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Negeri Sembilan

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Negeri Sembilan


Negeri Sembilan (), one of Malaysia's thirteen states, lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia, just south of Kuala Lumpur and borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south.

The name is believed to derive from the nine (sembilan) villages or nagari in the Minangkabau language (now known as luak) settled by the Minangkabau, a people originally from West Sumatra (in present-day Indonesia). Minangkabau features are still visible today in traditional architecture and the dialect of Malay spoken.

Unlike the hereditary monarchs of the other royal Malay states, the ruler of Negeri Sembilan is known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar instead of Sultan. The election of the Ruler is also unique. He is selected by the council of Undangs who lead the four biggest districts of Sungai Ujong, Jelebu, Johol, and Rembau, making it one of the more democratic monarchies.

The capital of Negeri Sembilan is Seremban. The royal capital is Seri Menanti in the district of Kuala Pilah. Other important towns are Port Dickson and Nilai.

The Arabic honorific title of the state is Darul Khusus ("the Special Abode").

The ethnic composition in 2010 was:Malay (590,089 or 57.8%), Chinese (223,271 or 21.9%), Indian (146,214 or 14.3%), Others (3,583 or 0.35%) Non Citizens(57,907 or 5.7%).

Contents

  • History 1
  • Population and demographics 2
  • Government and politics 3
    • Constitution 3.1
    • The Ruler 3.2
    • State Executive Council 3.3
  • Religion 4
  • Economy 5
  • Culture 6
    • Dances 6.1
  • Cuisine 7
  • Tourism 8
  • History 9
  • Prison statistics 10
  • Prominent gangs 11
    • Black Power 11.1
    • Head Hunters MC 11.2
    • King Cobras 11.3
    • Bandidos MC 11.4
    • Hells Angels MC 11.5
  • Administration 12
    • Districts 12.1
    • List of local authorities 12.2
  • Education 13
    • Public universities 13.1
    • Private universities and university colleges 13.2
  • Hospitals 14
  • Media 15
    • Television 15.1
  • See also 16
  • References 17
  • External links 18

History

The Minangkabaus from Sumatra settled in Negeri Sembilan in the 14th century under the protection of the Malacca Sultanate, and later under the protection of its successor, the Sultanate of Johor. Negeri Sembilan is a state which has matrilineal society majority . The matrilineal custom was brought by the Minangkabau. As Johor weakened in the 18th century, attacks by the Bugis forced the Minangkabaus to seek protection from their homeland. The Minangkabau ruler, Sultan Abdul Jalil, obliged by sending his near relative, Raja Melewar. When he arrived, he found that another royal, Raja Khatib had already established himself as ruler. He declared war against Raja Khatib and became the ruler of Negeri Sembilan. The Sultan of Johor confirmed his position by granting the title Yamtuan Seri Menanti (He Who is Highest Lord of the Seri Menanti) in 1773. After Raja Melewar's death, a series of disputes arose over the succession. For a considerable period, the local nobles applied to the Minangkabau ruler in Sumatra for a ruler. However, competing interests supported different candidates, often resulting in instability and civil war.

In 1873, the British intervened militarily in a civil war in Sungai Ujong to preserve British economic interests, and placed the country under the control of a British Resident. Jelebu followed in 1886, and the remaining states in 1895. In 1897, when the Federated Malay States (FMS) was established, Sungai Ujong and Jelebu were reunited to the confederation of small states and the whole, under the old name of the Negeri Sembilan, was placed under a single Resident and became a member of the FMS.

The number of states within Negeri Sembilan has fluctuated over the years, the federation now consists of six states and a number of sub-states under their suzerainty. The former state of Naning was annexed to Malacca, Kelang to Selangor, and Segamat to Johor.

Negeri Sembilan endured Japanese occupation in World War II between 1942 and 1945, and joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and became a state of Malaysia in 1963.

Population and demographics

Negeri Sembilan have seven districts.

Rank Districts Seat Population 2010
1 Seremban Seremban 555,935
2 Jempol Bandar Seri Jempol 116,576
3 Port Dickson Port Dickson 115,361
4 Tampin Tampin 84,889
5 Kuala Pilah Kuala Pilah 66,092
6 Rembau Rembau 43,011
7 Jelebu 39,200

Negeri Sembilan has the population in Malaysia at 1,021,064 as of 2010.[1] The state's ethnic composition consists of Malay 57.8%, Chinese 21.9%, Indian 14.3%, and other ethnic groups 0.35%.

Government and politics

Constitution

The Constitution of Negeri Sembilan came into force on 26 March 1959. It is divided into two sections. The constitution establishes that the state's form of government is constitutional monarchy and the world's only elective monarchy for matrilineal society. The system was partially the basis for the federal monarchy.

