World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Nashville Sounds

Article Id: WHEBN0000207122
Reproduction Date:

Title: Nashville Sounds  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: I-40 Cup Series, Oakland Athletics, Omaha Storm Chasers, List of Southern League champions, List of Pacific Coast League champions
Collection: Chicago White Sox Minor League Affiliates, Cincinnati Reds Minor League Affiliates, Detroit Tigers Minor League Affiliates, Former American Association (20Th Century) Teams, Former Southern League (Baseball) Teams, Former Southern League Baseball Teams, Milwaukee Brewers Minor League Affiliates, Nashville Sounds, New York Yankees Minor League Affiliates, Oakland Athletics Minor League Affiliates, Pacific Coast League Teams, Pittsburgh Pirates Minor League Affiliates, Professional Baseball Teams in Tennessee, Sports Clubs Established in 1978, Sports in Nashville, Tennessee
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Nashville Sounds

Nashville Sounds
Founded in 1978
Nashville, Tennessee
Team logo Cap insignia
Current Triple-A (1985–present)
Previous Double-A (1978–1984)
Minor league affiliations
League Pacific Coast League (1998–present)
Conference American Conference
Division South Division
Previous leagues
Major league affiliations
Current Oakland Athletics (2015–present)
Minor league titles
League titles (3)
  • 1979
  • 1982
  • 2005
Conference titles (2)
  • 2003
  • 2005
Division titles (9)
  • 1979
  • 1981
  • 1982
  • 1990
  • 1993
  • 2003
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
Second half titles (6)
  • 1979
  • 1980
  • 1981
  • 1982
  • 1983
  • 1984
Team data
Nickname Nashville Sounds (1978–present)
Colors Black, red, platinum silver, white
Mascot Booster
Ballpark First Tennessee Park (2015–present)
Previous parks
Herschel Greer Stadium (1978–2014)
MFP Baseball / Nashville Sounds Baseball Club
Manager Steve Scarsone
General Manager Garry Arthur

The Nashville Sounds are a minor league baseball team of the Pacific Coast League (PCL) and the Triple-A affiliate of the Oakland Athletics. They are located in Nashville, Tennessee, and are named for the city's association with the music industry. The team plays its home games at First Tennessee Park which opened in 2015 and is partially located on the former site of the historic Sulphur Dell ballpark. The Sounds previously played at Herschel Greer Stadium from its opening in 1978 until the end of the 2014 season.

Established as a Double-A team of the Southern League in 1978, the Sounds were replaced by a Triple-A American Association team in 1985. The Triple-A Sounds carried on the history of the Double-A team that preceded it. The Sounds later joined the PCL in 1998. The team has served as a farm club for seven major league franchises. A total of 26 managers have led the club and its more than 1,100 players. As of the completion of the 2015 season, the team has played in 5,445 regular season games and compiled a win–loss record of 2,794–2,651 (.513).[1]

The team fielded in 1980 was recognized as one of the 100 greatest minor league teams of all time.[2] The 2006 team tied the record for the longest game in PCL history. Of the three nine-inning perfect games in the history of the PCL, two have been pitched by members of the Sounds.[3]

The Sounds won the PCL Championship in 2005, sweeping the Tacoma Rainiers in three games in the final series. Previous league titles won by the team are the Southern League Championship in 1979 as the Double-A affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds, and again in 1982 as the Double-A affiliate of the New York Yankees.


  • Team history 1
    • Reds era (1978–1979) 1.1
    • Yankees era (1980–1984) 1.2
    • Tigers era (1985–1986) 1.3
    • Reds era, part II (1987–1992) 1.4
    • White Sox era (1993–1997) 1.5
    • Pirates era (1998–2004) 1.6
    • Brewers era (2005–2014) 1.7
    • Athletics era (2015–present) 1.8
  • Season-by-season results 2
  • Rivals 3
  • Ballparks 4
    • Herschel Greer Stadium (1978–2014) 4.1
    • First Tennessee Park (2015–present) 4.2
  • Uniforms 5
    • Past 5.1
  • Radio and television 6
  • Mascots 7
  • Faith Nights 8
  • Roster 9
  • Achievements 10
    • Awards 10.1
    • Retired numbers 10.2
    • Hall of Famers 10.3
  • Managers 11
  • See also 12
  • References 13
  • External links 14

Team history

Reds era (1978–1979)

Nashville's professional baseball history dates back to 1885, beginning with the Nashville Americans. They were followed by the Blues, Tigers, Seraphs, Centennials, and Vols. The city was without a professional baseball team for 14 years after the Double-A Vols ceased operations after their 1963 season. In 1978, the Nashville Sounds were added as an expansion franchise team in the Double-A Southern League and were affiliated with the Cincinnati Reds.[2] Fans responded well to the return of baseball to the city, evidenced by Nashville leading the Southern League in attendance in each of their seven seasons as a member of the league.[4]

President and part owner Larry Schmittou, head coach of the Vanderbilt University baseball team from 1968 to 1978, was instrumental in bringing professional baseball back to Nashville. Schmittou's business philosophy revolved around earning profits not from ticket sales, but from the sale of souvenirs and concessions.[5] This philosophy also involved promoting entertainment value, or fun, instead of promoting the baseball game.[6] With the help of country music star Conway Twitty, who heard about the proposed team in local newspapers, Schmittou brought in other recording artists such as Larry Gatlin and Jerry Reed, as well as other Nashvillians, as Sounds shareholders.[4]

Original Sounds logo from 1978 to 1997

The club played their home games at a new facility, Herschel Greer Stadium, located south of downtown Nashville at the foot of St. Cloud Hill in Fort Negley Park. Schmittou allowed fans to submit suggestions for the team's name. Among the finalists were Stars, Notes, Hits, and Strings.[7] The team's name is a play on the term "Nashville sound", a subgenre of American country music that traces its roots to the area in the late-1950s. Furthermore, the wordmark and color scheme were lifted from the Memphis Sounds of the American Basketball Association (ABA), who used them for one season in 1974 before the team relocated and became the Baltimore Claws. When the ABA merged with the National Basketball Association in 1976, some of the copyrights were allowed to lapse, and Nashville's baseball team adopted the abandoned schemes.[8] The color blue was added to Memphis' red and white palette. The team's original logo, which was used from 1978 to 1997, and initially sketched by Schmittou, reflects the city's association with the country music industry.[7] It depicts a mustachioed old-time baseball player swinging at a baseball with a guitar, a staple of country music, in place of a bat. Further illustrating the city's musical ties is the typeface, with letters resembling musical notes, used to display the team name. A minor league ice hockey team also owned by Schmittou from 1981 to 1984, the Nashville South Stars, used a nearly-identical (albeit hockey-themed) wordmark and logo as the Sounds, except with green and gold colors to match its affiliated NHL club, the Minnesota North Stars.

A man wearing a white baseball uniform with
Skeeter Barnes played third base for the Sounds in 1979.

The Sounds played their first home game, a 12–4 victory, on April 26, 1978 against the Savannah Braves in front of a sellout crowd of 8,156 fans.[9] The home opener was scheduled to take place the previous evening, but was rained out.[6] The team requested to open the season on the road and had to swap a series with the Chattanooga Lookouts in order to have enough time to complete the stadium.[6] Tractors and grading machines were still preparing the field on game day, and the electricity was turned on only five minutes before the gates opened.[6] The sod, which arrived late, was laid the day before the scheduled opening game with the help of an estimated group of 50 fans who heard an announcement from general manager Farrell Owens on local radio stations inviting them to a "sod party".[6] As the Double-A affiliate of the Reds, the Sounds finished ninth during their inaugural campaign of 1978, but led all of minor league baseball in attendance by drawing 380,000 fans.[4]

Under manager Memphis Chicks and finished in second place. The Sounds and Chicks met again on the last day of the second half in a split doubleheader; both games were won by Nashville. The two teams then faced-off in a best-of-three series to determine the Western Division champion. The Sounds won the series two games to one before advancing to the Southern League championship series against the Columbus Astros. Nashville captured the league title by defeating the Astros three games to one. Also in 1979, the team played host to the Southern League All-Star Game. The contest pitted a team of the league's all-stars against the major league Atlanta Braves. The all-stars defeated the Braves, five runs to two. Nashville's Duane Walker was named the MVP.[10]

Originally, the Reds allowed Nashville to use a designated hitter in their lineup. However, this allowance was later revoked, as the Reds were a part of the National League which did not use a DH. President Larry Schmittou issued an ultimatum: if Cincinnati would not let them use the DH, they would not renew their contract and would look for a new major league affiliate. The Reds did not renege on their decision to prohibit the DH, so the Sounds looked for a new affiliate after 1979. Schmittou was then approached by five or six clubs looking to enter the Southern League as a Sounds affiliate.[6]

Yankees era (1980–1984)

The Sounds made their first affiliation switch in 1980, becoming a part of the Stump Merrill and Johnny Oates and future major leaguers such as Steve Balboni, Don Mattingly, Buck Showalter, Otis Nixon, Willie McGee, Pat Tabler, and Dan Pasqua helped lead Nashville to first or second-place divisional finishes from 1980 to 1984.

