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Michigan Territory

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Michigan Territory

Territory of Michigan
the United States

1805–1837
 

Location of Michigan Territory
Separation of the Wisconsin Territory from Michigan Territory in preparation for Michigan statehood. The combined red and blue areas form the Michigan Territory at its maximum extent.
Capital Detroit
Government Organized incorporated territory
Governor
 •  1805–13 William Hull
 •  1813–31 Lewis Cass
 •  1831–32 Stevens T. Mason(acting)
 •  1832–34 George B. Porter
 •  1834-35 Stevens T. Mason(acting)
 •  1835–37 John S. Horner (governing from Wisconsin land not to be included in the Michiganian state)
Legislature Legislative Council of the Territory of Michigan
History
 •  Organic Act effective June 30, 1805
 •  Statehood of Michigan January 26, 1837 1837

The Territory of Michigan was an Union as the State of Michigan. Detroit was the territorial capital.

Contents

  • History and government 1
    • Early government in Michigan 1.1
    • Beginnings of American rule 1.2
    • Organization 1.3
  • Territorial acquisition 2
  • Territorial subdivisions 3
  • Territorial population 4
  • Territorial officers 5
    • Governors 5.1
    • Secretaries 5.2
    • Supreme Court 5.3
  • Congressional delegates 6
  • Territorial evolution of Michigan 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

History and government

The earliest European explorers of Michigan saw it mostly as a place to control the fur trade. Small military forces, Jesuit missions to Native American tribes and isolated settlements of trappers and traders accounted for most of the inhabitants of what would become Michigan.

Early government in Michigan

After the arrival of Europeans, the area that became the Michigan Territory was first under French and then British control. The first Jesuit mission, in 1668 at Sault Saint Marie, led to the establishment of further outposts at St. Ignace (where a mission began work in 1671) and Detroit, first occupied in 1701 by the garrison of the former Fort de Buade under the leadership of Cadillac. Soon after their arrival, his troops erected Fort Pontchartrain du Detroit and a church dedicated to Saint Anne, the mother of the Virgin Mary. As part of New France, the upper Great Lakes had first been governed from Michilimackinac, then Detroit; this was essentially a military regime that reported to the governor-general at Quebec. Its role was to supply the needs of the fur traders and discourage any settlements not directly supportive of that effort. After the surrender of Montreal in 1760, British troops under Robert Rogers occupied Detroit and its dependent posts. In 1763, Pontiac's Rebellion saw the fall of Fort Michilimackinac to the northern tribes, and a lengthy siege of Fort Detroit. The siege was lifted in 1764, and rule under a British lieutenant-governor at Detroit followed soon thereafter.

The Province of Quebec in 1774

Due to the Lower Canada (today's Province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario) in 1791, and the districts of Upper Canada were renamed the next year, with the Detroit area designated as the Western District.

Following the American Revolutionary War, several states had competing claims on land in the region. In 1779, Virginia established Illinois County with boundaries that encompassed all of the land east of the Mississippi River, north of the Ohio River and west of the Appalachian Mountains. (However, the county government for all practical purposes never exercised actual control beyond an area limited to a few old French settlements along the major rivers. The overwhelming majority of the northwestern lands were controlled by the native tribes.) New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts also claimed portions of what was to become Michigan, but were even less able to enforce their pretensions, given Britain's control of the Great Lakes and the hostility of the tribes.

Although the 1783 Treaty of Paris gave the fledgling United States a claim to what is now Michigan, British policy was to hold on to Detroit and its dependencies at all costs. In 1784, Baron von Steuben would be sent to Canada by the Congress of the Confederation in a diplomatic capacity to address the question of Detroit and the Great Lakes, but lieutenant governor Frederick Haldimand refused to provide a passport, and negotiations collapsed before they had begun.

Virginia surrendered its claim to lands north and west of the Ohio River, effective March 1, 1784. Coincidentally (or not) this was the same day that the findings of a Congressional committee on the western lands, chaired by Thomas Jefferson since the previous October, were reported. Jefferson's recommendations became the basis for the Ordinance of 1784, which established that new states equal in all respects to the founding thirteen would be erected in the territory, that they would forever be a part of the United States, and that their governments would be republican in form. The Land Ordinance of 1785 would go further by establishing a procedure for land sales in the new territory, but the Ohio River remained an effective boundary between the United States and the Northwest tribes for a few more years.

The other states with claims in the Northwest eventually followed Virginia's example, and in 1787, the Continental Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance, which created the Northwest Territory.[1] The first settlement under the Northwest Ordinance was at Marietta, in 1788.

