on Kvant, and prepared the array for complete deployment. They also released a balloon shaped like a large Pepsi can, and filmed it for a television commercial.[113]
143. Mir PE-21 - EVA 3 Russia Yuri Onufriyenko,
Russia Yury Usachev
May 24, 1996,
20:47
May 25, 1996,
02:30
5 h, 34 min
Onufriyenko and Usachev completed deployment of the Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) on the Kvant module.[113]
144. Mir PE-21 - EVA 4 Russia Yuri Onufriyenko,
Russia Yury Usachev
May 30, 1996,
18:20
May 30, 1996,
22:40
4 h, 20 min
Onufriyenko and Usachev installed the German-made Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS) camera to the exterior of the Priroda module. They also installed a new handrail on the exterior of Kvant-2 to aid future spacewalks.[113]
145. Mir PE-21 - EVA 5 Russia Yuri Onufriyenko,
Russia Yury Usachev
June 6, 1996,
16:56
June 6, 1996,
20:30
3 h, 34 min
Onufriyenko and Usachev installed two American micrometeoroid detector experiments to the exterior of Kvant-2. The team also replaced a data cassette for the Komza experiment of the surface of Spektr.[113]
146. Mir PE-21 - EVA 6 Russia Yuri Onufriyenko,
Russia Yury Usachev
June 13, 1996,
12:45
June 13, 1996,
18:27
5 h, 42 min
Onufriyenko and Usachev installed the Rapana girder to the exterior of Kvant in anticipation of mounting future experiments to the girder. They also manually deployed the Travers radar on the surface of Priroda.[113]
147. Mir PE-22 - EVA 1 Russia Valery Korzun,
Russia Alexander Kaleri
December 2, 1996,
15:54
December 2, 1996,
21:52
5 h, 57 min
Korzun and Kaleri successfully connected electrical cables to the surface-mounted solar panels installed on Kvant.[114]
148. Mir PE-22 - EVA 2 Russia Valery Korzun,
Russia Alexander Kaleri
December 9, 1996,
13:50
December 9, 1996,
20:28
6 h, 36 min
Korzun and Kaleri completed the construction of the Rapana truss structure and then installed the Kurs docking antenna. They also fixed an amateur radio antenna that had loosened.[115]