The 1980 Sounds finished the first half of the season one-and-a-half games behind the Memphis Chicks. In the second half, the team finished in first place, 14 games ahead of the second-place team. In the Western Division championship series, Nashville lost to Memphis, three games to one. Nine Southern League records were set during the season, the team's pitching staff led the league in ERA and strikeouts, and Steve Balboni led the league in runs, home runs, and total bases.[2] The team also set a league attendance record, when a total of 575,676 fans visited Greer Stadium.[2] As of the completion of the 2014 season, this record still stands. In 2001, the 1980 Sounds were ranked as the sixty-ninth greatest minor league baseball team of all-time by baseball historians.[2]

A man wearing a gray baseball uniform with navy blue stripes with
Don Mattingly played first base and outfield for Nashville in 1981.

On April 16, 1981, the New York Yankees made a stop in Nashville to play an exhibition game against the Sounds. The 10–1 Yankees victory was played in front of a standing room only crowd of 17,318 fans.[11] Also on hand for the game were Yankees owner Yogi Berra, and players Reggie Jackson, Bucky Dent, Lou Piniella, Bobby Murcer, Goose Gossage, Tommy John, and Johnny Oates.[11] The Sounds won the second half of the season and went on to win the Western Division championship after defeating the Memphis Chicks in three straight games. The team suffered in the best-of-five league championship series, falling to the Orlando Twins, 3–1. Don Mattingly and Willie McGee, who both played for the Sounds in 1981, were later promoted to the major leagues. In 1985, Mattingly was named the American League Most Valuable Player and McGee named the National League MVP.[12]

The following year, second half winner Nashville met the Knoxville Blue Jays in the 1982 division playoffs. After defeating the Blue Jays, the Sounds advanced to the league championship series to play against the Jacksonville Suns. Nashville defeated the Suns, three games to one, clinching the Southern League championship, giving the franchise their second league title.[13]

The New York Yankees returned for another exhibition game against the Sounds on April 28, 1983. New York had a four-run lead going into the bottom of the ninth inning, but a five-run rally with two outs propelled the Sounds to a 5–4 win in front of 13,641 fans.[14] Among the Yankees in attendance for the game were Billy Martin, Yogi Berra, Goose Gossage, Ken Griffey, Sr., Dave Winfield, Lou Piniella, and Willie Randolph.[14] During the season, manager Doug Holmquist, frustrated with the team's disappointing first half, instituted a system of fines for player infractions or poor performance on the field. The program ranged from a US$10 fine for a pitcher walking a batter with one on and two outs to a US$100 fine for missing curfew.[15] Rebounding, Nashville won the second half pennant, earning the team a shot at the Western Division championship. The Sounds, however, lost the fifth game of the best-of-five series to the Birmingham Barons by a score of seven runs to five, ending their season.[15] On June 21, during a road trip to Orlando, Florida, teammates Scott Bradley, Mike Pagliarulo, Erik Peterson, and Buck Showalter were walking back to their hotel when Peterson was hit by an automobile. When he began to convulse, Bradley put his fingers down Peterson's throat to keep him from swallowing his tongue. He survived, but with a bruised leg and several lacerations to the head, and he returned to play later in the season.[15] The Southern League All-Star Game returned to Nashville in 1983. Not only did the Sounds host the event, but they also served as the all-star team's competition. The all-stars recorded the victory with a score of three runs to two.[10]

The Sounds were one game shy of winning the first half pennant in 1984. Winning the first half title is something that eluded the team during its entire seven-year span at the Double-A level. Nashville captured the second half title, however, for the sixth consecutive season, after defeating Knoxville in a playoff game. The two teams met again in the divisional playoffs, but Knoxville emerged the victor, ending the Sounds' season. One important highlight of the first half of 1984 took place on May 4, when Jim Deshaies pitched the club's first no-hitter against the Columbus Astros in the second game of a seven-inning doubleheader. The 5–1 Sounds victory was cut short of being a perfect game following three walks and a batter being hit by a pitch, advancing the runner home for the only Astros run of the game.[16]

Tigers era (1985–1986)

A man wearing a gray baseball uniform with
Bob Melvin played catcher for the Sounds in 1985.

In 1983, Sounds President Larry Schmittou noticed a 5% drop in season ticket sales, a higher ratio of no-shows from season ticket holders, and a slight decline in overall attendance.[17] These issues with spectator turnout were accompanied by a decline in local media coverage, particularly in regard to road games. In order to boost interest in the team, Schmittou tried, unsuccessfully, to purchase a Triple-A franchise late in the 1983 season. Attendance continued to drop in 1984, as season ticket sales were down 12% and overall attendance was down almost 20%.[17]

Schmittou and team owners arrived at terms in June 1984 to purchase the Evansville Triplets of the American Association, with plans to move the franchise from Evansville, Indiana, to Nashville for the 1985 season. In order to prove to the team's Nashville banks, which would back the purchase, that the move was financially viable, Schmittou commissioned a survey to evaluate the potential turnout for a Triple-A team versus a Double-A team. Though the research proved to team owners that the move was a sensible decision, the banks were not impressed. As a result, the team switched banks and went ahead with the purchase and relocation.[17] Nashville's existing Southern League franchise was moved to Huntsville, Alabama, where it became the Huntsville Stars. The Triplets' legacy was retired, and the team was moved to Nashville. The Triple-A Sounds carried on the history of the Double-A team that preceded it.

The Sounds entered the Triple-A playing level an affiliate of the Detroit Tigers in 1985. They played their first Triple-A game on April 11, a 3–1 win, against the Buffalo Bisons at Greer Stadium.[18] The next day, Nashville competed in an exhibition game against their major league affiliate. The Tigers outlasted the Sounds, winning by a score of 9–3 in the tenth inning.[18] On July 17, Bryan Kelly pitched the club's second no-hitter against the Oklahoma City 89ers, in which the Sounds won, 6–0.[16] Nashville ended the season in second place in the Eastern Division, two and a half games out of first.[19]

In 1986, the Sounds finished third in their division with a 68–74 regular season record,[20] their first losing season since the inaugural 1978 campaign. Also that season, the Sounds were enlisted to serve as the competition in the Southern League All-Star Game, held in Huntsville, Alabama. The game was won by Nashville with a score of four runs to two.[10]

Reds era, part II (1987–1992)

The Sounds rejoined the

  • Official Nashville Sounds website
  • Nashville Sounds page at
  • Nashville Sounds statistics at Baseball-Reference

