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Myristic acid

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Title: Myristic acid  
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Subject: Saturated fat, Palm oil, Stearic acid, Rice bran oil, Orris oil
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Myristic acid

Myristic acid[1]
Skeletal formula of myristic acid
Ball-and-stick model of myristic acid
Names
IUPAC name
Tetradecanoic acid
Other names
C14:0 (Lipid numbers)
Identifiers
 Y
ChEBI  N
ChEMBL  N
ChemSpider  N
EC number 208-875-2
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem
RTECS number QH4375000
UNII  N
Properties
C14H28O2
Molar mass 228.38 g·mol−1
Density 1.03 g/cm3 (−3 °C)[2]
0.99 g/cm3 (24 °C)[3]
0.8622 g/cm3 (54 °C)[4]
Melting point 54.4 °C (129.9 °F; 327.5 K) [5]
Boiling point 326.2 °C (619.2 °F; 599.3 K) at 760 mmHg
250 °C (482 °F; 523 K)
at 100 mmHg[4]
218.3 °C (424.9 °F; 491.5 K)
at 32 mmHg[3]
13 mg/L (0 °C)
20 mg/L (20 °C)
24 mg/L (30 °C)
33 mg/L (60 °C)[6]
Solubility Soluble in alcohol, acetates, C6H6, haloalkanes, phenyls, nitros[6]
Solubility in acetone 2.75 g/100 g (0 °C)
15.9 g/100 g (20 °C)
42.5 g/100 g (30 °C)
149 g/100 g (40 °C)[6]
Solubility in benzene 6.95 g/100 g (10 °C)
29.2 g/100 g (20 °C)
87.4 g/100 g (30 °C)
1.29 kg/100 g (50 °C)[6]
Solubility in methanol 2.8 g/100 g (0 °C)
17.3 g/100 g (20 °C)
75 g/100 g (30 °C)
2.67 kg/100 g (50 °C)[6]
Solubility in ethyl acetate 3.4 g/100 g (0 °C)
15.3 g/100 g (20 °C)
44.7 g/100 g (30 °C)
1.35 kg/100 g (40 °C)[6]
Solubility in toluene 0.6 g/100 g (−10 °C)
3.2 g/100 g (0 °C)
30.4 g/100 g (20 °C)
1.35 kg/100 g (50 °C)[6]
log P 6.1[4]
Vapor pressure 0.01 kPa (118 °C)
0.27 kPa (160 °C)[7]
1 kPa (186 °C)[4]
Thermal conductivity 0.159 W/m·K (70 °C)
0.151 W/m·K (100 °C)
0.138 W/m·K (160 °C)[8]
1.4723 (70 °C)[4]
Viscosity 7.2161 cP (60 °C)
3.2173 cP (100 °C)
0.8525 cP (200 °C)
0.3164 cP (300 °C)[9]
Structure
Monoclinic (−3 °C)[2]
P21/c[2]
a = 31.559 Å, b = 4.9652 Å, c = 9.426 Å[2]
α = 90°, β = 94.432°, γ = 90°
Thermochemistry
432.01 J/mol·K[4][7]
−833.5 kJ/mol[4][7]
8675.9 kJ/mol[7]
Hazards
GHS pictograms The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[10]
GHS signal word Warning
H315[10]
Irritant Xi
R-phrases R36/37/38
NFPA 704
[11]
1
2
0
Flash point > 110 °C (230 °F; 383 K) [11]
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (Median dose)
>10 g/kg (rats, oral)[11]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: Y/N?)

Myristic acid, also called tetradecanoic acid, is a common saturated fatty acid with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)12COOH. A myristate is a salt or ester of myristic acid. Myristic acid is named after the nutmeg Myristica fragrans.

Contents

  • Occurrence 1
  • Uses 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Occurrence

Myristica fragrans fruit contains myristic acid

Nutmeg butter has 75% trimyristin, the triglyceride of myristic acid. Besides nutmeg, myristic acid is also found in palm kernel oil, coconut oil, butter fat and is a minor component of many other animal fats.[5] It is also found in spermaceti, the crystallized fraction of oil from the sperm whale. It is also found in the rhizomes of the Iris, including Orris root.[12][13]

Uses

Myristic acid is commonly added co-translationally to the penultimate, nitrogen-terminus, glycine in receptor-associated kinases to confer the membrane localisation of the enzyme. The myristic acid has a sufficiently high hydrophobicity to become incorporated into the fatty acyl core of the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane of the eukaryotic cell. In this way, myristic acid acts as a lipid anchor in biomembranes.

The ester isopropyl myristate is used in cosmetic and topical medicinal preparations where good absorption through the skin is desired.

Reduction of myristic acid yields myristyl aldehyde and myristyl alcohol.

References

  1. ^ Merck Index, 11th Edition, 6246
  2. ^ a b c d Bond, Andrew D. (2003). "On the crystal structures and melting point alternation of the n-alkyl carboxylic acids" (PDF). http://www.rsc.org. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  3. ^ a b G., Chuah T.; D., Rozanna; A., Salmiah; Y., Thomas Choong S.; M., Sa'ari (2006). "Fatty Acids used as Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for Thermal Energy Storage in Building Material Applications" (PDF). University Putra Malaysia. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Lide, David R., ed. (2009).  
  5. ^ a b "Lexicon of lipid nutrition (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 73 (4): 685–744. 2001.  
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1940). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (3rd ed.). New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. pp. 762–763. 
  7. ^ a b c d Tetradecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-06-17)
  8. ^ Vargaftik, Natan B.; et al. (1993). Handbook of Thermal Conductivity of Liquids and Gases (illustrated ed.). CRC Press. p. 305.  
  9. ^ Yaws, Carl L. (2009). Transport Properties of Chemicals and Hydrocarbons. New York: William Andrew Inc. p. 177.  
  10. ^ a b Sigma-Aldrich Co., Myristic acid. Retrieved on 2014-06-17.
  11. ^ a b c "MYRISTIC ACID". https://www.chemicalland21.com. AroKor Holdings Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  12. ^ Council of Europe, August 2007 Natural Sources of Flavourings, Volume 2, p. 103, at Google Books
  13. ^ John Charles Sawer Odorographia a natural history of raw materials and drugs used in the perfume industry intended to serve growers, manufacturers and consumers, p. 108, at Google Books

External links

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