1997 spacewalks

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
149. STS-82 - EVA 1 United States Mark C. Lee,
United States Steven Smith
February 14, 1997,
04:34
February 14, 1997,
11:16
6 h, 42 min
Lee and Smith accessed Hubble from its aft shroud doors. The spacewalkers swapped out the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) for the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer and replaced the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. They closed out the EVA by closing the aft shroud doors and stowing the GHRS and FOS for return to Earth.[116]
150. STS-82 - EVA 2 United States Gregory J. Harbaugh,
United States Joseph R. Tanner
February 15, 1997,
03:25
February 15, 1997,
10:52
7 h, 27 min
Harbaugh and Tanner replaced the Fine Guidance Sensor and an Engineering and Science Tape Recorder with spare replacement units on Hubble. They also installed a new hardware piece, the Optical Control Electronics Enhancement Kit.[117]
151. STS-82 - EVA 3 United States Mark C. Lee,
United States Steven Smith
February 16, 1997,
02:53
February 16, 1997,
10:04
7 h, 11 min
Lee and Smith completed the third spacewalk of the second Hubble repair mission by replacing a Data Interface Unit with a spare unit and replacing a reel-to-reel tape drive Engineering and Science Tape Recorder with a solid-state version. They also replaced one of the four Reaction Wheel Assembly units that helped point the telescope at targets.[118]
152. STS-82 - EVA 4 United States Gregory J. Harbaugh,
United States Joseph R. Tanner
February 17, 1997,
03:45
February 17, 1997,
10:19
6 h, 34 min
Harbaugh and Tanner continued their Hubble repair mission by replacing the Solar Array Drive Electronics package with a spare. Then they climbed to the top of the telescope where they replaced the covers of the satellite's magnetometers. Before they finished their spacewalk, Harbaugh and Tanner installed thermal blankets over areas of degraded insulation.[119]
153. STS-82 - EVA 5 United States Mark C. Lee,
United States Steven Smith
February 18, 1997,
03:15
February 18, 1997,
08:32
5 h, 17 min
Lee and Smith completed the repair work on Hubble by installing more thermal insulation on three more areas that had undergone degradation.[120]
154. Mir PE-23 - EVA 1 Russia Vasily Tsibliyev,
United States Jerry Linenger
April 29, 1997,
05:10
April 29, 1997,
10:09
4 h, 59 min
The spacewalk by Tsibliyev and Linenger marked the first use of the new Orlan-M space suit. Their first task was to install the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) on the exterior of the Kristall docking module. Then the spacewalkers used the Strela crane to move to the Kvant-2 module. At Kvant-2 they retrieved two American experiments, the Partial Impact Experiment (PIE) and the Mir Sample Experiment (MSE), from Kvant-2's hull, and installed the Benton Radiation Dosimeter on Kvant-2.[121]
155. Mir PE-24 - EVA 1 Russia Anatoly Solovyev,
Russia Pavel Vinogradov
August 22, 1997,
11:14
August 22, 1997,
14:30
3 h, 16 min
Solovyev and Vinogradov conducted an internal EVA to inspect the damaged Spektr module, which had been struck by the out-of-control Progress M-34 spacecraft. They were successful in reconnecting power cabling to Spektr's solar arrays, thus restoring part of the power lost in the collision. Although the spacewalkers were able to recover equipment and supplies from the module, they were not able to find the puncture hole.[122]
156. Mir PE-24 - EVA 2 Russia Anatoly Solovyev,
United States Michael Foale
September 6, 1997,
01:07
September 6, 1997,
07:07
6 h, 00 min
Solovyev rode the Strela crane to Spektr to inspect it for damage. Foale operated the Strela from the Mir base block. Although Solovyev made an extensive documentation and search of Spektr, he was unable to find the hole created by the runaway Progress M-34 spacecraft. Before he returned to the airlock, Foale collected the radiation dosimeter installed outside earlier.[123] Foale became the first person to conduct EVAs in both American and Russian spacesuits.[124]
157. STS-86 - EVA 1 United States Scott Parazynski,
Russia Vladimir Titov
October 1, 1997,
October 1, 1997,
5 h, 01 min
Parazynski and Titov retrieved the four Mir Environmental Effects Packages (MEEP) from the docking module surface. They also installed the Solar Array Cap to the docking module, to be used to plug the hole in the Spektr module on a future EVA. To close out the EVA, the spacewalkers tested the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) jet packs.[125]
158. Mir PE-24 - EVA 3 Russia Anatoly Solovyev,
Russia Pavel Vinogradov
October 20, 1997,
09:40
October 20, 1997,
16:18
6 h, 38 min
Solovyev and Vinogradov ventured inside the depressurized Spektr in an attempt to install three control cables between the solar array servo motors to the special adapter plate that seals Spektr from the rest of Mir. After cleaning up some of the debris and loose items in Spektr, Solovyev was able to connect the three cables to the servos. But even after an effort that extended into the emergency oxygen supply of the Orlan space suits, Solovyev was only able to connect two of the cables to the adapter plate.[126]
159. Mir PE-24 - EVA 4 Russia Anatoly Solovyev,
Russia Pavel Vinogradov
November 3, 1997,
03:32
November 3, 1997,
09:36
6 h, 04 min
Solovyev and Vinogradov released a mini-satellite into orbit. The spacewalkers then dismantled an old solar panel on Kvant. They stowed the panel on the outside of the Mir base block.[127]
160. Mir PE-24 - EVA 5 Russia Anatoly Solovyev,
Russia Pavel Vinogradov
November 6, 1997,
00:12
November 6, 1997,
06:24
6 h, 12 min
Solovyev and Vinogradov installed a new solar array on Kvant to replace the panel removed on their previous spacewalk.[128]
161. STS-87 - EVA 1 United States Winston E. Scott,
JapanTakao Doi
November 25, 1997,
00:02
November 25, 1997,
07:45
7 h, 43 min
Scott and Doi captured the Spartan satellite by hand and secured it in the payload bay. Then the spacewalking team set up and tested a crane that would be used to construct the International Space Station. Doi was the first Japanese astronaut to perform an EVA, and the first EVA performed from Space Shuttle Columbia.[129]
162. STS-87 - EVA 2 United States Winston E. Scott,
JapanTakao Doi
December 3, 1997,
09:09
December 3, 1997,
14:09
4 h, 59 min
An extra spacewalk for Scott and Doi was added to the schedule to conduct more testing and evaluation of the crane in Columbia's payload bay. They repeated many of the same crane motion tests with smaller objects than in the earlier walk. During the EVA, a small free-flying video camera was deployed to record the work.[130]