External links

  1. ^ "Year-By-Year Results." Minor League Baseball. Retrieved on September 7, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e Weiss, Bill and Marshall Wright. "Historians Weiss, Wright Rank 100 Best Minor League Baseball Teams." Minor League Baseball. 2001. Retrieved on November 2, 2007.
  3. ^ a b McConnell, Ryan. "Sounds' Parra perfect in his second PCL start." Minor League Baseball. June 25, 2007. Retrieved on July 30, 2008.
  4. ^ a b c Nipper, Skip. Baseball in Nashville. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2007: 101. ISBN 978-0-7385-4391-8
  5. ^ Pratt, Kristin. Universe."Baseball America"25 for 25: Stars in the BaseballAmerica. July 20, 2006. Retrieved on March 24, 2008.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Traughber, Bill. "Commodore History Corner: Q&A with Larry Schmittou." College Sports Television. April 8, 2008. Retrieved on April 9, 2008.
  7. ^ a b Woody, Larry. Schmittou: A Grand Slam in Baseball, Business, And Life. Nashville: Eggmann Publishing Company, 1996: 90. ISBN 1886371334
  8. ^ Ruble, Drew. "Vestige of Empire." Business Tennessee. July 2006. Retrieved on August 1, 2008.
  9. ^ Traughber, Bill. "Looking Back: Sounds' First Game." Nashville Sounds. August 7, 2006. Retrieved on March 8, 2008.
  10. ^ a b c Elliott, Jeff. "All-Star game survives years of dormancy, format changes." The Florida Times-Union. July 5, 2003. Retrieved on March 7, 2008.
  11. ^ a b Traughber, Bill. "Looking Back: 1981 New York Yankees Visit Greer Stadium." Nashville Sounds. August 7, 2006. Retrieved on March 8, 2008.
  12. ^ "Most Valuable Player winners." Major League Baseball. 2008. Retrieved on August 1, 2008.
  13. ^ "Southern League Champions." Minor League Baseball. 2008. Retrieved on August 1, 2008.
  14. ^ a b Rogers, Ricky. "Nashville Sounds in 1983." The Tennessean. April 28, 1983. Retrieved on April 11, 2008.
  15. ^ a b c McGee, Mark. "1983 Review." The Nashville Sounds 1984 Official Souvenir Program. 1984: 10–11.
  16. ^ a b Traughber, Bill. "Looking Back: Sounds No-Hitters." Nashville Sounds. June 30, 2005. Retrieved on March 12, 2008.
  17. ^ a b c Schmittou, Larry. "Message from the President." The Nashville Sounds 1985 Souvenir Program. 1985: 8.
  18. ^ a b "Nashville Then: Nashville Sounds 1985 Season." The Tennessean. October 10, 2015. Retrieved on October 26, 2015.
  19. ^ "1985 American Association." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on October 26, 2015.
  20. ^ "1986 American Association." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on October 26, 2015.
  21. ^ "1987 American Association." The Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved on August 2, 2008.
  22. ^ a b c "Rookie of the Year winners." Major League Baseball. 2008. Retrieved on July 30, 2008.
  23. ^ a b c "Managerial Merry-go-round." Nashville Sounds 2008 Media Guide. 2008: 168.
  24. ^ a b "1988 American Association." The Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved on August 2, 2008.
  25. ^ a b "Top 10 legendary stories from SportsNation." ESPN. May 20, 2008. Retrieved on August 1, 2008.
  26. ^ "1989 American Association." The Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved on August 2, 2008.
  27. ^ "1990 American Association." The Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved on August 2, 2008.
  28. ^ Pahigian, Josh. The Ultimate Minor League Baseball Road Trip. Guilford, Delaware: The Lyons Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-59921-024-7
  29. ^ "All-Time Triple-A All-Star Roster by Team." Triple-A Baseball. January 16, 2008. Retrieved on July 31, 2008. Archived October 22, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ "1992 American Association." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  31. ^ "1993 American Association." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  32. ^ a b c d e "American Association Special Award Winners". Triple-A Baseball. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  33. ^ Traughber, Bill. "Looking Back: Nashville Hosts Two Teams In 1993 & 1994." Nashville Sounds. September 12, 2005. Retrieved on March 11, 2008.
  34. ^ "1994 American Association." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  35. ^ "1994 Nashville Sounds." Baseball Reference. 2008. Retrieved on July 31, 2008
  36. ^ "Triple-A All-Star Game Results (1993–1997)." Triple-A Baseball. 2003. Retrieved on July 31, 2008 Archived October 28, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ "1995 American Association." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  38. ^ "Timeline: MJ through the years." The Sporting News. June 11, 1998. Retrieved on April 9, 2008.
  39. ^ "1996 American Association." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  40. ^ "1997 American Association." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  41. ^ a b Russell, Keith. "Uniforms, GM part of Sounds' new look." Nashville Business Journal. January 22, 1999. Retrieved on August 28, 2014.
  42. ^ "1998 Pacific Coast League." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  43. ^ "1999Pacific Coast League." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  44. ^ "1999 AAA Pacific Coast League Pitching Leaders for Winning %." Baseball-Reference. 2008. Retrieved on July 30, 2008.
  45. ^ "2000 Pacific Coast League." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  46. ^ "2001 Pacific Coast League." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  47. ^ "2001 AAA Pacific Coast League Batting Leaders for Triples." Baseball-Reference. 2008. Retrieved on July 30, 2008.
  48. ^ a b "Top Ten Career Leaders." Minor League Baseball. Retrieved on August 24, 2014.
  49. ^ Williams, Michael. "Redman First Sound Ever To Hit For Cycle." The Nashville City Paper. 2001. Retrieved on July 31, 2008.
  50. ^ "2002 Pacific Coast League." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  51. ^ McCormick, Terry. "Sounds like perfection." The Nashville City Paper. April 8, 2003. Retrieved on July 30, 2008.
  52. ^ Czerwinski, Kevin T. "Halama hurled PCL's first perfect game." Minor League Baseball. July 2, 2008. Retrieved on July 30, 2008.
  53. ^ "2003 Pacific Coast League." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  54. ^ Summers, Danny (May 30, 2004). "Talented trio at the helm in Las Vegas".  
  55. ^ "2004 Pacific Coast League." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  56. ^ "Milwaukee, Nashville Extend Affiliation Agreement." Milwaukee Admirals. February 22, 2010. Retrieved on January 5, 2011.
  57. ^ Leonard, Tim. "Sounds capture PCL championship" Minor League Baseball. September 17, 2005. Retrieved on July 31, 2008.
  58. ^ Rega, Marissa. "Nashville trio combines on no-hitter." Minor League Baseball. July 15, 2006. Retrieved on July 31, 2008.
  59. ^ a b "Sounds, Zephyrs tie PCL record for longest game." ESPN. May 6, 2006. Retrieved on July 31, 2008.
  60. ^ "2006 Pacific Coast League." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  61. ^ Pieringer, Dan. "Express pull out all stops against Sounds." Minor League Baseball. September 10, 2006. Retrieved on July 31, 2008.
  62. ^ "2007 Pacific Coast League." Baseball-Reference. August 1, 2008. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  63. ^ Blinn, Michael. "Mulvey pitches Zephyrs into Finals." Minor League Baseball. September 9, 2007. Retrieved on July 31, 2008.
  64. ^ a b Peterson, Randy. "Only Sounds of silence play at empty park." The Tennessean. June 15, 2008: 1C.
  65. ^ Fortus, Bob. "Zephyrs end season just ahead of storm." The Times-Picayune. August 30, 2008. Retrieved on August 30, 2008.
  66. ^ Silver, Steve. "Eight Sounds called up to Brewers for last month." The Tennessean. August 30, 2008. Retrieved on September 6, 2008.
  67. ^ Cass, Michael. "Pacific Coast League expects Sounds to stay in Nashville." The Tennessean. October 30, 2008. Retrieved on October 30, 2008.
  68. ^ a b c Wild, Danny. "Sounds get new ownership group, GM." Minor League Baseball. February 26, 2009. Retrieved on February 26, 2009.
  69. ^ Rau, Nate. "Nashville Sounds search for a new home." The Tennessean. August 29, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  70. ^ "2009 Nashville Sounds Statistics." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on September 20, 2009.
  71. ^ "2010 Nashville Sounds Statistics." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on September 7, 2010.
  72. ^ Pentis, Andrew. "Sounds' Gindl hits for the cycle." July 11, 2011. Retrieved on July 11, 2011.
  73. ^ Smith, Stephen. "Player catches ball off head, turns triple play." CBS News. August 22, 2011. Retrieved on September 4, 2011.
  74. ^ "Logan Schafer Starts Triple Play After Ball Bounces Off Head In Minor League Game." The Huffington Post. August 21, 2011. Retrieved on September 4, 2011.
  75. ^ Emrich, Robert. "Schafer, Sounds turn 'crazy' triple play." Minor League Baseball. August 21, 2011. Retrieved on September 4, 2011.
  76. ^ "2011 Nashville Sounds Statistics." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on September 5, 2011.
  77. ^ "2012 Nashville Sounds Statistics." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on September 3, 2012.
  78. ^ "2013 Nashville Sounds Season In Review." Nashville Sounds September 4, 2013. Retrieved on September 4, 2013.
  79. ^ "Johnny Hellweg Named PCL Pitcher Of The Year." Nashville Sounds. August 28, 2013. Retrieved on September 4, 2013.
  80. ^ Cass, Michael. "Council Approves Ballpark Deal." The Tennessean. 10 December 2013. Retrieved on 10 December 2013.
  81. ^ "Scoreboard: Sacramento at Nashville; August 27, 2014". Nashville Sounds. Minor League Baseball. 
  82. ^ a b Organ, Mike (August 28, 2014). "Greer goodbye gets emotional".  
  83. ^ a b "2014 Pacific Coast League." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on September 3, 2014.
  84. ^ "Nelson Elected PCL Pitcher of the Year." Minor League Baseball. August 27, 2014. Retrieved on September 4, 2014.
  85. ^ Moneyball' Comes To Music City"'". Nashville Sounds. Minor League Baseball. September 18, 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2014. 
  86. ^ a b "Sounds Unveil New Logo". Nashville Sounds. Minor League Baseball. October 9, 2014. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  87. ^ "Nashville B.T.S. – Pt.1". The Clink Room. Brandiose Studios, Inc. April 27, 2015. Retrieved October 9, 2015. 
  88. ^ "Nashville B.T.S. – Pt.2". The Clink Room. Brandiose Studios, Inc. April 28, 2015. Retrieved October 9, 2015. 
  89. ^ "Nashville B.T.S. – Pt.3". The Clink Room. Brandiose Studios, Inc. April 29, 2015. Retrieved October 9, 2015. 
  90. ^ a b c d "Sounds Unveil New Logos, Uniforms". Nashville Sounds. Minor League Baseball. January 21, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2015. 
  91. ^ a b Arnold, Sky (April 17, 2015). "Nashville Sounds Opening Day at First Tennessee Park".  
  92. ^ a b c "Sounds Walk-Off in Home Opener". April 18, 2015. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  93. ^ "2015 Pacific Coast League." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on September 7, 2015.
  94. ^ Slusser, Susan (July 21, 2015). "Barry Zito Doing Well in Minors, but Would Love Major Upgrade". SFGate. Hearst Communications, Inc. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  95. ^ "1885 Southern League Statistics." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on July 19, 2013.
  96. ^ "1978 Southern League Statistics." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  97. ^ a b c "Postseason History." Nashville Sounds 2013 Media Guide. 2013: 162.
  98. ^ a b "1998 Pacific Coast League Statistics." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  99. ^ "2005 Pacific Coast League Statistics." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  100. ^ Dykstra, Sam. "PCL undergoing realignment in 2014." Minor League Baseball. August 16, 2013. Retrieved on August 23, 2013.
  101. ^ "2009 Pacific Coast League Statistics." Baseball-Reference. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  102. ^ a b c d "Tennessee Lottery I-40 Cup Series". Nashville Sounds. Minor League Baseball. Retrieved August 28, 2015. 
  103. ^ "Redbirds Retain I-40 Cup With 11-2 Win Over Sounds". Memphis Redbirds. Minor League Baseball. August 9, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015. 
  104. ^ "Memphis All-Time Record Vs. Cities" (PDF). 2015 Memphis Redbirds Media Guide. Minor League Baseball. 2015. p. 163. Retrieved August 28, 2015. 
  105. ^ Silver, Steve and Michael Cass. "Sounds fans endure despite stadium disputes." The Tennessean. July 23, 2008. Retrieved on July 30, 2008.
  106. ^ "Herschel Greer Stadium." The Nashville Sounds 2010 Media Guide. 2010: 198.
  107. ^ a b Woody, Larry. Schmittou: A Grand Slam in Baseball, Business, And Life. Nashville: Eggmann Publishing Company, 1996: 127–133. ISBN 1886371334
  108. ^ "First Tennessee to put name on proposed Sounds stadium." Nashville Business Journal. November 21, 2003. Retrieved on March 26, 2008.
  109. ^ "Purcell Firm On City, Sounds Stadium Agreement." Channel 4 News. WSMV. September 11, 2006. Retrieved on March 26, 2008.
  110. ^ a b "Sounds cover all the bases to ready ballpark for opener." The Tennessean. April 11, 2008: 1A.
  111. ^ Cass, Michael. "New Sulphur Dell ballpark would nod to history, show off downtown." The Tennessean. October 25, 2013. Retrieved on October 25, 2013.
  112. ^ Hale, Steven. "Dean Leads Ceremonial Groundbreaking for New Ballpark at Sulphur Dell". Nashville Scene. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  113. ^ Cass, Michael (November 25, 2013). "State Approves Land Transfer for Nashville Sounds Ballpark".  
  114. ^ a b Boyd, Steve (April 10, 2015). "12 Design Features Not to Miss on First Tennessee Park Opening Day". Populous. Retrieved April 17, 2015. 
  115. ^ "First Tennessee Park" (PDF). 2015 Nashville Sounds Media Guide. Minor League Baseball. 2015. p. 206. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 
  116. ^ "Sounds, Mayor Unveil State-of-the-Art Guitar Scoreboard For First Tennessee Park". June 20, 2014. Retrieved June 20, 2014. 
  117. ^ a b c d e "Nashville Sounds Complete Club Logos & Uniform Graphics" (PDF). Nashville Sounds. Minor League Baseball. January 21, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2015. 
  118. ^ a b c d "Sounds Reveal 2015 Promotional Schedule". Nashville Sounds. Minor League Baseball. March 18, 2015. Retrieved March 21, 2015. 
  119. ^ Nipper, Skip. Baseball in Nashville. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2007: 106. ISBN 978-0-7385-4391-8
  120. ^ a b Nipper, Skip. Baseball in Nashville. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2007: 111. ISBN 978-0-7385-4391-8
  121. ^ a b c 2002 Nashville Sounds Yearbook. 2002: cover.
  122. ^ "90's AA – American Association 1969–1997." LogoServer. March 1, 2005. Retrieved on August 1, 2008.
  123. ^ Nipper, Skip. Baseball in Nashville. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2007: 116. ISBN 978-0-7385-4391-8
  124. ^ a b Friedman, Alan. "Gulin throws another one-hitter." Pacific Coast League. July 9, 2008. Retrieved on July 30, 2008.
  125. ^ Partipilo, John. "Who is Lindsay Gulin?" The Tennessean. July 2008. Retrieved on July 31, 2008.
  126. ^ "Front Office Staff – Stu Paul." Nashville Sounds. 2010. Retrieved on June 24, 2010.
  127. ^ a b c "Sounds Extend Partnership With "The Game"." Nashville Sounds. 8 February 2014. Retrieved on 31 March 2014.
  128. ^ Russell, Keith. "Deal puts five Sounds home games on TV." Nashville Business Journal. March 19, 1999. Retrieved on May 9, 2008.
  129. ^ a b c "Sounds debut new TV show." The City Paper. May 2005. Retrieved on July 30, 2008.
  130. ^ a b Ammenheuser, David (April 20, 2015). "Sounds Mascot Booster, the Hot Chicken: Yea or Nay?". The Tennessean. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  131. ^ Empson, Frank. "Nashville Sounds in 1978." The Tennessean. August 9, 1978. Retrieved on April 11, 2008.
  132. ^ Wade, Susan. "Sideline Chatter – School Caters To Fuzzy-Suit Crowd." The Seattle Times. November 24, 2005. Retrieved on October 25, 2007.
  133. ^ Hart, Joe. "Once a Bird Brain..." Philadelphia City Paper. November 29, 2001. Retrieved on January 29, 2008.
  134. ^ "Sounds GM hates aging ballpark but loves market." The Tennessean. August 5, 2007: 1-2E.
  135. ^ "About Third Coast Sports." Third Coast Sports. Retrieved on January 30, 2008.
  136. ^ a b Cherner, Reid. "If you billed it around faith, they will certainly come." USA Today. July 21, 2005. Retrieved on October 23, 2007.
  137. ^ a b c Cornish, Audie. "Baseball Teams Woo Christian Fans to Games." National Public Radio. May 26, 2006. Retrieved on October 23, 2007.
  138. ^ Nashville "Sounds' 'Faith Nights' pay off for Habitat for Humanity project." Nashville Business Journal. October 25, 2004. Retrieved on October 23, 2007.
  139. ^ St. John, Warren. "Sports and Salvation on Faith Night at the Stadium." The New York Times. June 2, 2006. Retrieved on July 30, 2008.
  140. ^ "Most Valuable Players". Southern League. Minor League Baseball. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  141. ^ "Most Outstanding Pitchers". Southern League. Minor League Baseball. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  142. ^ "Pacific Coast League Special Award Winners". Triple-A Baseball. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  143. ^ a b "All-Time Triple-A All-Star Roster by Team" (PDF). Triple-A Baseball. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  144. ^ "Triple-A All-Star Game Results (1988–1992)". Triple-A Baseball. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  145. ^ "Post-Season All-Star Teams". Southern League. Minor League Baseball. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  146. ^ "44 Sounds Named To Post-Season All-Star Teams" (PDF). 2015 Nashville Sounds Media Guide. Minor League Baseball. 2015. p. 95. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  147. ^ "Retired Numbers" (PDF). 2015 Nashville Sounds Media Guide. Minor League Baseball. 2015. pp. 169–170. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 
  148. ^ "Hall of Famers". Southern League. Minor League Baseball. Retrieved August 8, 2015. 
  149. ^ "Hoyt Wilhelm Statistics and History". Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved August 8, 2015. 
  150. ^ "Barry Larkin Statistics and History". Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved August 8, 2015. 
  151. ^ "Barry Larkin Minor League Statistics and History". Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved August 8, 2015. 
  152. ^ a b "All-Time Sounds Managers" (PDF). 2015 Nashville Sounds Media Guide. Minor League Baseball. 2015. p. 9. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  153. ^ "Manager: Definition". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 2006. Retrieved December 29, 2008. 
  154. ^ "Year By Year Results". Nashville Sounds. Minor League Baseball. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  155. ^ "Southern League Past Champions". Southern League. Minor League Baseball. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  156. ^ Leonard, Tim (September 17, 2005). "Sounds Capture PCL Championship". Minor League Baseball. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  157. ^ "Nashville Sounds Interim Manager Charlie Greene Easily Slides into New Role". Florida Today. May 29, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 


