World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Montague Township, New Jersey

Montague Township, New Jersey
Township
Township of Montague
High Point State Park
High Point State Park
Map of Montague Township in Sussex County. Inset: Location of Sussex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Map of Montague Township in Sussex County. Inset: Location of Sussex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Montague Township, New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Montague Township, New Jersey.
Coordinates: [1][2]
Country  United States
State  New Jersey
County Sussex
Royal patent March 26, 1759
Incorporated February 21, 1798
Government[3]
 • Type Township
 • Body Township Committee
 • Mayor Richard Innella (term ends December 31, 2015)[4][5]
 • Clerk Eileen DeFabiis[4]
Area[1]
 • Total 45.380 sq mi (117.533 km2)
 • Land 43.997 sq mi (113.951 km2)
 • Water 1.383 sq mi (3.582 km2)  3.05%
Area rank 40th of 566 in state
3rd of 24 in county[1]
Elevation[6] 1,066 ft (325 m)
Population (2010 Census)[7][8][9]
 • Total 3,847
 • Estimate (2014)[10] 3,770
 • Rank 418th of 566 in state
13th of 24 in county[11]
 • Density 87.4/sq mi (33.7/km2)
 • Density rank 547th of 566 in state
22nd of 24 in county[11]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP code 07827[12]
Area code(s) 973 Exchanges: 293, 948[13]
FIPS code 3403747430[1][14][15]
GNIS feature ID 0882256[1][16]
Website .org.montaguenjwww

Montague Township is a township in Sussex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 3,847,[7][8][9] reflecting an increase of 435 (+12.7%) from the 3,412 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 580 (+20.5%) from the 2,832 counted in the 1990 Census.[17] High Point, within Montague Township, is the highest elevation within New Jersey at an altitude of 1,803 feet (550 m) above sea level. Montague is also the northernmost municipality in the state of New Jersey.

Most of the area of Montague Township is public lands, primarily High Point State Park, Stokes State Forest, and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Montague is known for its scenery and wildlife, and summer sports in the area include hiking, biking, camping (both public and private campgrounds are available), and fishing.

The derivation of the township's name is uncertain, though suggestions include that it was named after the

