World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

MIDI controller

Article Id: WHEBN0001354621
Reproduction Date:

Title: MIDI controller  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Deckadance, Novation Digital Music Systems, Synthesizer, Keytar, Computer music
Collection: Computer Peripherals, Electronic Musical Instruments, Midi
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

MIDI controller

The term MIDI controller can be used literally or point to a particular scenario of how a device is used.

  • Used literally, MIDI controller refers to any hardware or software that generates and transmits MIDI data to MIDI-enabled devices.
  • in practice, MIDI controller refers to a device that controls parameters of a performance. A slider assigned to open and close a low-pass filter on a synthesizer may be assigned to controller 18, for example. Changes in the position of the slider are transmitted along with "18" so that they are distinguished from changes in the value of other controllers. The MIDI Controller can be populated with any number of sliders, knobs, buttons, and other sensors, and may or may not include a piano-keyboard.


  • Types (hardware and software) 1
  • Use in a data stream 2
  • Common products 3
  • External links 4

Types (hardware and software)

The following are classes of MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) controller:

  • The human interface component of a traditional instrument redesigned as a MIDI control device. The most common type of device in this class is the keyboard controller. Such a device provides a musical keyboard and perhaps other actuators (pitch bend and modulation wheels, for example) but produces no sound on its own. It is intended only to drive other MIDI devices. Percussion controllers such as the Roland Octapad fall into this class, as do a variety of wind controllers and guitar-like controllers such as the SynthAxe.
  • Electronic musical instruments, including synthesizers, samplers, drum machines, and electronic drums, which are used to perform music in real time and are inherently able to transmit a MIDI data stream of the performance.
  • Pitch-to-MIDI converters including guitar/synthesizers analyze a pitch and convert it into a MIDI signal. There are several devices which do this for the human voice and for monophonic instruments such as flutes, for example.
  • Traditional instruments such as drums, acoustic pianos, and accordions which are outfitted with sensors and a computer processor which accepts input from the sensors and transmits real-time performance information as MIDI data. The performance information (e.g., on which notes or drums are struck, and how hard) is then sent to a module or computer which converts the data into sounds (e.g., samples or synthesized sounds).
  • Sequencers, which store and retrieve MIDI data and send the data to MIDI enabled instruments in order to reproduce a performance.
  • MIDI Machine Control (MMC) devices such as recording equipment, which transmit messages to aid in the synchronization of MIDI-enabled devices. For example, a recorder may have a feature to index a recording by measure and beat. The sequencer that it controls would stay synchronized with it as the recorder's transport controls are pushed and corresponding MIDI messages transmitted.
  • MIDI Show Control (MSC) devices such as show controllers, which transmit messages to aid in the operation and cueing of live theatrical and themed entertainment productions. For example, a variety of show control sub systems such as sound consoles, sound playback controllers, virtual audio matrices and switchers, video playback systems, rigging controllers, pyro and lighting control systems directly respond to MSC commands. However, most standalone generic MSC controllers are intended to actuate a generic computerised show control system which has been carefully programmed to produce the complex desired results that the show demands at each moment of the production.
  • MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface allows a variety of musical instruments to interact with the PC in a digital environment for recording or performance.

Use in a data stream

See also: General MIDI: Controller events

Modifiers such as modulation wheels, pitch bend wheels, sustain pedals, pitch sliders, buttons, knobs, faders, switches, ribbon controllers, etc., alter an instrument's state of operation, and thus can be used to modify sounds or other parameters of music performance in real time via MIDI connections. The 128 virtual MIDI controllers and their electronic messages connect the actual buttons, knobs, wheels, sliders, etc. with their intended actions within the receiving device.

Some controllers, such as pitch bend, are special. Whereas the data range of most continuous controllers (such as volume, for example) consists of 128 steps ranging in value from 0 to 127, pitch bend data may be encoded with over 16,000 data steps. This produces the illusion of a continuously sliding pitch, as in a violin's portamento, rather than a series of zippered steps such as a guitarist sliding their finger up the frets of their guitar's neck. Thus, the pitch wheel on a MIDI keyboard may generate large amounts of data which can lead to a slowdown of data throughput.

The original MIDI spec included 128 virtual controller numbers for real time modifications to live instruments or their audio. MIDI Show Control (MSC) and MIDI Machine Control (MMC) are two separate extensions of the original MIDI spec, expanding MIDI protocol to accept far more than its original intentions.

Common products

The most common MIDI controllers encountered are various sizes of "piano" keyboards. A modern controller lacks internal sound-generation, instead acting as a primary or secondary input for a synthesizer, digital sampler or a computer running a VST instrument or other software sound generator. Many have several user-definable knobs and slide controls which can control aspects of a synthesizer's sound in real-time. Such controllers are much cheaper than a full synthesizer, and are increasingly equipped with Universal Serial Bus, which allows connection to a computer without a MIDI interface. Despite not using MIDI directly, software applications recognize such controllers as a MIDI device. In most cases, a USB-equipped controller can draw necessary power from the interface's 5v line, and does not require an A/C adapter when connected to a computer. Keyboards range in size from 88 weighted-action keys to portable 25-key models. Controllers, such as Audiocubes, can be used for performance applications (by a trained pianist, for example) or by a DJ to trigger sound samples and rhythm loops.

Drums system is also commonly used, especially dedicated drum pads and sampler. Many drum setups are paired with a sound generator from the same manufacturer, but often have a MIDI output in addition. Such systems allow a drummer to practice quietly (through headphones) and to record drum tracks without a studio, expensive microphone, etc. Also, the pads can control any sort of percussion instrument sample, providing the drummer with a greatly increased sound palette.

External links

  • Midi Lifestyle “Learn to Build your own Midi Controller!.”
  • Sweetwater Sound. “MIDI Controllers: Buying Guide.”
  • Menzies-Gow, Dylan. “The CyberWhistle and O-Bow: Minimalist controllers inspired by traditional instruments.” eContact! 12.3 — Instrument—Interface (June 2010). Montréal: CEC.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.