The Ruler

Istana Seri Menanti

The official constitutional title of the Ruler of the state is Duli Yang Maha Mulia Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan, Yang Teramat Mulia Undang of Sungei Ujong, Yang Teramat Mulia Undang of Jelebu, Yang Teramat Mulia Undang of Johol, Yang Teramat Mulia Undang of Rembau and Yang Teramat Mulia Tengku Besar Tampin and they holds office for life. The state's constitution proclaims the Yang di-Pertuan Besar, Undang of Sungei Ujong, Undang of Jelebu, Undang of Johol, Undang of Rembau and Tengku Besar Tampin are vested with the Executive Power of the state, are the Head of the Religion of Islam in the state and are the fountain of all honour and dignity for the state. The current Yang di-Pertuan Besar is His Royal Highness Tuanku Muhriz ibni Almarhum Tuanku Munawir. His Royal Highness succeeds Almarhum Tuanku Jaafar Ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman who died on 27 December 2008.

Unlike Malaysia's eight other Royal Malay states, the Ruler of Negeri Sembilan is elected to his office by the territorial chiefs of the state. These chiefs are titled Undang. Only four of the Undangs have the right to vote in the election for the Ruler of the State. They are:

  • The Undang of Sungai Ujong
  • The Undang of Jelebu
  • The Undang of Johol
  • The Undang of Rembau

The Undang themselves cannot stand for election and their choice of ruler is limited to a male Muslim who is Malay and also a "lawfully begotten descendant of Raja Radin ibni Raja Lenggang".

State Executive Council

The State Executive Council is established by the 1959 constitution. It consists of the Menteri Besar, who is its Chairman, and ten other members. The Menteri Besar and the other members of the council are appointed by the Yang Di-Pertuan Besar from the members of the State Assembly. The current Menteri Besar or Chief Minister of the state is Dato' Seri Utama Muhammad Hassan.

Religion

Religion in Negeri Sembilan - 2010 Census[2]
religion percent
Islam
  
60.3%
Buddhism
  
21.2%
Hinduism
  
13.4%
Christianity
  
2.4%
Chinese Ethnic Religion
  
0.5%
Other
  
1.4%
No religion
  
0.8%

As of 2010 the population of Negeri Sembilan is 60.3% Muslim, 21.2% Buddhist, 13.4% Hindu, 2.4% Christian, 0.5% Taoist or Chinese religion follower, 1.4% follower of other religions, and 0.8% non-religious.

Economy

The state's manufacturing sector contributing almost half of the state’s gross domestic product (GDP), followed by services and tourism (40.3%), agriculture (6%), construction (2.2%) and mining (0.3%). Manufacturing activity includes electrical and electronics, textiles, furniture, chemicals, machinery, metal works and rubber products. The main industrial areas are Senawang, Sungai Gadut, Tuanku Jaafar Industrial Park, Nilai and Tanah Merah in Port Dickson. Coca-Cola, which is in the midst of setting up its billion ringgit bottling plant in Bandar Enstek.

Negeri Sembilan is mainly an agricultural state. However, the establishment of several industrial estates enhanced the manufacturing sector as a major contributor towards the state economy.

Agricultural activity includes rubber and oil palm plantations, livestock, fruit orchards and vegetable farming. About 3,099 square kilometres are used for rubber and oil palm plantations.

Culture

The Minangkabau people brought along with them a cultural heritage which is still preserved and practised today as the Adat perpatih, a matrilineal system of inheritance and administration that is unique to the state. It is a system where the husband is the head of the household and inheritance passes from the mother to the daughter. The Minangkabau's divided into twelve suku or tribes, and marriage between members of the same tribe or clan is forbidden. The Minangkabau influence in the state can be found in dances and food as well.

Dances

Negeri Sembilan also has traditional music like the Caklempong, Dikir Rebana, Tumbuk Kalang, and Bongai.

The musical instruments used bear some semblance to Sumatra, the ancestral home of the Minangkabau people. Dances like the tarian lilin (candle dance) and rentak kuda (beat of the horse) are popular in Negeri Sembilan and the coordinated movements of the dancers in their colorful costumes in the Tarian Piring and the upbeat tempo of Tarian Randai. Unlike modern dance, each beat, rhythm and movement in these dances combines to form a story, maybe of a bygone myth or simply a reflection of the lifestyles of another era.

They are usually performed at traditional festivities, cultural events and dinner-cum-cultural shows.

Cuisine

Traditional Negeri Sembilan food is hot and spicy, as one of the ingredients used is the chili padi, the hottest of chili peppers. Popular dishes includes rendang, (pieces of beef cooked in coconut milk and chillies). One should experience the unique Minangkabau style of cooking, which sees generous portions of 'chili padi' (small and extremely hot chilies) being used. Try the "Masak Lemak Cili Padi - fish, meat, or vegetables cooked in coconut milk blended with turmeric and ground chili padi.

