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Makova (Hasidic dynasty)

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Makova (Hasidic dynasty)

This article is about the Hungarian town. For other uses, see Mako (disambiguation).
Makó
Town

Montage including images of downtown Makó

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): The Capital of Onion, Constantinople of the Maros, Town of Flowers
Motto: Makó - Not Only Onions!
Hungary
Makó
Makó
Location of Makó

Coordinates: 46°13′01″N 20°28′59″E / 46.217°N 20.483°E / 46.217; 20.483Coordinates: 46°13′01″N 20°28′59″E / 46.217°N 20.483°E / 46.217; 20.483

Country  Hungary
Settled 895
Founded 1299
Founded by Andrew III of Hungary
Named for General Makó
Government
 • Type Mayor-Council
 • Mayor Péter Buzás (Fidesz-KDNP)
Area
 • Total 229.23 km2 (88.51 sq mi)
Population (1 January 2011)
 • Total 27,727
 • Density 120.957/km2 (313.28/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 6900
Area code(s) 62
Website [1]

Makó ([ˈmɒkoː], German: Makowa, Yiddish: מאַקאָוו Makov, Romanian: Macǎu, Slovak: Makov) is a town in Csongrád County, in southeastern Hungary, near the Romanian border. It lies on the Maros River. Makó is home to 23 272 people and it has an area of 229.23 square kilometres (88.51 square miles) of which 196.8 km2 (76.0 sq mi) is arable land. Makó is the 4th largest town in Csongrád County after Szeged, Hódmezővásárhely and Szentes. The town is just 28.6 km (17.8 mi) from Hódmezővásárhely, 36.2 km (22.5 mi) from Szeged, 75.4 km (46.9 mi) from Arad, 85 km (52.8 mi) from Gyula, 93.5 km (58.1 mi) from Timişoara (Temesvár), 200 km (124 mi) from Budapest and just 10 km (6 mi) from the border of Romania.

The climate is warmer than anywhere else in Hungary with hot and dry summers. The town is famous for its onion which is a hungarikum,[1] the spa and the thermal bath. The Makó International Onion Festival which is the greatest of its kind is held in every year.[1] That's why Makó is a popular tourist destination in Hungary.

There is a large natural gas field, the Makó gas field near the town. It is the largest in Central Europe. The gas volume is more than 600 billion cubic metres (21 trillion cubic feet), according to a report by the Scotia Group.

The town's floodplain forests are part of the Körös-Maros National Park.

Economy

The main source of income for the population comes from agriculture

The town is famous for its onion and garlic produce. Both the climate and the soil structure make the town and its surroundings an ideal place for onion farming. Growing onions in the region goes back to the 16th century. The first records of significant garlic production goes back to the late 18th century. International recognition of the garlic grown in Makó has been prevalent since the Vienna Expo in 1873 and the Brussels Expo in 1888.

The mud of the Maros River has similar properties to some of the best in Hungary and the world. At times it is likened to that of the Dead Sea and the local spa has been one of the main attractions since 1961.

With the political changes in 1989, however, Makó lost most of its industry and unemployment (currently ca. 8%) became a serious issue. Even farmers experienced great difficulties. With the establishment of an industrial park, the town hopes to take advantage of its location at "The South-Eastern Gate of the European Union."

Makó is more recently famous due to the nearby Makó Trough, a basin-centered gas accumulation that could be one of the largest natural gas fields in continental Europe, provided the gas can be recovered economically. As of early March 2007, this had not yet been clearly demonstrated. At the 90% probability rate, Makó had certified recoverable resources of over 600 billion cubic meters of natural gas, according to a report by the Scotia Group, prepared for the field's exploration concession holder, the Canada-based Falcon Oil and Gas.

History

Makó used to be the capital of Csanád, a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary.

Many famous Hungarian people were born or lived in Makó. Perhaps the most recognized person among them is the American journalist, Joseph Pulitzer who was born there on April 18, 1847.

Jewish history

Makó was once one of the largest centers of the Jewish population in Hungary. The synagogue has been rebuilt recently.

Jews began to settle in Makó about the middle of the 18th-century, under the protection of Stanislavich, the Bishop of Csanad, who, in 1740, assigned a special quarter to them. They soon formed a community, and by 1747 had established a ḥebra ḳaddisha.[2]

The first rabbi of Makó was Judah ben Abraham ha-Levi (who occupied the rabbinate from 1778 to 1824).
He was succeeded by Salomon Ullman (1826–63). Ullman wrote a commentary on certain sections of Yoreh De'ah, under the title "Yeri'ot Shelomoh" (Vienna, 1854).
He was followed by Anton Enoch Fischer (1864–96), former rabbi of Dunaföldvár. Fischer introduced German and (later) Hungarian in his sermons.[2]
The Jewish Encyclopedia[2] records that "[t]he present (1904) incumbent is Dr. A. Kecskemeti".

A Jewish school was established in Makó in 1851, of which Marcus Steinhardt was one of the teachers for forty years. There also was a Jewish women's association, a Jewish students' aid society, and a Jewish women's lying-in hospital.[2]

In 1900, Makó had 1,642 Jews, out of a total population of 33,722.[2]

Geography

The former community pasture of the town near the Maros River became part of the Körös-Maros National Park. The traditional name of the area, Csordajárás shows its former use as grazing ground for cattle.

Climate

Makó and the surrounding region get the most sunshine in Hungary, about 85-90 sunny days a year. The sun shines more than 2,100 hours a year in Makó. However, the 100 year average of precipitation is only 585 millimetres (23.0 in) per year. The average medium temperature is 10.9 °C (51.6 °F).

People

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Makó is twinned with:[5]

References

External links

  • Official Pages of Makó (in Hungarian)
  • Makó at Google Earth Community
  • Pogrom Makó

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