External links

  1. ^ a b c d e f 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
  2. ^ a b US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  3. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 110.
  4. ^ a b c Township Offices, Departments and Committees, Montague Township. Accessed June 25, 2015.
  5. ^ 2014 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, as of December 15, 2014. Accessed April 6, 2015. As of date accessed, George Zitone was listed as mayor with a term-end year of 2014.
  6. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of Montague, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 8, 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Montague township, Sussex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 11. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Montague township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  10. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - 2014 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
  11. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  12. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Montague, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  13. ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Montague, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed October 5, 2014.
  14. ^ a b American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  15. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed October 29, 2012.
  16. ^ US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  17. ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  18. ^ Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed September 7, 2015.
  19. ^ History of Montague, Montague Association for the Restoration of Community History. Accessed May 19, 2013.
  20. ^ Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 231. Accessed October 29, 2012.
  21. ^ Hanley, Robert. "New Jersey Journal", The New York Times, May 11, 1980. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  22. ^ Locality Search, State of New Jersey. Accessed May 21, 2015.
  23. ^ Climate Summary for Montague Township, New Jersey
  24. ^ Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
  25. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed May 19, 2013.
  26. ^ Bowen, Francis. American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1843, p. 231, David H. Williams, 1842. Accessed May 19, 2013.
  27. ^ Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 271, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed February 24, 2013. "Montague is the most northern township, bordering on New York and Pennsylvania. It contained in 1850, 1,010 inhabitants; in 1860. 983; and in 1870, 932."
  28. ^ Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, p. 141. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  29. ^ Staff. A compendium of the ninth census, 1870, p. 260. United States Census Bureau, 1872. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  30. ^ Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III - 51 to 75, p. 97. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  31. ^ Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 338. Accessed August 30, 2012.
  32. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 719. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  33. ^ New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network, backed up by the Internet Archive as of February 24, 2013.
  34. ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Montague township, Sussex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  35. ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Montague township, Sussex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  36. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Montague township, Sussex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  37. ^ "Forms of Municipal Government in New Jersey", p. 7. Rutgers University Center for Government Studies. Accessed June 3, 2015.
  38. ^ 2014 Municipal Data Sheet, Montague Township. Accessed June 25, 2015.
  39. ^ 2013 Reorganization Meeting Minutes - January 1, 2013, Montague Township. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  40. ^ Montague Township Committee Meeting Minutes - January 8, 2013, Montague Township. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  41. ^ County Summary With Detail - General Election: November 6, 2012, Sussex County, New Jersey Clerk, run date November 30, 2012. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  42. ^ General and School Election Official Results November 4, 2013, Sussex County, New Jersey Clerk, run date November 7, 2013. Accessed April 6, 2015.
  43. ^ General Election Official Results November 4, 2014 for Hopatcong, Sussex County, New Jersey, run date November 10, 2014. Accessed April 6, 2015.
  44. ^ Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  45. ^ 2015 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 61, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed May 22, 2015.
  46. ^ Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  47. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  48. ^ About Cory Booker, United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
  49. ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "He currently lives in Paramus and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
  50. ^ Senators of the 114th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
  51. ^ Legislative Roster 2014-2015 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed February 11, 2014.
  52. ^ District 24 Legislators, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed February 11, 2014.
  53. ^ "About the Governor". State of  
  54. ^ "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of  
  55. ^ a b Sussex County Board of Chosen Freeholders, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  56. ^ Richard A. Vohden, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  57. ^ Dennis J. Mudrick, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  58. ^ Phillip R. Crabb, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  59. ^ George Graham, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  60. ^ Gail Phoebus, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  61. ^ a b Miller, Jennifer Jean. "George Graham Chosen as Freeholder at Sussex County Republican Convention", TheAlternativePress.com, April 13, 2013. Accessed April 25, 2013. "Graham will fill the freeholder seat that New Jersey Assemblyman Parker Space left to take his new position. Space recently took the seat, which formerly belonged to Gary Chiusano, who in turn, was appointed to the spot of Sussex County Surrogate, following the retirement of Surrogate Nancy Fitzgibbons."
  62. ^ Home Page, Sussex County Clerk's Office. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  63. ^ Sheriff's Office, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  64. ^ Home Page, Sussex County Surrogate. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  65. ^ County Administrator, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  66. ^ Sussex County Official Directory 2014, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  67. ^ a b Voter Registration Summary - Sussex, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  68. ^ GCT-P7: Selected Age Groups: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision; 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  69. ^ General Election November 6, 2012: District Report - Group Detail, Sussex County, New Jersey Clerk, run date November 30, 2012. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  70. ^ 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Sussex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  71. ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Sussex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  72. ^ "Governor - Sussex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014. 
  73. ^ "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 5, 2013 - General Election Results - Sussex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014. 
  74. ^ 2009 Governor: Sussex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed February 24, 2013.
  75. ^ District information for Montague Township School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed April 6, 2015.
  76. ^ Montague Township School District 2014 District Narrative, New Jersey School Report Card. Accessed April 7, 2015. "Montague Township School District offers a pre-school disabled program, full day kindergarten and grades one through six. Currently, seventh and eighth grade students attend Sussex County Charter School, Choice Districts and Port Jervis Middle School in Port Jervis New York. Pending Commissioner of Education approval, it is anticipated that in September 2015, current sixth grade students will remain at Montague for seventh and eighth grades as the district begins to transition from Port Jervis Middle School in Port Jervis New York. In September 2014, the district began to transition incoming ninth grade students from the Port Jervis City School District in Port Jervis New York into High Point Regional School District in New Jersey. The transition of high school students into High Point Regional School District will be complete by 2017."
  77. ^ Sussex County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
  78. ^ a b Staff. "Brnach Twins Grapple With Their Problems", The New York Times, June 22, 1984. Accessed May 3, 2015. "Within a year, Ed and Lou were given up by one couple, but taken in by another one, which also had taken another brother, Steve, who was 5. Ed and Lou were 4. The couple, Alan and Stephanie Tooley, had been married eight years and had given up on having children. They lived in a ranch house on an acre in Montague, N.J."
  79. ^ HORNBECK, John Westbrook, (1804 - 1848), Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed May 3, 2015.
  80. ^ VAN AUKEN, Daniel Myers, (1826 - 1908), Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed May 3, 2015.
  81. ^ Kinuyo Yamashita, MobyGames. Accessed May 3, 2015.