The region that became Michigan was initially unorganized territory, and remained under British control until 1796; that did not stop Governor Arthur St. Clair from establishing a structure of government for the area, if only on paper. Knox County was established on June 20, 1790 with boundaries that included the western half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and roughly the middle third of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In 1792, the boundaries of Hamilton County were expanded to include the eastern portions of Michigan not included in Knox County.

American claims to Michigan were frustrated by Britain's refusal to evacuate the forts at Detroit, Mackinac and elsewhere. Britain's tacit support for the Northwest tribes during the Northwest Indian War was dependent on Detroit remaining out of American hands. But the position of the British and their allies in the Northwest deteriorated after the signing of Jay's Treaty and the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, and after negotiations, the British evacuated Detroit on July 11, 1796. The United States had finally established a presence in Michigan.

Beginnings of American rule

By proclamation of acting governor and territorial secretary Winthrop Sargent, the "first" Wayne County was established August 15, 1796, from Knox and Hamilton counties, and included most of the area that later became the Michigan Territory, as well as portions of what are now Ohio and Indiana.

In 1800, the western half of the Lower Peninsula and most of the Upper Peninsula was attached to Indiana Territory when it was established as a separate government from the Northwest Territory. Wayne County was thereby reduced to the remainder of the two peninsulas, and continued under the government of the Northwest Territory. St. Clair County, another Indiana Territory county, was also expanded at this time, to include the western portion of the Upper Peninsula and a small sliver of the Lower Peninsula along the shore of Lake Michigan.

When Ohio was admitted as a state in early 1803, the eastern half of Michigan was attached to the Indiana Territory. One of the first acts taken that year by the Indiana government under

  • An act to divide Indiana Territory (the law which created the Michigan Territory)
  • Michigan.gov: Important Dates in Michigan's Quest for Statehood
  • Bay County Map History: Michigan Territory to Present
  • GEO 333: Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region: Historical and Human Geography

External links

  1. ^ Finkelman, Paul, Hershock, Martin J., and Taylor, Clifford W. (2006). The History of Michigan Law, p. 13. Ohio University Press. ISBN 0-8214-1661-8.
  2. ^ http://www.in.gov/history/6194.htm
  3. ^ http://www.in.gov/history/6204.htm
  4. ^ http://www.in.gov/history/6199.htm
  5. ^ http://www.in.gov/history/6194.htm
  6. ^ http://www.in.gov/history/6189.htm
  7. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Naubinway Rest Area
  8. ^ Northernmost Point of Lake Michigan, Michigan Historical Markers
  9. ^ Williams, George Washington (1883). History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880, Vol. II, p. 9. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
  10. ^ Fess, Simeon D. (1910. The History of Political Theory and Party Organization in the United States, p. 272. Boston: Ginn and Company.

References

See also

Territorial evolution of Michigan

Delegate Years Party
William Woodbridge 1819–20 (16th Congress) Whig
Solomon Sibley 1820–23 (16th and 17th Congresses)
Gabriel Richard 1823–25 (18th Congress)
Austin Eli Wing 1825–29 (19th and 20th Congresses)
John Biddle 1829–31 (21st Congress)
Austin Eli Wing 1831–33 (22nd Congress)
Lucius Lyon 1833–35 (23rd Congress) Democratic
George Wallace Jones 1835–37 (24th Congress) Democratic

In 1819, Michigan Territory was given the authority to elect a Congressional delegate.

Congressional delegates

Supreme Court Justices Dates Served Notes
Augustus B. Woodward March 2, 1805 to February 1, 1824 Appointed by Thomas Jefferson; resigned following reorganization of court
Frederick Bates March 3, 1805 to November 1808 Appointed by Thomas Jefferson; resigned after being appointed Secretary of Louisiana Territory
John Griffin December 23, 1805 to February 1, 1824 Appointed by Thomas Jefferson; resigned following reorganization of court
James Witherell April 23, 1808 to January 15, 1828 First appointed by Thomas Jefferson; reappointed by James Monroe; resigned after being appointed Secretary of Michigan Territory
Solomon Sibley February 2, 1824 to July 17, 1836 First appointed by James Monroe, reappointed by John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson; not reappointed after Michigan statehood
John Hunt February 20, 1824 to June 15, 1827 Twice appointed by James Monroe; died in office
Henry C. Chipman July 18, 1817 to April 25, 1832 Twice appointed by John Quincy Adams; was not reappointed by Andrew Jackson
William Woodbridge January 15, 1828 to April 25, 1832 Appointed by John Quincy Adams; was not reappointed by Andrew Jackson
Ross Wilkins April 26, 1832 to July 17, 1836 Appointed by Andrew Jackson; appointed U.S. District Court judge for Michigan after statehood
George Morell April 26, 1832 to July 17, 1843 First appointed by Andrew Jackson; appointed to the Michigan Supreme Court by Governor Mason

From 1805 through 1823, Territorial Supreme Court Justices were appointed by the U.S. President, with consent of the U.S. Senate. Their terms had no fixed limits. In 1823, the U.S. Congress passed an act reorganizing territorial government and setting a four-year term of office for justices.