See also

Nashville Sounds Managerial Record (Last Five Managers)
# Manager Years Regular Season Post-season
Games Wins Losses Win % Appearances Wins Losses Win %
22 Don Money 2009–2011 432 223 209 .516
23 Mike Guerrero 2012–2013 288 124 164 .431
24 Charlie Greene[a] 2013 9 2 7 .222
25 Rick Sweet 2014 144 77 67 .535
26 Steve Scarsone 2015–present 144 66 78 .458
Totals 7 years 1,017 492 525 .484
a Greene served as an interim manager for nine games in May 2013 while manager Mike Guerrero was on bereavement leave.[157]

Over the course of 38 seasons, the Nashville Sounds have employed 26 Johnny Oates (1982) led the team to win the Southern League Championship.[155] Frank Kremblas (2005) led the team to win the Pacific Coast League Championship.[156] Trent Jewett is the longest-tenured manager in team history, having managed the team for 624 games from 1998 to 2000 and 2003 to 2004.[152]

A black and white photograph of a man wearing a white baseball jersey with
Don Money, Sounds manager from 2009 to 2011

For a complete list of all-time Sounds managers and owners, see List of Nashville Sounds managers and owners. For a complete list of all-time Sounds pitching and hitting coaches, see List of Nashville Sounds coaches.