References

Wineries

People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Montague Township include:

Notable people

The township does not have a traffic light.

In the northernmost section of the township along Route 23, there are several gasoline stations, most likely because gas is significantly less expensive in New Jersey than in Matamoras, Pennsylvania or Port Jervis, New York.

The closest limited access road is Interstate 84 (which used to be part of the New York State Thruway until October 2010) and is immediately over the state line in Deerpark, New York.

One U.S., state, and county route each traverses the township. U.S. Route 206 passes through in the western part and crosses the Delaware River at the Milford-Montague Toll Bridge. Route 23 passes through the eastern part and serves as the entrance road to High Point State Park and ends at the New York border just south of I-84. County Route 521 passes through the northwest and ends at the New York state boundary.

As of May 2010, the township had a total of 55.97 miles (90.07 km) of roadways, of which 25.50 miles (41.04 km) were maintained by the municipality, 23.85 miles (38.38 km) by Sussex County and 6.13 miles (9.87 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 0.49 miles (0.79 km) by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission.[77]

Transportation

Public school students in seventh through twelfth grades cross state lines to attend middle school and high school in nearby Port Jervis, New York or may enroll at Sussex County Technical School, which accepts students on a selective basis, and to the middle school charter program in Sparta Township. Starting in September 2014, Montague Township's high school students began attending High Point Regional High School, in a shift from Port Jervis that will take four years.[76]

Students in public school for Kindergarten through sixth grade attend the Montague Township School District. As of the 2012-13 school year, the district's one school had an enrollment of 303 students and 30.0 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 10.10:1.[75]

Education

In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 74.6% of the vote (750 cast), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 21.8% (219 votes), and other candidates with 3.7% (37 votes), among the 1,015 ballots cast by the township's 2,446 registered voters (9 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 41.5%.[72][73] In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 832 votes (68.6% vs. 63.3% countywide), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 243 votes (20.0% vs. 25.7%), Independent Chris Daggett with 103 votes (8.5% vs. 9.1%) and other candidates with 22 votes (1.8% vs. 1.3%), among the 1,212 ballots cast by the township's 2,402 registered voters, yielding a 50.5% turnout (vs. 52.3% in the county).[74]

In the John Kerry with 466 votes (29.8% vs. 34.4%) and other candidates with 20 votes (1.3% vs. 1.3%), among the 1,564 ballots cast by the township's 2,072 registered voters, for a turnout of 75.5% (vs. 77.7% in the whole county).[71]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 2,448 registered voters in Montague Township, of which 328 (13.4% vs. 16.5% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 1,247 (50.9% vs. 39.3%) were registered as Republicans and 870 (35.5% vs. 44.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 3 voters registered to other parties.[67] Among the township's 2010 Census population, 63.6% (vs. 65.8% in Sussex County) were registered to vote, including 82.4% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 86.5% countywide).[67][68]

Politics

Stanhope, 2016)[59] and Gail Phoebus (R, Andover Township, 2015).[60][55] Graham was chosen in April 2013 to fill the seat vacated by Parker Space, who had been chosen to fill a vacancy in the New Jersey General Assembly.[61] Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are County Clerk Jeff Parrott (R, 2016),[62] Sheriff Michael F. Strada (R, 2016)[63] and Surrogate Gary R. Chiusano (R, filling the vacancy after the resignation of Nancy Fitzgibbons).[64][61] The County Administrator is John Eskilson.[65][66]