1998 spacewalks

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
163. Mir PE-24 - EVA 6 Russia Anatoly Solovyev,
Russia Pavel Vinogradov
January 8, 1998,
23:08
January 9, 1998,
02:14
3 h, 06 min
When the spacewalk began, Solovyev and Vinogradov had only planned to inspect and film the damaged airlock sealing system, but the inspection showed that repairs could be made on-the-spot. After completing the repair, the spacewalking team used the Strela boom to move across Mir and recover the American optical monitoring experiment. Before closing out the spacewalk, the team also checked the integrity of cable connections to several antennas.[131]
164. Mir PE-24 - EVA 7 Russia Anatoly Solovyev,
United States David Wolf
January 14, 1998,
21:12
January 14, 1998,
01:04
3 h, 52 min
Solovyev continued to make repairs to the airlock hatch on Kvant-2. Wolf used a handheld photo-reflectometer to inspect the exterior surface of Mir. Solovyev spent some time supervising the actions of Wolf, as the latter had never performed an EVA before. The airlock pressure check made after the spacewalk showed that Solovyev's repairs were effective.[132]
165. Mir PE-25 - EVA 1 Russia Talgat Musabayev,
Russia Nikolai Budarin
April 1, 1998,
13:35
April 1, 1998,
20:15
6 h, 40 min
In preparation for the repair of the damaged solar array, Musabayev and Budarin installed a set of handrails and one of two foot restraints on the outside of the Spektr module.[133]
166. Mir PE-25 - EVA 2 Russia Talgat Musabayev,
Russia Nikolai Budarin
April 6, 1998,
13:35
April 6, 1998,
17:50
4 h, 15 min
Musabayev and Budarin set out to repair a damaged solar panel on the Spektr module. After installing a splint on the frayed panel, they had to quickly return to the airlock to handle a problem with the station's attitude control.[134]
167. Mir PE-25 - EVA 3 Russia Talgat Musabayev,
Russia Nikolai Budarin
April 11, 1998,
09:55
April 11, 1998,
16:20
6 h, 25 min
Musabayev and Budarin removed and pushed off the external thruster engine (VDU) that had been located at the top of the Sofora boom. The team also recovered an experiment from the Rapana structure.[135] The original plan to dismantle the Rapana structure was not completed and the structure remained in place.[136]
168. Mir PE-25 - EVA 4 Russia Talgat Musabayev,
Russia Nikolai Budarin
April 17, 1998,
07:40
April 17, 1998,
14:13
6 h, 33 min
Musabayev and Budarin removed two structures and secured them to exterior surfaces. They then repositioned the new thrust engine (VDU) for future use.[136]
169. Mir PE-25 - EVA 5 Russia Talgat Musabayev,
Russia Nikolai Budarin
April 22, 1998,
05:34
April 22, 1998,
11:55
6 h, 21 min
Musabayev and Budarin completed installation of the new VDU thruster unit on top of the Sofora boom.[137]
170. Mir PE-26 - EVA 1 Russia Gennady Padalka,
Russia Sergei Avdeyev
September 15, 1998,
20:00
September 15, 1998,
20:30
0 h, 30 min
Padalka and Avdeyev conducted an internal spacewalk in the depressurized Spektr to connect electrical and control cables to the solar array servo motor.[138]
171. Mir PE-26 - EVA 2 Russia Gennady Padalka,
Russia Sergei Avdeyev
November 10, 1998,
19:23
November 11, 1998,
01:18
5 h, 54 min
As soon as the spacewalk started, Padalka and Avdeyev deployed a mini-satellite, Spoutnik-41. The spacewalkers had a long list of experiment retrievals and deployments, which included a French "meteorite trap" intended to catch some dust from the upcoming Leonids meteor shower.[139]
172. STS-88 - EVA 1 United States Jerry Ross,
United States James Newman
December 7, 1998,
22:10
December 8, 1998,
05:31
7 h, 21 min
Ross and Newman connected computer and electrical cables between the Unity node, the two mating adapters attached to either end of Unity, and the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB).[140]
173. STS-88 - EVA 2 United States Jerry Ross,
United States James Newman
December 9, 1998,
20:33
December 10, 1998,
03:35
7 h, 02 min
Ross and Newman installed two box-like antennas on the outside of the Unity module that were part of the station's S-band early communications system.[141]
174. STS-88 - EVA 3 United States Jerry Ross,
United States James Newman
December 12, 1998,
20:33
December 13, 1998,
03:32
6 h, 59 min
Ross and Newman checked on an insulation cover on a cable connection on the lower Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA 2) to ensure its proper installation, attached EVA tools on the side of Unity's upper mating adapter (PMA 1) in preparation for future EVAs, and inspected Orbiter Space Vision System targets on Unity.[142]