Two members of the Sounds have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame. Hoyt Wilhelm, who served as the team's pitching coach from 1982 to 1984,[148] was elected in 1985.[149] Shortstop Barry Larkin, who was elected in 2012,[150] made two appearances with the Sounds during a rehabilitation assignment in 1989.[151]

Hall of Famers

Skeeter Barnes Don Mattingly Jackie Robinson
1B / 3B / OF
1979, 1988–1990
Retired early 1990s
1B / OF
Retired August 12, 1999
Retired throughout
professional baseball
on April 15, 1997

Nashville has honored two of its players by retiring their uniform numbers.[147] When a number is retired, only the player with the retired number can wear that number if he returns to that team as a player or coach. This ensures that the number will be associated with one player of particular importance to the team. The team displays its retired numbers on the front of the press box at First Tennessee Park.

Retired numbers

Sixty-four players have been selected for mid-season All-Star teams.[143] Of those players, Joey Vierra (1992 and 1995), Drew Denson (1993–94), and Vinny Rottino (2007–08) are the only players to have been selected twice while playing for Nashville.[143] Three players have been chosen as the MVP for mid-season All-Star games: Duane Walker (1979), Ray Durham (1994), and Magglio Ordóñez (1997).[144] Of the 49 players who have been named to post-season All-Star teams, only Duane Walker (1979 in two positions) and Jeff Abbott (1996–97) have been selected twice.[145][146]

Fourteen men have won league awards in recognition for their performance while with the Sounds. Three players have won league Most Valuable Player (MVP) awards. Steve Balboni (1980) and Brian Dayett (1982) won the Southern League MVP Award,[140] and Magglio Ordóñez (1997) won the American Association MVP Award.[32] Ten players have won Pitcher of the Year honors. Bruce Berenyi (1978), Geoff Combe (1979), Andy McGaffigan (1980), Jamie Werly (1981), and Stefan Wever (1982) were selected for the Southern League Most Outstanding Pitcher Award.[141] Chris Hammond (1990) and Scott Ruffcorn (1994) won the American Association Most Valuable Pitcher Award.[32] R.A. Dickey (2007), Johnny Hellweg (2013), and Jimmy Nelson (2014) were selected for the Pacific Coast League Pitcher of the Year Award.[142] Jeff Abbott (1996) and Magglio Ordóñez (1997) won the American Association Rookie of the Year Award.[32] Ordóñez is the only Sounds player to win multiple league awards.



For a complete list of all-time Sounds players, see Nashville Sounds all-time roster.


The promotion has since been adopted by at least 40 other minor league teams. It has also been used by major league teams such as the Atlanta Braves and St. Louis Cardinals. Teams from the National Football League and National Basketball Association have also shown interest in holding Faith Night promotions.[137] The program has garnered national media attention for the Sounds from The New York Times and National Public Radio.[137][139]

Since their inception, Faith Nights have been among the top-ten most-attended games each season.[137] During Faith Nights in 2004, the Sounds experienced a 93% increase in attendance over their average season attendance for non-Faith Night dates; over 500 church groups attended these games.[136] That fall, the team partnered with the Nashville Area Habitat for Humanity to build a home for a family in need. The team raised more than $45,000 from donations and 10% of ticket proceeds on Faith Nights.[138]

In addition to promotions that are synonymous with minor league baseball like giveaways, theme nights, fireworks nights, and discounted ticket or concessions nights, the Nashville Sounds also host what are called Faith Nights. In 2002, the Sounds became the first sports team to host Faith Night promotions.[135] These Christian-based promotional evenings include pre-game concerts from Christian music artists, Bible-themed bobblehead giveaways, and testimonials from players about their faith. Artists performing at Nashville's Greer Stadium in the past include Jars of Clay, Hawk Nelson, and Matthew West. Brent High, then Vice President of Sales for the Sounds, and Mike Snider, the president and owner of Third Coast Sports, an entertainment and sports marketing firm in Nashville, are credited with developing the promotion.[136]

A bobblehead depicting an unhappy bearded man wearing a yellow and blue robe and hat holding a sign reading,
An example of a bobblehead, depicting Jonah, given to fans in 2006

Faith Nights

An anthropomorphic cougar named Ozzie was the team's mascot from 1997 to 2014. The original Ozzie came from the Class A Kane County Cougars minor league team, which had an extra mascot uniform. The surplus cougar outfit was sent to Nashville, and, after building a fan following during Ozzie's first season, team management decided to make him the permanent mascot.[134] In 1997, the Ozzie costume was identical to the brown cougar costume which is still in use by Kane County. In 1998, a new yellow costume was introduced. Ozzie wore the same style of uniform as the team, but with no hat. Ozzie was retired when the Sounds left Greer Stadium in 2014, although he continued to make appearances during the 2014 to 2015 off-season.[130]

From 1995 to 1996, a lime-green dinosaur named Champ was the team's mascot.[132] Following altercations with team management and league personnel during games, Champ, vis-à-vis his performer, did not return for the 1997 season.[133]

The first Sounds mascot was introduced during the team's inaugural 1978 season. Homer Horsehide, whose name was selected in a naming contest, resembled their major league affiliate's mascot — Mr. Red of the Cincinnati Reds. The character was human in appearance, with the exception of an oversized anthropomorphized baseball in place of a human head. The mustachioed mascot donned a uniform identical to that of Sounds players.[131]

The Nashville Sounds' mascot is an anthropomorphic rooster named Booster. He is bright red with yellow legs, beak, comb, and palms and yellow and orage tail feathers resembling flames. He wears the same style jerseys as the team with the number zero on the back. He made his debut on April 17, 2015, at the Sounds' first game at First Tennessee Park. The name refers to "boosting" or building enthusiasm for the team, while the costume is a play on Nashville hot chicken.[130]

A person wearing a red anthropomorphized rooster costume dressed in a white baseball jersey with a blue
Booster, mascot of the Nashville Sounds


Games can be viewed through the MiLB.TV subscription feature of the official website of Minor League Baseball, with audio provided by a radio simulcast. Sounds home games were regularly televised by WZTV from 1982 to 1992. A few games were also aired by WNPX in 1999.[128] From 2005 to 2008,[129] a monthly television program, called Sounds On Demand, aired throughout Middle Tennessee via Comcast cable, and was also available "On Demand" through Comcast Digital Cable programming.[129] The 30-minute show, hosted by Chuck Valenches, featured player interviews, team news, tips from players on how to play the game, and other related content.[129]

Steve Selby served as the lead broadcaster for the Sounds from 1996 to 1999. Chuck Valenches, a former assistant broadcaster, was promoted to the role of lead broadcaster at the beginning of 2000. Stu Paul was the Sounds' play-by-play broadcaster for the 2010 and 2011 seasons.[126] Since 2012, Jeff Hem has been the team's lead broadcaster.[127] All Sounds home and road games are broadcast on WPRT 102.5 FM or its sister station, WQZQ 94.9 FM.[127] Live audio broadcasts are also available online through the team's website.[127]

During the opening season of 1978, Nashville Sounds games were broadcast on color commentator from 1980 to 1981 and 1985 to 1986. Jamison remained the voice of the Sounds through 1990 when he was hired as the radio broadcaster for the California Angels. For the 1991 season, the Sounds hired former Huntsville Stars and Iowa Cubs broadcaster Steve Carroll. After 1995, Carroll left to become the radio voice of the NHL's Philadelphia Flyers and, later, the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim.