Supreme Court

Secretary Dates Served
Stanley Griswold March 1, 1805 to March 18, 1808
Reuben Atwater March 18, 1808 to October 15, 1814
William Woodbridge October 15, 1814 to January 15, 1828
James Witherell January 15, 1828 to May 20, 1830
John T. Mason May 20, 1830 to July 12, 1831
Stevens T. Mason July 12, 1831 to September 15, 1835
John S. Horner September 15, 1835 to July 3, 1836

Secretaries

Governor Dates Served Notes
William Hull March 1, 1805 to August 16, 1812 Surrendered Detroit to British forces, August 16, 1812
Henry Proctor August 24, 1812 to September 28, 1813 Civil governor under British rule to February 4; martial law thereafter until evacuation of Detroit in September
Lewis Cass October 13, 1813 to August 6, 1831 Appointed military governor by General Harrison; civil governor from October 29
George Bryan Porter August 6, 1831 to July 6, 1834 Died in office.
Stevens T. Mason July 6, 1834 to September 15, 1835 ex officio, Acting Governor due to position as Secretary
John S. Horner September 15, 1835 to July 3, 1836 ex officio, Acting Governor due to position as Secretary

Governors

Territorial officers

Year Population
1810 4,762
1820 8,896
1830 31,639
1834 87,273
1840 212,267

These census numbers do not include most Native Americans, defined in the U.S. Constitution as "Indians not taxed" (Article I, Sec. 2). In 1800, the whole of the Northwest Territory had 43,365 residents. Under the Northwest Ordinance, a territory could apply for statehood once it had surpassed 60,000 inhabitants.

Territorial population

Milwaukee County was established in 1834 and was transferred to Wisconsin Territory two years later.

Michigan Territory briefly governed lands west of the Mississippi, after the statehood of Iowa and that part of Minnesota west of the river. Such was the case until 1834, when that area was placed under the government of Michigan Territory. Dubuque and Des Moines counties were created in 1834, and transferred to the Wisconsin Territory in 1836 upon its organization.

Iowa County, with its seat at Mineral Point, was established in 1829 and transferred to the Wisconsin Territory in 1836.

Seven of the 12 counties created in 1829 were named for members of President Andrew Jackson's Cabinet, and one was named for Jackson himself.

Jackson and Ingham were created in 1829 from Washtenaw; Isabella was created from parts of Saginaw and Midland counties in 1831. Gratiot County was also established in 1831, with land from Saginaw and Clinton counties.

Kalamazoo County, Michigan, established 1829 from St. Joseph County, was the dominant tract in Western Michigan and was divided and subdivided into many other counties: Allegan, Barry, Calhoun, Eaton, Ionia, Montcalm, Kent, Ottawa and Clinton (some created during the territorial period, others split off later).

Chippewa County was created from Michilimackinac County in 1826.

Lenawee County was created in 1822 from what had been Indian lands, and Hillsdale County was separated from it in 1829. Other parts of Lenawee were turned into Cass and Berrien. Branch also sprung fully formed from Michigan Territory in 1829.

Stevens T. Mason ran for governor in the first state elections in 1835.

Oakland County, Michigan was created in 1819, and over time was subdivided into all or parts of Genesee, Lapeer, Sanilac, Shiawassee and Saginaw counties. Saginaw County would be split further into eight separate counties, three of which (Isabella, Arenac and Midland) were established during the territorial period.

Also organized in 1818 were two counties that survive in present-day Wisconsin. Crawford was set up to govern the settlements on the upper Mississippi River from its seat at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, while Brown performed a similar function for the settlements around Green Bay. These would become part of the Wisconsin Territory in 1836.

Wayne County, Michigan, originally part of the vast Northwest Territory, was eventually whittled down into its current size by the separation of several tracts: Monroe in 1817, Michilimackinac County (later called Mackinac) and Macomb counties in 1818, St. Clair and St. Joseph counties in 1820 and Washtenaw County in 1822. The first township organization was Detroit, in Wayne County, in 1802.

Territorial subdivisions

The area that became Michigan had been British territory, and was ceded to the United States in 1783, although the native peoples of the area had not ceded control to either the British or Americans for most of the territory by 1783. The majority of it was gained by cession, coerced or otherwise. The people who resided in Michigan before American settlement were the Ottawa, the Potawatomi, Ojibwa and the Wyandot. Treaties ceding the land were signed between 1795 (the Treaty of Greenville) and 1842 (the Treaty of La Pointe). Other notable treaties were Governor Hull's treaty of 1808, the Treaty of Saginaw in 1819, the two Treaties of Chicago (1821, 1833), the Carey Mission in 1828 and the Treaty of Washington in 1836 and a later treaty of January 4, 1837.

