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Ma Hongbin

Ma Hongbin
Traditional Chinese 馬鴻賓
Simplified Chinese 马鸿宾
Ma Hongbin
马鸿宾
General Ma Hongbin
Governor of Gansu[1]
In office
November 1930 – December 1931
Preceded by Wang Zhen (Wang Chen)
Succeeded by Ma Wenche (Ma Wen-ch'e)
Governor of Ningxia (1st time)
In office
7 Jan 1921 – Dec 1928
Preceded by Ma Fuxiang (Ma Fu-hsiang)
Succeeded by Men Zhizhong (Men Chih-chung)
Governor of Ningxia (2nd time)
In office
1948–1949
Preceded by Ma Hongkui
Succeeded by Pan Zili (P'an Tzu-li)
Personal details
Born September 14, 1884
Linxia County, Gansu
Died October 21, 1960(1960-10-21) (aged 76)
Lanzhou
Nationality Hui
Political party Kuomintang
Children Ma Dunjing (1906–1972)
Religion Sunni Islam
Awards Order of Leopold (Belgium)[2]
Military service
Nickname(s) "Ma the Kind Man"
Allegiance  Republic of China
 People's Republic of China
Years of service 1910–1960
Rank general
Unit Ma clique
Battles/wars Second Zhili–Fengtian War, Central Plains War, Long March, Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese Civil War

Ma Hongbin (September 14, 1884 – October 21, 1960), was a prominent Chinese Muslim warlord active mainly during the Republican era, and was part of the Ma clique. He was the acting Chairman of Gansu and Ningxia Provinces for a short period.[3]

Contents

  • Life 1
  • Family 2
  • Career 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Life

Chiang Kai-shek, leader of China, in the middle, meets with the Muslim Generals Ma Hongbin (second from left), and Ma Hongkui(second from right) at Ningxia August 1942.

Ma was born in the village of Hanchiachi, in Linxia County, Gansu. He was the son of Ma Fulu who died in 1900 when fighting against the foreigners in the Battle of Peking (1900) in the Boxer Rebellion.[4][5][6] As a nephew of Ma Fuxiang,[7] he followed him and later Feng Yuxiang into the army. He and Ma Fuxiang protected a Catholic mission in Sandaohe from attacks by the Gelaohui, and he received the Order of Leopold (Belgium) ("King Leopold decoration")[8] Upon his cooperation with Chiang Kai-shek, he was named commander of the 22nd Division, 24th Army, within the National Revolutionary Army. He was governor of Ningxia from 1921 to 1928 and chairman of the government of Ningxia in 1930. However, Ma Hongbin developed and consequently lost a power struggle with his cousin Ma Hongkui, a fact that was exploited by Chiang Kai-shek to his own advantage by preventing Ma Hongbin from total defeat. In 1930, Chiang named Ma Hongbin as the Chairman of the Provincial Council of Gansu, a post he held until 1931. However, Ma Hongbin only had very limited control, as the actual control of Gansu was mostly under the control of another rival Muslim warlord Ma Zhongying's. Even after Ma Zhongying's departure to former-USSR in July, 1934, most local troops remaining and population was still loyal to Ma Zhongying. During Ma Hongbin's rise to power, together with his cousin Ma Hongkui and other Muslim Generals and warlords like Ma Bufang and Ma Buqing, they were instrumental in helping Ma Bufang's cousin, Ma Zhongying, to prevail in Gansu, because they did not want Ma Zhongying to compete with them in their own turfs, so they encouraged and supported Ma Zhongying to develop his own power base in other regions such as Gansu and Xinjiang.

The Japanese planned to invade Ningxia from Suiyuan in 1939 and create a Hui Muslim puppet state. The next year in 1940, the Japanese were defeated militarily by Ma Hongbin, who caused the plan to collapse. Ma Hongbin's Hui Muslim troops launched further attacks against Japan in the Battle of West Suiyuan.[9][10]

He became the commander of the 81st Corps during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. In 1940 at the Battle of Wuyuan, Ma Hongbin led the 81st Corps against the Japanese. The Japanese were defeated by the Chinese Muslim forces and Wuyuan was retaken. Throughout the war, Ma Hongbin continued military operations against the Japanese and their Mongolian allies.

