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Madikeri

Madikeri
ಮಡಿಕೇರಿ
ಕೂರ್ಗ್ Coorg
The streets of Madikeri
The streets of Madikeri
Nickname(s): The scotland of India
Madikeri is located in Karnataka
Madikeri
Location in Karnataka, India
Coordinates:
Country  India
State Karnataka
District Kodagu
Elevation 1,061 m (3,481 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 33,381
Languages
 • Official Kodava Thakk Kannada
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 571 201
Telephone code 0827
Vehicle registration KA-12
Website .in.gov.madikericitywww

Madikeri is a hill station town in Karnataka state, India. Also known as Mercara, it is the headquarters of the district of Kodagu (also called Coorg). It is a popular tourist destination.

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
  • Demographics 3
  • Geography and Climate 4
  • Feasts 5
  • Getting there 6
    • By road 6.1
    • By rail 6.2
    • By Air 6.3
  • Places to see 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Etymology

Madikeri was formerly known as Muddu raja keri.[1] Muddurajakeri which means Mudduraja's town, was named after the prominent Haleri king, Mudduraja who ruled Kodagu from 1633 to 1687.

The form of the name often used in English, Mercara, is derived from Madikeri by a standard transformation of the retroflex 'd' to an 'r' consonant.

History

Madikeri Fort, now accommodates Deputy Commissioner's office
Map c. 1854

The history of Madikeri is related to the history of Kodagu. From the 2nd to the 6th century AD, the northern part of Kodagu was ruled by Kadambas. The southern part of Kodagu was ruled by Gangas from the 4th to the 11th century. After defeating the Gangas in the 11th century, Cholas became the rulers of Kodagu. In the 12th century, the Cholas lost Kodagu to the Hoysalas. Kodagu fell to the Vijayanagar kings in the 14th century. After their fall, the local chieftains (Palegars) started ruling their areas directly. These were defeated by the Haleri kings who ruled Kodagu from 1600-1834 AD. Haleri kings made the place Haleri, near Madikeri as their capital. Mudduraja, the third Haleri king started leveling the land around Madikeri and built a fort in the year 1681. Madikeri Fort was original built of mud and was replaced by Tipu Sultan. Kodagu became the part of British India after 1834 AD.[2]

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[3] Madikeri had a population of 47,257. Males constitute 57.2% of the population and females 42.8%. Madikeri had an average literacy rate of 81%, higher than the national average of 57.2: male literacy was 83%, and female literacy 79%. 11% of the population was under 6 years of age. This town is situated at an elevation of over 5000 ft above sea level.

The main language of Madikeri is Kodava Takk, Kannada, Are Bashe spoken by Gowdas those who migrated from South Canara or Dakshina Kannada and settled in Kodagu, features prominently here.

Geography and Climate

Madikeri features a tropical highland climate as it has an elevation of 1061 metres (3484 feet). Madikeri is located at .[4][5] Madikeri lies in the Western Ghats and is a popular hill station. The nearest cities are Mangalore to the west, and Mysore to the east.

The mean daily minimum temperature is lowest in January at about 11 °C.Maximum temperature in summer is around 24 °C to 27 °C.[6] With the onset of the south-west monsoon, the temperature decreases in June and the weather becomes chilly.The lowest temperature recorded is 4.5 °C.

Climate data for Madikeri
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.9
(85.8)
32.0
(89.6)
33.1
(91.6)
34.1
(93.4)
35.2
(95.4)
32.0
(89.6)
30.8
(87.4)
31.1
(88)
31.5
(88.7)
31.2
(88.2)
30.4
(86.7)
29.8
(85.6)
35.2
(95.4)
Average high °C (°F) 24.5
(76.1)
27.2
(81)
28.1
(82.6)
28.4
(83.1)
28.5
(83.3)
24.8
(76.6)
23.5
(74.3)
21.8
(71.2)
23.3
(73.9)
25.0
(77)
25.0
(77)
25.2
(77.4)
25.44
(77.79)
Average low °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
15.2
(59.4)
16.6
(61.9)
17.0
(62.6)
17.5
(63.5)
16.8
(62.2)
16.5
(61.7)
16.6
(61.9)
16.7
(62.1)
15.7
(60.3)
14.7
(58.5)
12.2
(54)
15.73
(60.33)
Record low °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
4.8
(40.6)
7.1
(44.8)
12.2
(54)
13.0
(55.4)
13.0
(55.4)
12.6
(54.7)
12.3
(54.1)
10.4
(50.7)
8.8
(47.8)
5.6
(42.1)
5.0
(41)
4.5
(40.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.6
(0.063)
1.1
(0.043)
3.0
(0.118)
33.0
(1.299)
407.2
(16.031)
1,010.1
(39.768)
894.1
(35.201)
741.5
(29.193)
214.0
(8.425)
177.6
(6.992)
69.2
(2.724)
3.5
(0.138)
3,555.9
(139.995)
Coorg Forest Hopper (Arnetta mercara)
Madikeri on a misty morning