Radio and television

Uniform Timeline

From 2013 to 2014, team jerseys were made of mesh-like material with black underarm sections at the armpits and a single line of black piping going down the sleeves and across the shoulders to the neck. A Brewers logo was sewn on the left sleeve. On home jerseys, the word "Sounds" was written across the chest in red script surrounded by black. The player's name was displayed on the back in black block characters; numbers were also shown in large red characters surrounded by black. Road jerseys were the same, but with "Nashville" across the chest, red underarm sections and sleeve piping in place of black, and no name on the back. The team's alternate uniforms from 2010 to 2014 were similar to these jerseys, except they were made of red material with black underarm sections and sleeve piping. "Sounds" was written across the chest in white script surrounded by black. A Brewers logo was located on the front of the left shoulder. Numbers, in white surrounded by black, were sewn on the back in block characters.[125]

In 2003, the team switched to solid white pants and jerseys for home games. These jerseys had "Sounds" written across the chest in red script surrounded by black, had red and black piping around sleeve openings, around the neck, and along the row of buttons going up the chest, a music note logo on the left sleeve, and numbers on the front of jerseys below the team name.[123] Pants had the same piping going down the legs on the outside. From 2006 to 2012, similar jerseys without sleeves or player's number on the front were worn. Players wore these vest-like jerseys over black T-shirts of varying sleeve lengths.[124] Player's names were written on the back in black block characters; numbers were also displayed in large red characters surrounded by black. Road jerseys initially bared "Sounds" across the chest, but were later changed to "Nashville"; these usually lacked the player's name on the back. A Milwaukee Brewers logo was added to the front left shoulder in 2007. The official home and road caps were black with a red and white music note logo on the front.[124]

The team switched to a red, black, and white color scheme over the course of the 1998 and 1999 seasons.[41] In the latter season, uniforms consisted of pinstriped pants and jerseys, with black sleeves bearing a music note logo on the left sleeve.[121] There was also an alternate jersey made of red fabric with black and gray trim around the sleeve opening and a music note logo on the left chest. Another alternate, made of black material, had red and white trim at the sleeve openings and a similar music note logo on the left chest.

From 1987 to 1998, the team wore button up jerseys made of white fabric, for home games, and gray, for road games. The design of the home jerseys remained the same as their previous uniforms. The word "Sounds" was still written across the chest in blue music note-like script, with a red border; though, the font was changed briefly from 1987 to 1988. Numbers were present on the front of jerseys below the team name on the player's left chest in blue block characters surrounded by red.[121] The back of the jersey carried the player's number; during some years, names were also present. Road grays had "Nashville" written across the chest and were missing the tri-color bands at both the neck and sleeves.[121] During this time, the team also added a blue mesh v-neck jersey with the red and white guitar swinger logo on the left chest. The wide tri-color stripes were dropped from the pants and were replaced by a blue belt. The Sounds continued to wear the original red-billed blue cap with all uniforms until approximately 1993 when a new cap was introduced. The new all-blue cap added the guitar-swinger logo to accompany the "N."[122] The two caps were worn interchangeably through 1998.

From 1978 to 1986, the team wore pullover v-neck jerseys made of white fabric, for home games, gray, for road games, and red or blue, for use as alternates. Bands of red, white, and blue were worn around the neck, with larger bands at the sleeve openings (the blue jerseys had one white band and two red bands). The word "Sounds" was written across the chest in red-on-blue music note-like script. Numbers, but not names, were sewn on the back of jerseys.[119] The team's pants were white and also displayed small red, white, and blue stripes down the legs and larger stripes around the waistband. Similar gray pants were worn for road games. Beginning in 1984, numbers were also located on the front of jerseys on the player's left chest, below the team name.[120] The team wore a blue cap with a red brim, displaying an "N" styled like a music note in white, bordered by red; this was the official team cap from 1978 through the mid-1990s.[120]

The team has utilized two color palettes prior to its current color scheme. The original colors, used from 1978 to 1998, consisted of red, white, and blue. From 1998 to 2014, the Sounds used a black, red, and white palette similar to the club's current colors. Both color schemes were used in the 1998 season during the transition from one to the other.


Road uniforms are identical to those worn for home games with only a few exceptions: jerseys and pants are made from gray material, "Nashville" is written across the chest instead of "Sounds", and the cap bears a guitar pick logo with an "S" in place of an "N".[117] The team wears an alternate uniform for all Friday games. The uniform consists of a black mesh jersey paired with white pants, both with the same red piping, guitar logo, and player's name and number as used on home and road uniforms. The other differences are having "Music City" written across the chest, the player's name written in red characters, and being worn with a cap which bears an "MC" over a guitar pick.[117] The batting practice cap is solid red with the guitar patch on the front.[117] A black mesh cap with the same logo is worn for Sunday games.[117] A second set of alternate uniforms honoring the 1940 Nashville Vols are worn for Thursday home games in conjunction with Throwback Thursday promotions.[118] These jerseys are made of white material with a royal blue Vols "V" logo displayed on the left chest.[118] They are paired with white pants and worn with a blue belt and two-toned white/royal blue socks.[118] The cap is royal blue with a red block "N" on the front.[118]

Nashville's current uniforms, which were adopted in 2015, use a similar color scheme to that which was used from 1998 through 2014. The palette consists of red, black, platinum silver, and white.[90] Additionally, new uniforms and logos incorporate elements that reflect Nashville's "Music City" moniker.[90] Home uniforms consist of white jerseys with single lines of red piping around the sleeve openings and up the front going around the neck. The word "Sounds" is sewn on the chest in red letters surrounded by platinum silver and black which resemble the sound holes on a guitar. A patch of a red, silver, black, and white guitar shown hitting a baseball is located on the left sleeve. An Oakland Athletics elephant logo is sewn on the right sleeve. The player's last name is sewn on the back in black block characters, and his number is displayed below his name in red sound-hole lettering with silver and black borders. White pants with a single line of red piping going up the sides are worn with black belts and black socks. The home cap is solid black with the primary "N" guitar pick logo.[117]

Nashville Sounds uniforms during the 2015 season


Like Greer Stadium before it, one of First Tennessee Park's most recognizable features is a 142 by 55 foot (43 by 17 m) guitar-shaped scoreboard beyond the right-center field wall.[114][115] Unlike Greer's guitar, which was only able to display basic in-game information such as the line score, count, and brief player statistics, the new, larger version is also capable of displaying colorful graphics and animations, the batting order, fielding positions, expanded statistics, and player photographs.[116]

The Sounds' current home ballpark is First Tennessee Park, which opened on April 17, 2015.[91] It is located in downtown Nashville at the location of the former Sulphur Dell ballpark.[111] Construction on the $47 million stadium began with a ceremonial groundbreaking on January 27, 2014.[112] The stadium has a fixed seating capacity of 8,500 people, but can accommodate up to 10,000 people with additional berm seating.[113] The stadium features wide concourses with direct views of the playing field. Its design, which incorporates the use of musical and baseball imagery, is meant to connect the park with the city's entertainment and sports heritage.[114]

Nashville's First Tennessee Park

First Tennessee Park (2015–present)

Following the construction of newer, relatively luxurious minor league ballparks, Greer Stadium had fallen below the standards set for Triple-A stadiums by professional baseball in 1990.[107] At the time, owner Larry Schmittou tried to convince the city to approve a new ballpark, but was unsuccessful.[107] Throughout the 2000s, the team continued in its attempts to gather approval and financing for a new ballpark to replace Greer.[108] At one point, a new stadium, First Tennessee Field, was planned for construction on the west bank of the Cumberland River in downtown. Disagreements over who would pay for the ballpark repeatedly pushed back opening day at the field, and eventually resulted in the cancellation of the project altogether.[109] In the meantime, numerous upgrades and repairs, including over $3.5 million worth of improvements from 2008 to 2009,[110] were made to Greer in order to preserve its functionality until a new stadium could be built.[110] A deal for such a new ballpark was achieved in late 2013. The Sounds played their final game at Greer on August 27, 2014.[82]

The Sounds originally played at Herschel Greer Stadium from 1978 through 2014. The ballpark, which still stands, is located on the grounds of Fort Negley, an American Civil War fortification approximately two miles (3 km) south of downtown Nashville. The venue experienced numerous expansions and contractions after its completion in 1978,[105] but seated 10,300 spectators during its final 2014 season.[106] Its best known feature is the giant 115.6 foot (35.2 m) guitar-shaped scoreboard behind the left field wall.

Herschel Greer Stadium (1978–2014)


As of the completion of the 2015 series, Memphis leads the all-time series against Nashville with a record of 897–872 (.507).[104] This record encompasses all 91 years of competition in the original Southern League, Southern Association, Southern League, and Pacific Coast League. Nashville, however, leads the all-time 18-year PCL series with a record of 154–132 (.538).[102]

In 2012, the two teams established the Tennessee Lottery I-40 Cup Series, a season-long, 16-game series between the clubs.[102] Whichever of the two wins the most games played between them is declared the winner and gets to keep the trophy cup until the next season. The losing team donates game tickets to a charity selected by the winner. The Sounds won the inaugural 2012 contest (9–7), and Memphis won the 2013 series (7–9).[102] The teams tied the 2014 and 2015 series (both 8–8), but the Redbirds retained the title in both instances.[103] Memphis leads the all-time I-40 Cup Series with a 3–1 record.[102]

The interstate rivalry was interrupted when Nashville moved to the American Association in 1985, but was renewed when the Sounds joined the Pacific Coast League in 1998.[98] The Sounds and the Memphis Redbirds were division rivals in the American Conference East Division from 1998 to 2004,[98] the American Conference North Division from 2005 to 2013,[99] and the American Conference South Division since 2014.[100] In 2009, Memphis clinched the American Conference North Division title, finishing the season just two games ahead of Nashville which spent the majority of the season in first place.[101] Similarly, Nashville finished the 2014 season two-and-a-half games behind Memphis after having led the division for most of the season.[83]