Ma Hongbin's army was clan centered and feudal. In his 81st corps, his chief of staff was his brother in law, Ma Chiang-liang.[11]

The American Asiatic Association reported that he commanded the eighty fourth Army corps.[12]

After the war, he became a senior adviser within the Northwestern Army Headquarters. When his cousin Ma Hongkui resigned from his positions and fled to Taiwan, those positions where transferred to Ma Hongbin. In 1949 during the Chinese Civil War, when the People's Liberation Army was approaching the northwest, Ma Hongbin and his son Ma Dunjing led his 81st Corps to cross over to the communist side.[13] He was named vice-chairman (later restyled vice-governor) of Gansu province. He was also vice-director of the Commission of Ethnic Affairs as well as a member of the National Defense Commission of the People's Republic of China. He died in Lanzhou in 1960.[14]

Family

Ma Hongbin's father was Ma Fulu, and his cousin was Ma Hongkui.[15][16] His uncles were Ma Fuxiang, Ma Fushou, and Ma Fucai. His grandfather was Ma Qianling.

Ma Hongkui's son was General Ma Dunjing (1906–1972), two of his nephews were Generals Ma Tung-hou and Ma Dunjing (1910–2003).

Career

  • 1921 - 1928 Governor of Ningxia Province
  • 1928 - ? Commander of the 22nd Division
  • 1930 Chairman of the Government of Ningxia Province
  • 1930 - 1931 Chairman of the Provincial Council of Gansu
  • 1938 - 1945 General Officer Commanding 81st Corps
  • 1940 - 1941 Commander in Chief 17th Army Group
  • Deputy Commander- in-chief of the XVnth Group Army

See also

References

  1. ^ Hung-mao Tien (1972). Government and politics in Kuomintang China, 1927–1937. Stanford University Press. p. 186.  
  2. ^ Ann Heylen (2004). Chronique du Toumet-Ortos: looking through the lens of Joseph Van Oost, missionary in Inner Mongolia (1915-1921). Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press. p. 203.  
  3. ^ Paul Preston, Michael Partridge, Antony Best. British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Asia, Volume 1. University Publications of America. p. 37.  
  4. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 169.  
  5. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  6. ^ Joint Committee on Chinese Studies (U.S.) (1987). Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20-24, 1987, Volume 3. p. 20. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  7. ^ Dudoignon, Stephane A.; Hisao, Komatsu; Yasushi, Kosugi, eds. (2006). Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation and Communication. Volume 3 of New Horizons in Islamic Studies. Routledge. p. 342.  
  8. ^ Ann Heylen (2004). Chronique du Toumet-Ortos: looking through the lens of Joseph Van Oost, missionary in Inner Mongolia (1915-1921). Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press. p. 203.  
  9. ^ Xiaoyuan Liu (2004). Frontier passages: ethnopolitics and the rise of Chinese communism, 1921-1945. Stanford University Press. p. 131.  
  10. ^ The China monthly review, Volumes 80-81. J.W. Powell. 1937. p. 320. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  11. ^ Aleksandr I͡Akovlevich Kali͡agin, Aleksandr I︠A︡kovlevich Kali︠a︡gin (1983). Along alien roads. East Asian Institute, Columbia University. p. 29.  
  12. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  13. ^ United States. Joint Publications Research Service (1984). China report: economic affairs, Issues 92-97. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. p. 34. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  14. ^ 民国少数民族将军(组图)2 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  15. ^ Paul Preston, Michael Partridge, Antony Best. British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Asia, Volume 2. University Publications of America. p. 63.  [3]
  16. ^ Anthony Best, Michael Partridge, Paul Preston (2009). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From 1951 through 1956. Asia, 1955. Burma, China and Formosa, Japan, and Korea, 1955, Part 5. LexisNexis. p. 181.  [4]

External links

  • Rulers
  • 民国军阀派系谈 (The Republic of China warlord cliques discussed ) http://www.2499cn.com/junfamulu.htm
  • Ma Hongbin
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