Feasts

In Madikeri the main festivals celebrated are Kailpodhu, Kaveri Sankramana, Puttari and Dasara. The Karaga festival also starts during the time of Navaratri.

Mantapa from Kanchi Kamakshi Temple in Dasara procession

Getting there

Raja's Seat, one of the major tourist attractions in Mercera

By road

Madikeri lies on the Karnataka State Highway 88 that runs from Mysuru to Mangaluru. It is 120 km from Mysore and 136 km from Mangaluru. From Bengaluru, the state capital of Karnataka, one can take the State Highway 17 (Bangalore - Mysore Highway) and take a deviation just after the town of Srirangapatna to join State Highway 88 towards Madikeri. It can be approached from Mangaluru via Puttur, Sullia passing through sampaje ghat .From Bangalore, Madikeri is at a distance of 252 km. Nearby towns are Hassan (115 km), Sullia at a distance of 52 km in Karnataka state and Kannur, Thalassery, Kanhangad and Uppala in Kerala state (each around 114 km away).

By rail

Madikeri does not have a railway station. The nearest railheads are Hassan, Kasaragod, Kanhangad, Kannur and Thalassery (each of which are almost equidistant at 115 km away). Mysore at 120 km and Mangalore at 140 km away are good alternatives to reach Madikeri from within Karnataka.

By Air

Mysore Airport is the nearest airport.

Mangalore International Airport at Manglore (140 km) is another alternative with flights from Mumbai, Bengalooru, New Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai, Pune and Gulf countries.

Places to see

Palace now used as DC office
  • Raja Seat: This is a small square viewing spot like a mantapa in brick and mortar of four pillars bridged by arches, enhanced by beautiful surroundings. This spot was a favourite place of recreation for the Rajas and hence was permanently associated with them. It is built on a high level ground with a commanding view of the cliffs and valleys to the west.
  • Madikeri Fort: This fort was first built by Mudduraja in the last quarter of the 17th century. He also built a palace inside the fort. It was eventually rebuilt in granite by Tipu Sultan who named the site as Jaffarabad. In 1790, Doddavira Rajendra took control of the fort. The British added to the fort in 1834. The palace was renovated by Lingarajendra Wodeyar II between 1812 and 1814. In the north-east corner at the entrance are two life size masonry elephants, and a church is present in the south-east corner. There is a famous Lord Ganesha temple known as "Kote ganapathi" just at the main entrance of the fort.
  • Omkareshwara Temple: Located at the heart of the Town, Omkareshwara temple was built by king Lingarajendra in 1820. The temple has both Islamic and Gothic styles of architecture, built around a central pool. It is said Lingarajendra killed an honest and pious Brahmin to fulfill his political ambitions. That Brahmin became a "Brahmarakshasa" and started troubling the king. In order to purify himself for the killing of a Brahmin, he was advised to construct a temple to Lord Shiva. He brought a Shivalinga from Kashi, and the temple was built and named "Omkareshwara".
  • East India Company and funded by the Government of Madras,[7] under the Church of England in India, Diocese of Madras.[8] The Church was closed after Indian independence, and taken over by the Government of Karnataka in 1971.[9] The building now houses the Madikeri Fort Museum, managed by the Karnataka State Archaeological Department.[10]

References

  1. ^ Coorg History
  2. ^ Jerry Dupont, The Common Law Abroad, Wm. S. Hein Publishing, 2001, ISBN 0-8377-3125-9, from p 592
  3. ^
  4. ^ Madikeri, FallingRain.com
  5. ^ Maps, Weather, Videos, and Airports for Madikeri, India
  6. ^ Ground Water Information Booklet, Ministry of Water Resources, 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^

External links

  • Madikeri.org: Portal on Madikeri and Coorg
  • Madikeri: History and Architecture
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