Nashville's chief rivals have been those based in Memphis, Tennessee. Located approximately 200 miles (320 km) to the south west and connected to Nashville by Interstate 40, Memphis has fielded several teams which have competed in the same leagues as Nashville's teams since the late 19th century.[95] The Sounds entered the rivalry when they joined the Southern League in 1978.[96] Nashville played in the West Division against the Memphis Chicks. In 1979, the Chicks won the first half of the division and the Sounds won the second half. In the best-of-three division finals, the Sounds defeated the Chicks in two out of three games before going on to win the Southern League Championship.[97] Memphis and Nashville each won the first and second halves, respectively, of the 1980 season. This time, however, Memphis won the Western Division title, defeating Nashville in three out of four games.[97] The teams met again under the same circumstances in 1981. The Sounds swept the Chicks in three straight games to win the Western Division finals.[97]


Nashville Sounds 5-Year History
Year Regular Season Post-season
Record Win % League Division GB Record Win % Result
2011 71–73 .496 6th (tie) 3rd 9
2012 67–77 .465 12th 2nd 16
2013 57–87 .396 16th 4th 13
2014 77–67 .535 5th 2nd
2015 66–78 .458 12th 3rd 12
5-Year Totals 338–382 .469

Season-by-season results

, who won the American League Cy Young Award in 2002, made his return to professional baseball with the Sounds in 2015 after sitting out the 2014 season. Zito was lauded by his Nashville teammates for embracing the Triple-A lifestyle and for his commitment to the team: charting pitches between starts, coaching first base, and even buying dinner for the entire team on his birthday.[94]

Barry Zito

The start of the 2015 season marked the first time that the Sounds played at the new downtown First Tennessee Park.[91] The Sounds defeated the Colorado Springs Sky Sox, 3–2 in 10 innings, in the inaugural home opener in front of an announced paid attendance of 10,459.[92] Prior to the game, Mayor Karl Dean threw out the ceremonial first pitch.[92] "The Star-Spangled Banner" was performed by Charles Esten (a star of the television series Nashville), who also sang at the park's ribbon-cutting ceremony earlier in the day.[92] Under manager Steve Scarsone, Nashville finished their first season as an A's affiliate in third place with a 66–78 (.458) record.[93]

Parting ways with the Brewers, Nashville entered into a four-year player development contract, a working agreement between a major and minor league baseball team, with the Oakland Athletics that runs from 2015 through 2018.[85] The Sounds also adopted a new color scheme, set of logos, and uniforms before the season.[86] The team hired sports design firm Brandiose to create their new visual identity. At one point, the firm was asked to explore new team names which included "Platinums," "Hits," "FireFlies," "Picks," "DrumSticks," and "Roosters."[87][88][89] Nashville chose to stick with the Sounds moniker, but elected to embrace a new color scheme that originally included Broadway Burnt Orange, Sunburst Tan, Neon Orange, and Cash Black.[86] However, the team returned to the previous red and black color scheme with the addition of platinum silver as an accent color before the start of the season following mixed feedback from Sounds fans.[90] The new logos incorporated elements that reflect Nashville's "Music City" moniker, such as guitars, guitar picks, and a guitar's sound hole.[90]

A man in a gray baseball uniform with a red
Barry Zito played as a starting pitcher for the Sounds in 2015.

Athletics era (2015–present)

Prior to the 2014 season, the Sounds, Metro Nashville, and the State of Tennessee entered into an agreement to build a new ballpark to replace Greer Stadium at the beginning of the 2015 season.[80] On August 27, 2014, the Sounds hosted the final game at Greer Stadium, an 8–5 loss to the Sacramento River Cats. In his only plate appearance, Nashville catcher Lucas May struck out swinging with a full count and the bases loaded to end the game.[81] The announced attendance at the game was a standing-room-only crowd of 11,067, the first sellout since 2010, and the largest crowd since 2007.[82] The team, led by veteran minor league manager Rick Sweet, finished the season with a 76–67 record, in second place, two-and-a-half games behind the Memphis Redbirds.[83] Jimmy Nelson, the Brewers' top prospect at the start of the season, was elected PCL Pitcher of the Year; he received all but one of the votes.[84]

The Sounds finished the 2012 season in second place with a losing 67–77 record under new manager Mike Guerrero.[77] Nashville set a franchise record low win–loss record in 2013. The 57–87 season eclipsed the previous franchise record (59–81) set in 2008.[78] Despite this performance, pitcher Johnny Hellweg won the PCL Pitcher of the Year Award.[79]

Sounds right fielder Caleb Gindl became the third player in team history to hit for the cycle when he accomplished the feat on July 10, 2011.[72] Center fielder Logan Schafer garnered national media attention when he initiated a triple play on August 20 against the Omaha Storm Chasers.[73][74] What made the rare occurrence even more unusual is that the ball first bounced off Schafer's glove and head before landing in his glove for the first out. He then returned the ball to the infield where second baseman Eric Farris and first baseman Mat Gamel completed the triple play by stepping on their respective bases.[75] Nashville ended the year with a 71–73 record, placing third in their division.[76]

Rebounding from their 2008 campaign, the 2009 Sounds achieved a 75–69 record under new manager Don Money.[70] Despite a winning record and spending the majority of the season in first-place, the Sounds finished the season two games behind their cross-state rivals, and eventual league champions, the Memphis Redbirds. The 2010 season proved to be reminiscent of the previous campaign. Though Nashville finished the year with a winning 77–67 record, it was only good enough to place fourth (last) in the division.[71]

On October 30, 2008, Amerisports Companies LLC entered into an agreement to sell the Sounds to MFP Baseball, a New York-based group of investors consisting of Masahiro Honzawa, Steve Posner, and Frank Ward. George King, PCL Vice President of Business and Operations, said that keeping the team in Nashville was one of the league's top criteria for approval of the sale.[67] The transaction received final approval from Major League Baseball and the PCL on February 26, 2009.[68] MFP made significant renovations to Greer Stadium while it continued to explore building a new downtown ballpark for the club.[68][69] King was later selected to be the franchise's new general manager.[68]

On June 14, 2008, following massive flooding in the Midwest, the Sounds and the Iowa Cubs played a game with an official attendance of zero.[64] Though downtown Des Moines was under a mandatory evacuation, team officials received permission from the city to play the game as long as no fans were allowed into Principal Park. In order to keep fans away, the lights and scoreboard were not turned on, the game was not broadcast in the local market, and a message on the team's website announced that the game was postponed. PCL Commissioner Branch Rickey III believed that this was the first time such actions were taken out of necessity.[64] The Sounds were further affected by weather when Hurricane Gustav forced the cancellation of the last three games of their season against the New Orleans Zephyrs.[65] The team's 59–81 record (.421) is the second-lowest in the team's history.[66]

The 2007 Sounds featured top Brewers prospects Yovani Gallardo and Ryan Braun. Braun, who made his major league debut on May 25, was named National League Rookie of the Year following the season, making him the third former Sounds player to receive this honor.[22] On June 25, Manny Parra pitched the club's second perfect game, only the third nine-inning perfect game in PCL history, against the Round Rock Express.[3] The team, led by PCL Manager of the Year Frank Kremblas, captured the American North Division title for the third straight year and finished the season with a league best .618 winning percentage (89–55).[62] In the conference championship series, they were defeated by the New Orleans Zephyrs, three games to one.[63]

A man wearing a navy blue Brewers jersey, gray pants, navy blue cap, and outfielder's glove on his left hand walking in the outfield.
Ryan Braun played third base for the Sounds in 2007.

On July 15, 2006, Nashville pitchers Carlos Villanueva, Mike Meyers, and Alec Zumwalt combined to pitch the fifth no-hitter in team history, a 2–0 win over the Memphis Redbirds.[58] On May 5–6, the Sounds participated in a 24-inning game against the New Orleans Zephyrs. The contest, played over the course of two days, lasted a total of eight hours and seven minutes. This game matched the longest game, in terms of innings played, in PCL history.[59] Additionally, several team and league records were broken by both teams. The record was originally set on June 8, 1909 in a game between the San Francisco Seals and Oakland Oaks. A few years later, on September 10, 1911, the record was tied by a contest between the Sacramento Solons and Portland Beavers.[59] The Sounds finished the season with a 76–68 record, tied with the Iowa Cubs for first-place in the American North Division.[60] Nashville won the division title and advanced to the post-season by means of a tiebreaker (winning the regular season series versus Iowa nine games to seven). In the conference championship series, Nashville lost to the Round Rock Express, three games to two.[61]

The Sounds changed affiliates in 2005, welcoming the Milwaukee Brewers as their sixth different major league franchise. Coincidentally, the major/minor league sports connection between Nashville and Milwaukee was duplicated from 2005 to 2014, but with reverse roles, in ice hockey, as the Milwaukee Admirals were the top-level minor league affiliate of the National Hockey League's Nashville Predators.[56] The Sounds' new affiliation started well as the club captured the 2005 Pacific Coast League championship, Nashville's first professional title since the Sounds' previous league crown in 1982. Managed by Frank Kremblas and featuring top prospects such as Rickie Weeks, Prince Fielder, Nelson Cruz, and Corey Hart, the Sounds won the American North Division title on the second-to-last day of the season. In the conference championship, Nashville defeated the Oklahoma RedHawks three games to two. The Sounds went on to defeat the Tacoma Rainiers in three straight games to capture the league title.[57]

