World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Microfold cell

Article Id: WHEBN0006237576
Reproduction Date:

Title: Microfold cell  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Jejunum, Human digestive system, M cells, Animal cells, Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Microfold cell

Microfold cell
Details
Latin epitheliocytus microplicatus
Identifiers
Code TH H3.04.03.0.00010
Anatomical terminology

Microfold cells (or M cells) are found in the follicle-associated epithelium of the mucosal immunity.

Unlike their neighbouring cells, they have the unique ability to take up antigen from the lumen of the small intestine via endocytosis or phagocytosis, and then deliver it via transcytosis to dendritic cells (an antigen presenting cell) and lymphocytes (namely T cells) located in a unique pocket-like structure on their basolateral side.

Contents

  • Structure and function 1
  • Pathology 2
  • Development 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Structure and function

M cells differ from normal enterocytes in that they lack microvilli on their apical surface, but instead possess broader microfolds that give the cell its name. These cells are far less abundant than enterocytes. M cells do not secrete mucus or digestive enzymes, and have a thinner glycocalyx, which allows them to have easy access to the intestinal lumen for endocytosis of antigens. M cells main function is the selective endocytosis of antigens, and transporting them to intraepithelial macrophages and lymphocytes, which then migrate to lymph nodes where an immune response can be initiated.

Pathology

M cells are exploited by several pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as infectious prions in Bovine spongiform encephalitis (Mad-cow disease), as a way to penetrate the intestinal epithelium. Exploitation as a virulence factor depends upon the pathogen's ability to bind to M cells and thus guarantee penetration in that manner, as M cells sample intestinal contents. EPEC (see Pathogenic Escherichia coli) containing plasmids with genes for EAF (Escherichia coli Adherence Factor) will adhere to M cells.

They are also exploited by viruses such as Polio and Reovirus for dissemination.[1]

CXCR4 tropic but not CCR5 tropic HIV has been noted to be able to bind to M cells and get transported across the epithelium by them.[2]

Development

Factors promoting the differentiation of M cells have yet to be elucidated, but they are thought to develop in response to signals from immune cells found in the developing Peyer's patch.[3]

References

  1. ^ Laurent Ouzilou1, Elise Caliot2, Isabelle Pelletier1, Marie-Christine Prévost3, Eric Pringault2 and Florence Colbère-Garapin1. Journal of General Virology (2002), 83, 2177-2182.
  2. ^ Grigorios Fotopoulos*, Alexandre Hararidagger , Pierre MichettiDagger , Didier Trono§, Giuseppe Pantaleodagger, and Jean-Pierre Kraehenbuhl. July 1, 2002, 10.1073/pnas.142586899
  3. ^ Link

External links

  • Slide at ucsd.edu
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.