World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

MD2 (cryptography)

Article Id: WHEBN0001044819
Reproduction Date:

Title: MD2 (cryptography)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Comparison of file verification software, Comparison of cryptographic hash functions, MD4, Hash function security summary, FTPS
Collection: Broken Hash Functions
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

MD2 (cryptography)

Designers Ronald Rivest
First published August 1989[1]
Series MD2, MD4, MD5, MD6
Digest sizes 128 bits
Rounds 18

The MD2 Message-Digest Algorithm is a cryptographic hash function developed by Ronald Rivest in 1989.[2] The algorithm is optimized for 8-bit computers. MD2 is specified in RFC 1319. Although MD2 is no longer considered secure, even as of 2014, it remains in use in public key infrastructures as part of certificates generated with MD2 and RSA.


  • Description 1
  • MD2 hashes 2
  • Security 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


The 128-bit hash value of any message is formed by padding it to a multiple of the block length (128 bits or 16 bytes) and adding a 16-byte checksum to it. For the actual calculation, a 48-byte auxiliary block and a 256-byte S-table generated indirectly from the digits of the fractional part of pi are used (see nothing up my sleeve number). The algorithm runs through a loop where it permutes each byte in the auxiliary block 18 times for every 16 input bytes processed. Once all of the blocks of the (lengthened) message have been processed, the first partial block of the auxiliary block becomes the hash value of the message.

The S-table's values are derived from Pi,[3][4] and in hex are:

{ 0x29, 0x2E, 0x43, 0xC9, 0xA2, 0xD8, 0x7C, 0x01, 0x3D, 0x36, 0x54, 0xA1, 0xEC, 0xF0, 0x06, 0x13, 
  0x62, 0xA7, 0x05, 0xF3, 0xC0, 0xC7, 0x73, 0x8C, 0x98, 0x93, 0x2B, 0xD9, 0xBC, 0x4C, 0x82, 0xCA, 
  0x1E, 0x9B, 0x57, 0x3C, 0xFD, 0xD4, 0xE0, 0x16, 0x67, 0x42, 0x6F, 0x18, 0x8A, 0x17, 0xE5, 0x12, 
  0xBE, 0x4E, 0xC4, 0xD6, 0xDA, 0x9E, 0xDE, 0x49, 0xA0, 0xFB, 0xF5, 0x8E, 0xBB, 0x2F, 0xEE, 0x7A, 
  0xA9, 0x68, 0x79, 0x91, 0x15, 0xB2, 0x07, 0x3F, 0x94, 0xC2, 0x10, 0x89, 0x0B, 0x22, 0x5F, 0x21,
  0x80, 0x7F, 0x5D, 0x9A, 0x5A, 0x90, 0x32, 0x27, 0x35, 0x3E, 0xCC, 0xE7, 0xBF, 0xF7, 0x97, 0x03, 
  0xFF, 0x19, 0x30, 0xB3, 0x48, 0xA5, 0xB5, 0xD1, 0xD7, 0x5E, 0x92, 0x2A, 0xAC, 0x56, 0xAA, 0xC6, 
  0x4F, 0xB8, 0x38, 0xD2, 0x96, 0xA4, 0x7D, 0xB6, 0x76, 0xFC, 0x6B, 0xE2, 0x9C, 0x74, 0x04, 0xF1, 
  0x45, 0x9D, 0x70, 0x59, 0x64, 0x71, 0x87, 0x20, 0x86, 0x5B, 0xCF, 0x65, 0xE6, 0x2D, 0xA8, 0x02, 
  0x1B, 0x60, 0x25, 0xAD, 0xAE, 0xB0, 0xB9, 0xF6, 0x1C, 0x46, 0x61, 0x69, 0x34, 0x40, 0x7E, 0x0F, 
  0x55, 0x47, 0xA3, 0x23, 0xDD, 0x51, 0xAF, 0x3A, 0xC3, 0x5C, 0xF9, 0xCE, 0xBA, 0xC5, 0xEA, 0x26, 
  0x2C, 0x53, 0x0D, 0x6E, 0x85, 0x28, 0x84, 0x09, 0xD3, 0xDF, 0xCD, 0xF4, 0x41, 0x81, 0x4D, 0x52, 
  0x6A, 0xDC, 0x37, 0xC8, 0x6C, 0xC1, 0xAB, 0xFA, 0x24, 0xE1, 0x7B, 0x08, 0x0C, 0xBD, 0xB1, 0x4A, 
  0x78, 0x88, 0x95, 0x8B, 0xE3, 0x63, 0xE8, 0x6D, 0xE9, 0xCB, 0xD5, 0xFE, 0x3B, 0x00, 0x1D, 0x39, 
  0xF2, 0xEF, 0xB7, 0x0E, 0x66, 0x58, 0xD0, 0xE4, 0xA6, 0x77, 0x72, 0xF8, 0xEB, 0x75, 0x4B, 0x0A, 
  0x31, 0x44, 0x50, 0xB4, 0x8F, 0xED, 0x1F, 0x1A, 0xDB, 0x99, 0x8D, 0x33, 0x9F, 0x11, 0x83, 0x14 }

MD2 hashes

The 128-bit (16-byte) MD2 hashes (also termed message digests) are typically represented as 32-digit hexadecimal numbers. The following demonstrates a 43-byte ASCII input and the corresponding MD2 hash:

 MD2("The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog") = 

As the result of the avalanche effect in MD2, even a small change in the input message will (with overwhelming probability) result in a completely different hash. For example, changing the letter d to c in the message results in:

 MD2("The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy cog") = 

The hash of the zero-length string is:

 MD2("") = 


Rogier and Chauvaud (1997) described collisions of MD2's compression function, although they were unable to extend the attack to the full MD2.

In 2004, MD2 was shown to be vulnerable to a preimage attack with time complexity equivalent to 2104 applications of the compression function (Muller, 2004). The author concludes, "MD2 can no longer be considered a secure one-way hash function".

In 2008, MD2 has further improvements on a preimage attack with time complexity of 273 compression function evaluations and memory requirements of 273 message blocks.[5]

In 2009, MD2 was shown to be vulnerable to a collision attack with time complexity of 263.3 compression function evaluations and memory requirements of 252 hash values. This is slightly better than the birthday attack which is expected to take 265.5 compression function evaluations.[6]

In 2009, security updates were issued disabling MD2 in OpenSSL, GnuTLS, and Network Security Services.[7]

See also


  • Burt Kaliski, RFC 1319 - MD2 Message Digest Algorithm, April 1992.
  • N. Rogier, Pascal Chauvaud, The compression function of MD2 is not collision free, Selected Areas in Cryptography - SAC'95 Ottawa, Canada, May 18–19, 1995 (workshop record).
  • N. Rogier, Pascal Chauvaud, MD2 is not Secure without the Checksum Byte, Designs, Codes and Cryptography, 12(3), pp245–251, 1997.
  • Frédéric Muller, The MD2 Hash Function is Not One-Way, ASIACRYPT 2004, pp214–229.
  • Lars R. Knudsen and John Erik Mathiassen, Preimage and Collision Attacks on MD2. FSE 2005.
  1. ^ John Linn, RFC 1115 - Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part III—Algorithms, Modes, and Identifiers, Section 4.2, August 1989, Source by Ron L. Rivest October, 1988.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ CVE-2009-2409

External links

  • RFC 1319, The MD2 Message-Digest Algorithm
  • RFC 6149, MD2 to Historic Status
  • Online MD2 Calculator over HTTPS
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.