Territorial acquisition

On July 3, 1836, in preparation for Michigan statehood, the Montreal River as part of the resolution to the conflict over the Toledo Strip, which had blocked Michigan statehood for several years. Detroit remained the capital until March 17, 1847 when Lansing was chosen as a replacement. The population of Michigan at the time of statehood is estimated to have been about 200,000, which was well above the Northwest Ordinance's minimum requirement of 60,000.

Michigan shrank in 1836 with the creation of the Wisconsin Territory. Wisconsin Territory was established in 1836 with the present boundary in the Upper Peninsula.

It is believed that those counted as slaves were, in many cases, Indians rather than blacks. [10] and 32 in 1830.[9] Slavery was forbidden in the territory under the

Meanwhile, in 1835, the Toledo War was fought with Ohio because Michigan Territory wanted to retain the disputed "Toledo Strip." The Toledo area of Ohio was finally surrendered in exchange for the western section of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

Michigan becomes a state of the Union when it agrees to the boundaries dictated by the U.S. Congress, giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip and accepts the western portion of the Upper Peninsula.
The disputed portion of Michigan Territory referred to as the Toledo Strip.

In 1834, all of the lands acquired in the Louisiana Purchase that were as yet unallocated and lay east of the Missouri River (generally, the Dakotas, Iowa and the western half of Minnesota) were attached to the Michigan Territory, an area that was officially characterized as "north of Missouri and east of the Missouri and White Earth Rivers." At this point, Michigan Territory included what is now the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota and a large portion of the Dakotas.

Between 1833 and 1836, all the remnants of the old Northwest Territory were part of the Michigan Territory along with portions of the Louisiana Purchase.

The Erie Canal opened in 1825, allowing settlers from New England and New York to reach Michigan by water through Albany and Buffalo.

In 1824, the Michigan Territory graduated to the second grade of territorial status, and the government's power was transferred from the Governor and a handful of judges to the people. The people elected 18 to the Legislative Council, of which nine were approved by the President, and it first sat in council on June 7, 1824. This Council was expanded from nine members to 13 in 1825, with the 13 being chosen by the President from a field of 26.

When Indiana (1816) and Illinois (1818) joined the Union, remnants of their territories were joined to Michigan Territory. An area equal to 30 townships was also transferred from Michigan Territory to Indiana to allow that state access to Lake Michigan. Soon afterward, the federal government rapidly began signing treaties with local Indian tribes and acquiring their lands.

Between 1818 and 1833, Illinois and Indiana became states and the unincorporated land from their territories, plus a handful of other townships, were made part of Michigan.

During the War of 1812, following General Isaac Brock's capture of Detroit on August 16, 1812, the Michigan Territory was at least nominally a part of the Province of Upper Canada. On August 24, Colonel Henry Proctor proclaimed the continuation of civil government under existing laws with Proctor acting as Governor and Chief Justice Augustus B. Woodward acting as Secretary. On February 4, 1813, Proctor suspended civil government and imposed martial law.

The first territorial governor, William Hull abolished Wayne County and established new districts of his own making, which proved to be short-lived. Lewis Cass became governor in 1813 and promptly undid Hull's work and re-established a third incarnation of Wayne County that included all lands within Michigan Territory that had been ceded by Indians through the 1807 Treaty of Detroit.

Michigan Territory was established by an act of the United States Congress on January 11, 1805, effective June 30 of that year.[6] The act defined the territory as "all that part of the Indiana Territory, which lies North of a line drawn east from the southerly bend or extreme of lake Michigan, until it shall intersect lake Erie, and East of a line drawn from the said southerly bend through the middle of said lake to its northern extremity, and thence due north to the northern boundary of the United States." A historical marker at a roadside park, approximately three miles east of Naubinway at ,[7] commemorates the northernmost point of Lake Michigan, which is located approximately one mile west of the park.[8]

From 1805–1818, the western border was a line through Lake Michigan.

Organization

[5] and the settlers of Michigan petitioned Congress in December 1804, asking that Wayne County be set off as an independent territory.[4] as well) should progress to the second stage of territorial government. But word failed to reach Detroit until after the date had passed,District of Louisiana to decide whether Indiana Territory (which by this time was responsible for not only the settlements in Michigan, Wisconsin and Illinois, but the newly acquired [3] in northeastern Ohio. The deciding factor may have come when an election was called by Governor Harrison for September 11, 1804,[2]

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