1999 spacewalks

#
Spacecraft
Spacewalkers
Start (UTC)
End (UTC)
Duration
175. Mir PE-27 - EVA 1 Russia Viktor Afanasyev,
France Jean-Pierre Haigneré
April 16, 1999,
04:37
April 16, 1999,
10:56
6 h, 19 min
Afanasyev and Haigneré recovered experiments from the exterior of Mir and installed other experiments on the station's outer surface.[143]
176. STS-96 - EVA 1 United States Tamara E. Jernigan,
United States Daniel Barry
May 30, 1999,
02:56
May 30, 1999,
10:51
7 h, 55 min
Jernigan and Barry transferred and installed two cranes from Discovery's payload bay to locations on the outside of the station. They also installed two new portable foot restraints that fit both American and Russian spacesuit boots, and attached three bags filled with tools and handrails that were used during future assembly operations.[144]
177. Mir PE-27 - EVA 2 Russia Viktor Afanasyev,
Russia Sergei Avdeyev
July 23, 1999,
11:06
July 23, 1999,
17:13
6 h, 07 min
Afanasyev and Avdeyev installed a communications antenna on the Sofora girder, but were unable to command the antenna dish to open fully. They also spent time trying to find a leak in Kvant-2. Before returning inside Mir, the spacewalkers were able to retrieve the Exobiology and Dvikon experiments.[145]
178. Mir PE-27 - EVA 3 Russia Viktor Afanasyev,
Russia Sergei Avdeyev
July 28, 1999,
09:37
July 28, 1999,
14:59
5 h, 22 min
Afanasyev and Avdeyev were successful in completing the deployment of the antenna mounted on the Sofora girder. After proving that the antenna could fully open, the antenna was disconnected and pushed into space. The spacewalking team also installed the experiments indicator and Sprut-4 on the exterior, traded out data cassettes on the Migmas ion spectrometer, and then recovered the Danko-M and the Ekran-D experiments for return to Earth.[146]
179. STS-103 - EVA 1 United States Steven Smith,
United States John Grunsfeld
December 22, 1999,
18:54
December 23, 1999,
03:09
8 h, 15 min
Smith and Grunsfeld replaced six of Hubble's gyroscopes and installed six Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kits during one of the longest spacewalks on record. A planned activity to grease the door hinges was deferred to the next day's spacewalk.[147]
180. STS-103 - EVA 2 United States Michael Foale,
Switzerland Claude Nicollier
December 23, 1999,
19:06
December 24, 1999,
03:16
8 h, 10 min
Foale and Nicollier replaced the main computer on Hubble with a new, faster machine. They also swapped out one of Hubble's three Fine Guidance Sensors for a refurbished one that had been previously removed from Hubble and serviced on Earth.[148]
181. STS-103 - EVA 3 United States Steven Smith,
United States John Grunsfeld
December 24, 1999,
19:17
December 25, 1999,
03:25
8 h, 08 min
Smith and Grunsfeld replaced a radio transmitter that had failed on Hubble in the previous year. They also replaced a data tape recorder with a solid-state recorder and added some insulation to the outer surface of Hubble.[149]

For spacewalks that took place from the beginning of 2000 on, see List of spacewalks since 2000.

Commemorative stamp

In 1967 the U.S. Post Office issued a postage stamp commemorating the first American to float freely in space while orbiting the Earth. The engraved image has accurate depiction of the Gemini IV spacecraft and the space suit worn by astronaut Ed White.[150]

See also

Spaceflight portal

References

External links

  • NASA list of EVA statistics (May not be updated)
  • U. S. Human Spaceflight History
  • NASA JSC Oral History Project
  • "Boomers collect artifacts, memories of NASA's heyday": Historical moonwalk information
  • What we didn’t know about the Moonwalk: The Back Story behind that ‘One Small Step’ from NBC News

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