Brewers era (2005–2014)

On May 21, 2004, catcher J. R. House became the second Sounds player (after Tike Redman in 2001) to hit for the cycle.[54] The team completed the 2004 campaign with a 63–79 record, finishing last in the division.[55] Early in the season, Jason Bay played four games in Nashville before being promoted to Pittsburgh. Following the major league season, he was named the National League Rookie of the Year. This made him the second former player from Nashville to receive such honors.[22]

On April 7, 2003, right-hander John Wasdin pitched the first perfect game in Nashville Sounds history in his first start of the season against the Albuquerque Isotopes.[51] The 4–0 Sounds win was only the second nine-inning perfect game in PCL history.[52] That year, manager Trent Jewett led the Sounds to an 81–62 record.[53] The team clinched the Eastern Division title, giving them their first post-season berth as a member of the Pacific Coast League and first post-season appearance since 1994. Nashville met Albuquerque in the American Conference championship series, defeating the Isotopes three games to one. The Sounds went on to lose the best-of-five league championship series in three straight games to the Sacramento River Cats.

Nashville finished the 2000 season with a 63–79 record, resulting in a last-place finish in the divisional standings.[45] Former All-Star Sounds infielder Marty Brown returned to the club to serve as its 25th manager in 2001, becoming the third former Nashville player to serve as the team's skipper. The Sounds compiled a 64–77 record, putting them in third-place and out of the playoffs.[46] Outfielder Tike Redman tied Iowa's Ross Gload with a league-leading 10 triples.[47] Redman also holds the Sounds franchise record for the most triples (30) during his career with the team.[48] On June 30, Redman became the first Sounds player to hit for the cycle.[49] The Sounds scored a third-place divisional finish with a 72–71 record in 2002.[50] Chad Hermansen, who played for the Sounds from 1998 to 2002, holds three career franchise records: runs (303), home runs (92), and runs batted in (286).[48]

In 1998, the team's first season as a Pirates affiliate, the Sounds finished last in the division with a 67–76 record.[42] Improving from the previous year, the 1999 team put together an 80–60 record,[43] but their second-place finish left them out of the post-season picture. Sounds second baseman Matt Howard led the league in fielding percentage (.982) and fewest strikeouts per plate appearance (1:18.2). Pitcher Jimmy Anderson led the PCL in winning percentage (.846, 11–2).[44]

Following the 1997 season, the American Association, of which the Sounds were a member, disbanded, and its teams were absorbed by the two remaining Triple-A leagues—the International League and Pacific Coast League. Nashville joined the Pacific Coast League (PCL). The franchise also picked up a new major league affiliation, becoming the top farm club of the Pittsburgh Pirates. For the first time since the team's foundation in 1978, the Sounds adopted a new logo, color scheme, and uniforms.[41] The original red, white, and blue colors were replaced by black and red. The new team logo, replacing the original mustachioed guitar swinger, consisted of a black and red music note enclosed in a circle of the same colors bearing the team name.

A man wearing a gray baseball uniform with the name
Freddy Sanchez played second base for Nashville in 2003 and 2004.

Pirates era (1998–2004)

The team improved their record in 1996, ending up with 77 wins and 67 losses.[39] Despite a decent winning percentage, Nashville failed to secure a spot in the playoffs. Manager Rick Renick earned the league's Manager of the Year award, and pitcher Scott Ruffcorn lead the league with thirteen wins. This season marked the last that Larry Schmittou was the team's principal owner. With the city prepared to welcome a National Football League franchise, the Tennessee Titans, Schmittou felt that revenue would be drawn away from his baseball team. He sold his entire financial interest in the Sounds to Al Gordon, president of AmeriSports Companies LLC.[6] The following year, Nashville put together a 74–68 season,[40] again failing to win either half of the season, leaving them out of the post-season. In addition to being selected for both the mid-season and post-season All-Star teams, outfielder Magglio Ordóñez garnered the league's Rookie of the Year and Most Valuable Player awards.[32]

The Sounds compiled a 68–76 record, 20 games out of first-place, in 1995.[37] Originally, Michael Jordan, who played with the White Sox's Double-A Birmingham Barons in 1994, was signed to play the 1995 season as a non-drafted free agent for the Sounds. However, with the ongoing MLB strike, Jordan decided to quit the sport rather than becoming a replacement player and being labeled a strikebreaker.[38]

In 1994, the Sounds earned an 83–61 record.[34] They also made their second consecutive appearance in the league's championship series. In the first round, Nashville swept the New Orleans Zephyrs in three straight games to advance to the league finals. In the best-of-five series, the Indianapolis Indians defeated the Sounds three games to one.[35] Nashville hosted the mid-season Triple-A All-Star Game in 1994. Sounds players Ray Durham, Drew Denson, and Scott Ruffcorn were selected for the event, however Ruffcorn was later placed on the disabled list and replaced by Steve Schrenk. Durham won the "Stars of Stars" award, recognizing him as the most valuable All-Star representing the American Association.[36]

The Sounds shared their ballpark with the Southern League's Nashville Xpress, previously known as the Charlotte Knights, during the 1993 and 1994 seasons. This came about when Charlotte acquired a Triple-A expansion franchise in 1993, leaving the city's Double-A team without a home. Sounds owner Larry Schmittou offered Greer Stadium as a temporary home for the team. In order to accommodate an additional team at Greer, the Xpress scheduled its home games during the Sounds' road trips. Baseball America ranked the dual Nashville teams as number one on its list of the "top 10 happenings in minor league baseball."[33] In 1995, the Xpress relocated to Wilmington, North Carolina and became the Port City Roosters.

Nashville switched affiliations again in 1993, this time becoming the top farm club of the Chicago White Sox. In addition to a new affiliation, the 1993 season also brought the addition of Greer Stadium's signature guitar-shaped scoreboard. In their first year with the White Sox, the Sounds clinched the East Division title with an 81–62 record.[31] In the league championship series, the Iowa Cubs defeated the Sounds in extra innings in game seven. Nashville's Rick Renick was named the American Association Manager of the Year.[32]

A man wearing a white baseball uniform with a navy blue
Magglio Ordóñez played center field and right field for the Sounds in 1997.

White Sox era (1993–1997)

In 1991, the Sounds started the year in first-place, where they remained for only ten days. By May 1, the team had fallen into third-place in the Eastern Division, where they remained for the rest of the season. Nashville posted a losing record every month during the season and finished the year 16 games behind the first-place Buffalo Bisons. First baseman Terry Lee, who led the Sounds in hits, RBI, runs, and home runs, was selected for the mid-season Triple-A All-Star Game and the league's post-season All-Star Team.[29] The following year was Nashville's last as a Reds affiliate. The team posted a 67–77 record, winding up in fourth-place and out of the post-season picture.[30]

After finishing in third-place with a 74–72 record in 1989,[26] the Sounds returned in 1990 to experience their most successful season as a part of the American Association, when they compiled an 86–61 record.[27] Finishing the regular season in a tie with the Buffalo Bisons, the Sounds won the Eastern Division championship in a one-game playoff. The extra-inning affair was ended by Chris Jones' two-run homer in the top of the eighteenth inning. The Sounds advanced to their first American Association championship series, where they lost to the Omaha Royals three games to two. That year, Nashville set their all-time attendance record when a total of 605,122 fans came out to Greer Stadium.[28]

Greer Stadium was home to a rare baseball occurrence on August 6 and August 7, 1988, when Nashville and the Indianapolis Indians exchanged no-hitters on back-to-back nights. First, Indianapolis' Randy Johnson and Pat Pacillo combined for a no-hit loss against the Sounds, a 1–0 Nashville win.[25] The next night, Nashville's Jack Armstrong registered a no-hit game against the Indians, a 4–0 Sounds victory. This was the third no-hitter ever pitched by a member of the Sounds.[25]

The 1988 Sounds were in last-place and had a losing record until making numerous management changes late in the season. During a two-week period in July and August 1988, the Sounds went through five different managers. The team started the season with Jim Hoff, who stayed a few days before taking up a position with the Reds' front office.[23] Finally, former Texas Rangers manager Frank Lucchesi was hired to lead the Sounds for the rest of the season.[23] Lucchesi managed the team's last 39 games, leading them to a final record of 73–69.[24] They finished second in the East Division and were out of the playoffs.[24]

A man wearing a white baseball uniform and a red cap with a white
Chris Hammond played as a starting pitcher for Nashville from 1988 to 1989.

[22] in 1988, a first for any former Sounds player.Rookie of the Year National League. Sabo was promoted to Cincinnati and was also named the Chris Sabo One player lost due to injuries was third baseman [21]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.