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Martin Marprelate

Martin Marprelate (sometimes printed as Martin Mar-prelate and Marre–Martin)[1][2] was the name used by the anonymous author or authors of the seven Marprelate tracts that circulated illegally in England in the years 1588 and 1589. Their principal focus was an attack on the episcopacy of the Anglican Church.


  • Background 1
  • Identity and authorship 2
  • Official reaction 3
  • Later influence and interpretation 4
  • See also 5
  • Notes 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8


Puritan History
Narrative History
History of the Puritans under Elizabeth I
History of the Puritans under James I
History of the Puritans under Charles I
History of the Puritans from 1649
History of the Puritans in North America
Definitions of Puritanism
Puritan choir
Vestments controversy
Martin Marprelate
Millenary Petition
Arminianism in the Church of England
Providence Island Company
Puritan Sabbatarianism
Scrooby Congregation
Trial of Archbishop Laud

In 1583, the appointment of John Whitgift as Archbishop of Canterbury had signalled the beginning of a drive against the Presbyterian movement in the church, and an era of censorship began. In 1586, by an edict of the Star Chamber, the archbishop was empowered to license and control all of the printing apparatus in the country.

Identity and authorship

The true identity of "Martin" has long been the subject of speculation. For many years, the main candidate was

  • For the full texts of the tracts, see The Marprelate Tracts, John D. Lewis, ed.
  • For a long, if dated, discussion in the Cambridge History of English Literature, see “The Marprelate Controversy” at

External links

  • Black, Joseph L., ed. (2008). The Martin Marprelate Tracts; A Modernized and Annotated Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. l–li. 
  • Carlson, Leland H. (1981). Martin Marprelate, Gentleman: Master Job Throckmorton Laid Open in His Colors. San Marino, California: The Henry E. Huntington Library. 
  • Collinson, Patrick (2004). "Carleton, George (1529–1590)". (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)  
  • Collinson, Patrick (2013). Richard Bancroft and Elizabethan Anti-Puritanism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 


  1. ^ “The just censure and reproof of Martin Junior” (1589) in The Marprelate Tracts, John D. Lewis, ed., The Anglican Library.
  2. ^ Van Eerde, Katherine S. “Robert Waldegrave: The Printer as Agent and Link Between Sixteenth-Century England and Scotland” in Renaissance Quarterly 34 (1981), 40–78
  3. ^ Dover Wilson, John, Martin Marprelate and Shakespeare's Fluellen, Alexander Moring Limited, 1912.
  4. ^ Carlson, Leland H., Martin Marprelate, Gentleman: Master Job Throckmorton Laid Open In His Colours (San Marino: Huntington Library, 1981)
  5. ^ Black 2008, p. xxxv.
  6. ^ Carlson 1981, p. 24.
  7. ^ Collinson 2004.
  8. ^ Collinson 2013, p. 64.
  9. ^
  10. ^ Writing Robert Greene: Essays on England's First Notorious Professional Writer, by Edward Gieskes and Kirk Melnikoff, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 28 Apr 2013, p.207
  11. ^ The Life of William Shakespeare: A Critical Biography by Lois Potter, John Wiley & Sons, 7 May 2012, p.73


See also

The Marprelate tracts are important documents in the history of English satire: critics from C. S. Lewis to John Carey have recognised their originality. In particular, the pamphlets show concern with the status of the text, wittily pastiching conventions such as the colophon and marginalia.

Some of the Marprelate pamphlets were reprinted in the seventeenth century, and an extensive scholarship has commented on their historical and literary significance. The anti-Martinist literature, including the Pasquill pamphlets, by contrast, has suffered from relative neglect by scholars of early modern England.

Later influence and interpretation

Some scholars, notably Arul Kumuran, have argued Robert Greene's later works were influenced by the Marprelate pamphlets,[10] though Greene is noted as an anti-Martinist author.[11]

The government was concerned enough at the virulence of the attacks on the ecclesiastical hierarchy to respond in kind, hiring professional writers such as Thomas Nashe, Robert Greene and John Lyly to write counter-tracts. Like most polemics, the tracts are full of hatred of their opponents, describing the bishops as representing the Antichrist, and equally convinced of the righteousness of their own cause. The most prolific and effective of the anti-Martinists went by the colorful sobriquet, "the renowned Cavaliero Pasquill,". Pasquill was traditionally believed to have been Thomas Nashe, however R. B. McKerrow, the editor of Nashe's complete works refutes this: "further study led me to suspect - indeed, to feel almost certain - that Nashe had nothing to do with them (anti-Marprelates texts)."[9]

Official reaction

The tracts had to be printed in secrecy, and some sort of organisation was involved to handle their production and distribution. Penry was definitely involved in the printing, and the press was frequently relocated to different parts of the country in order to avoid the authorities. Penry himself denied any involvement in the actual authorship.


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