For the 2014-2015 Session, the 24th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Steve Oroho (R, Franklin) and in the General Assembly by Alison Littell McHose (R, Franklin) and Parker Space (R, Wantage Township).[51][52] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[53] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[54]

New Jersey's Fifth Congressional District is represented by Scott Garrett (R, Wantage Township).[47] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark, term ends 2021)[48] and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus, 2019).[49][50]

Montague Township is located in the 5th Congressional District[44] and is part of New Jersey's 24th state legislative district.[8][45][46]

Federal, state and county representation

[43][42][41][40][39][38][4] As of 2015, members of the Montague Township Committee are

Montague Township is governed under the Township form of government. The five-member Township Committee is elected directly by the voters at-large in partisan elections to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either one or two seats coming up for election each year as part of the November general election in a three-year cycle.[3][37] At an annual reorganization meeting, the Township Committee selects one of its members to serve as Mayor and another as Deputy Mayor.

Local government

Government

The median income for a household in the township was $45,368, and the median income for a family was $50,833. Males had a median income of $39,569 versus $25,221 for females. The per capita income for the township was $20,676. About 8.5% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.1% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.[34][35]

In the township the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 107.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.5 males.[34][35]

There were 1,286 households out of which 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.4% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.2% were non-families. 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.14.[34][35]

As of the 2000 United States Census[14] there were 3,412 people, 1,286 households, and 910 families residing in the township. The population density was 77.5 people per square mile (29.9/km²). There were 1,588 housing units at an average density of 36.1 per square mile (13.9/km²). The racial makeup of the township was 95.25% White, 1.79% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.67% Asian, 1.08% from other races, and 1.03% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.28% of the population.[34][35]

Census 2000

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $64,526 (with a margin of error of +/- $9,763) and the median family income was $68,542 (+/- $13,778). Males had a median income of $44,105 (+/- $14,473) versus $33,996 (+/- $5,832) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $26,411 (+/- $2,961). About 7.3% of families and 8.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.6% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.[36]

In the township, 22.8% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 31.9% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.3 years. For every 100 females there were 100.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.2 males.[7]

There were 1,535 households, of which 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.9% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.03.[7]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,847 people, 1,535 households, and 1,045 families residing in the township. The population density was 87.4 per square mile (33.7/km2). There were 1,802 housing units at an average density of 41.0 per square mile (15.8/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 92.33% (3,552) White, 2.63% (101) Black or African American, 0.23% (9) Native American, 1.01% (39) Asian, 0.00% (0) Pacific Islander, 1.46% (56) from other races, and 2.34% (90) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 6.39% (246) of the population.[7]

Census 2010

Demographics

This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Montague Township has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps.[23]

Climate

Unincorporated communities, localities and place names located partially or completely within the township include Brick House, Duttonville, High Point, High Point Park, Lake Marcia, Mashipacong Island, Mashipacong Pond, Millville and Minisink Island.[22]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 45.380 square miles (117.533 km2), including 43.997 square miles (113.951 km2) of land and 1.383 square miles (3.582 km2) of water (3.05%).[1][2]

Geography

Contents

  • Geography 1
    • Climate 1.1
  • Demographics 2
    • Census 2010 2.1
    • Census 2000 2.2
  • Government 3
    • Local government 3.1
    • Federal, state and county representation 3.2
    • Politics 3.3
  • Education 4
  • Transportation 5
  • Notable people 6
  • Wineries 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Before Montague Township was granted its own post office in the 1980s, residents had all of their mail delivered through the 12771 ZIP code for Port Jervis, New York, leading to situations where residents had New Jersey driver's licenses with a New York State address.[21]

[20].New Jersey Legislature Montague was incorporated on February 21, 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships by an Act of the [19], an author who was popular at the time; or for solicitor John Montague.Lady Mary Wortley Montagu for [18]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.