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Mehoopany Creek

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Mehoopany Creek

Mehoopany Creek is a tributary of the Susquehanna River in Sullivan and Wyoming counties, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is approximately 26.8 miles (43.1 km) long. In Sullivan County the creek flows through Colley Township and in Wyoming County it flows through Forkston Township and Mehoopany Township.[1] The stream's watershed has an area of 123 square miles (320 km2). Its major tributaries include Stony Brook and North Fork Mehoopany Creek.

Mehoopany Creek is designated as a high-quality coldwater fishery in Sullivan County. Its headwaters are listed in the Sullivan County Natural Areas Inventory.

Contents

  • Course 1
    • Tributaries 1.1
  • Hydrology 2
  • Geography and geology 3
  • Watershed 4
  • History, etymology, and industries 5
  • Biology 6
  • Recreation 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9

Course

Mehoopany Creek begins in Splashdam Pond in Colley Township, just west of the eastern border of Sullivan County. The creek flows north and then east. It leaves Sullivan County approximately a mile from its headwaters.[1]

Upon leaving Sullivan County, Mehoopany Creek enters Forkstown Township, Wyoming County. In this township, it flows roughly east, entering a valley. It dips southeast, picking up the tributary Bellas Brook, and then flows in a northeasterly direction for several miles. Along the way, the creek passes Short Mountain and receives the tributary South Brook, along with numerous other tributaries. At Flat Top, it turns north for a few miles, receiving the tributary White Creek. The creek's valley becomes shallower and it receives the tributary North Fork Mehoopany Creek. It then turns northeast and enters Mehoopany Township. The creek meanders for several miles through this township before reaching its confluence with the Susquehanna River near the community of North Mehoopany.[1]

Mehoopany Creek joins the Susquehanna River 231.52 miles (372.60 km) upstream of its mouth.[2]

Tributaries

Tributaries of Mehoopany Creek include Stony Brook, North Fork Mehoopany Creek, and numerous others.[1] North Fork Mehoopany Creek joins Mehoopany Creek 6.26 miles (10.07 km) upstream of its mouth and its watershed has an area of 40.00 square miles (103.6 km2). Stony Brook joins Mehoopany Creek 12.20 miles (19.63 km) upstream of its mouth. The watershed of this brook has an area of 6.87 square miles (17.8 km2).[2]

Hydrology

The average rate of precipitation in the watershed of Mehoopany Creek ranges from 35 to 45 inches (89 to 114 cm) per year.[3]

Mehoopany Creek is acidic in early spring.[4]

Geography and geology

The elevation near the mouth of Mehoopany Creek is 604 feet (184 m) above sea level.[5] The elevation of the creek's source is between 2,040 feet (620 m) and 2,080 feet (630 m).[1] Its elevation decreases at a rate of 88 feet (27 m) per mile in its upper reaches.[3]

The topography of the watershed of Mehoopany Creek is described as "rough and hilly" in a 1921 book. The watershed has numerous steep hills, with heights from 900 to 1,000 feet (270 to 300 m). The creek's channel is sinuous. The creek has alluvial floodplains in its lower reaches.[3]

Mehoopany Creek flows through rock formations of shale and sandstone.[3]

Mehoopany Creek has "dangerously situated strainers" and major rapids in places.[6]

Watershed

The watershed of Mehoopany Creek has an area of 123 square miles (320 km2).[2] The watershed is in three counties: Sullivan County, Wyoming County, and Bradford County.[3]

The watershed of Mehoopany Creek is forested. Lakes and swamps are present in its upper reaches. One lake in the watershed is Grant Lake, which has a surface area of 68.8 acres.[3]

There are a number of communities in the watershed of Mehoopany Creek. In 1921, the largest were Mehoopany, with a population of 648; Ricketts, with a population of 275; and Forkston, with a population of 210.[3] Major roads in the watershed include Pennsylvania Route 87.[4]

History, etymology, and industries

A gauging station was established on Mehoopany Creek in January 1914.[3]

Industries done in the watershed of Mehoopany Creek in the early 1900s included agriculture. The creek also provided water power for a number of mills. The Lehigh Valley Railroad also traversed the upper part of the watershed in the this period.[3] Logging has been done near the headwaters of the creek.[7]

Biology

Mehoopany Creek and its drainage basin is designated as a high-quality coldwater fishery in Sullivan County.[7] A total of 9.8 miles (15.8 km) of the creek are stocked with fish. However, native trout are also present in the watershed, especially in the tributary Stony Brook.[4]

The headwaters of Mehoopany Creek are "one of the two highest priority sites in the [Sullivan] county" according to their listing in the Sullivan County Natural Areas Inventory. These headwaters are a wetland complex, which contains several rare plant species. However, the wetlands are mostly dominated by blueberry plants.[7]

The headwaters of Mehoopany Creek are home to three plant species that are rare or endangered in Pennsylvania.[7]

Recreation

Mehoopany Creek is suitable for intermediate and novice canoers. The creek is easier to canoe on in its lower reaches than in its upper reaches and the scenery on the creek is described as "good".[6] The American Whitewater Association's difficulty ranking of the creek ranges from I to III during normal flow conditions.[8]

Mehoopany Creek flows through Pennsylvania State Game Lands in many places.[4]

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
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