Another Negeri Sembilan specialty is "Lemang", glutinous rice cooked in coconut milk in a bamboo stem over an open fire. This is normally served with Rendang, a deliciously thick and dry meat curry.[3]

Tourism

The popular attractions in Negeri Sembilan are:

  • Port Dickson Beach – A famous weekend retreat for city dwellers, it is said to have been named after a British officer, Sir John Frederik Dickson in 1889[4]
    • Seri Menanti Royal Museum – Originally a palace for the Negeri Sembilan Royal family, this five storey wooden palace, was built using no nails or screws. Expect to find costumes, weaponry, bed chambers as well as documents on the royal lineage on display in the museum[7]
      • Army Museum – The ultimate collections of artefact which had once witnessed the battlement to retain the sovereignty of Malaysia[28]
        • Sri Menanti Palace - Sri Menanti is the royal capital of Negeri Sembilan. This former royal palace, built of wood about 110 years ago without using a single nail, has been a museum of royal regalia since 1992 and contains interesting displays of costumes, furniture, weapons and other paraphernalia.
        • Mount Datuk - This mountain is in 884 metres high, it provides a good work-out and excellent views from the top. It is easily accessible for a day trip from Kuala Lumpur.
        • Mount Angsi - It is even closer to Kuala Lumpur and is a popular climbing spot. It also similar height with Mount Datuk and quite an exhausting walk.
        • Mount Telapak Buruk - It is one of Negeri Sembilan highest peaks but not so popular with day trippers.
        • Lukut Museum and Fort - In Lukut, the tourists can wander among the hilltop remains of a 19th-century fort before visiting the neighbouring Lukut Museum which contains a Lukut Historical Gallery and other interesting artifacts.
        • Virgin's Temple - On a hilltop overlooking Seremban is a small Hindu temple called the Arulmighu Maha Sapthakanniga Devi Temple, also known as the Virgin's Temple. Various mystical tales are linked to this place.
        • Penarikan Portage -Over 600 years ago they discovered that it was almost possible to traverse the Malay Peninsula by river. It also closely to the Bahau town is the spot known as Jalan Penarikan where boats were carried over the short gap between eastbound and westbound rivers.
        • Gemencheh Bridge (Sungai Kelamah) Memorial - This memorial marks the site of a battle at Gemencheh Bridge during World War II where allied forces ambushed advancing Japanese troops. Many lives were lost here.#opi

        Administration

        Current administrative districts of Negeri Sembilan.
        Seremban, capital of Negeri Sembilan.

        Districts

        The state comprises 7 districts:

      • Seremban
      • Port Dickson
      • Rembau
      • Jelebu
      • Kuala Pilah
      • Jempol
      • Tampin
      • It originally consisted of 9 districts:

        List of local authorities

        There are 8 local authorities in Negeri Sembilan, namely:

        1. Majlis Perbandaran Seremban (MPS)
        2. Majlis Perbandaran Nilai (MPN)
        3. Majlis Perbandaran Port Dickson (MPPD)
        4. Majlis Daerah Jelebu (MDJ)
        5. Majlis Daerah Jempol (MJL)
        6. Majlis Daerah Kuala Pilah (MDKP)
        7. Majlis Daerah Rembau (MDR)
        8. Majlis Daerah Tampin (MDT)

        Education

        Negeri Sembilan has several tertiary education institutions. Most of these education institutions are concentrated in major towns in Negeri Sembilan. The list below represents public and private university based in Negeri Sembilan state:

        Public universities

        Name Acronym Foundation Location
        Islamic Science University of Malaysia USIM 1998 Nilai
        Universiti Teknologi MARA UiTM Kuala Pilah & Seremban

        Private universities and university colleges

        Name Acronym Foundation Location
        INTI International University INTI-IU 1998 Nilai
        Manipal International University MIU 2011 Nilai
        Nilai University NU 1997 Nilai
        Mayfield University MFU 2005 Bahau
        Linton University College UCL 1995 Mantin
        Malaysia Theological Seminary STM 1979 Seremban
        UCSI International School UCSI 1986 Bandar Springhill

        Hospitals

        There are public hospitals and private hospitals in Negeri Sembilan:

        Public Hospitals

        • Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban
        • Hospital Tuanku Ampuan Najihah, Kuala Pilah
        • Hospital Port Dickson
        • Hospital Tampin
        • Hospital Jelebu
        • Hospital Jempol

        Private Hospitals

        • Nilai Medical Center, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
        • Seremban Specialist Hospital
        • Columbia Asia Medical Center - Seremban
        • Senawang Specialist Hospital
        • NSCMH Medical Centre
        • Columbia Asia Hospital

        Media

        Television

        Media Prima

        Television in Negeri Sembilan consists of seven free-to-air stations, and one satellite television network services. Three of the seven free-to-air stations are managed by Radio Televisyen Malaysia, a federal government-owned media company headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, while the four commercial stations are owned by Media Prima, an integrated media company headquartered in Bandar Utama, Selangor. The satellite television service is owned by Astro All Asia Networks and it is available nationwide.

        Free-to-air
        Satellite television

        Mainstream newspapers in Negeri Sembilan are:

        See also

        References

        1. ^
        2. ^ p. 13
        3. ^ http://go2travelmalaysia.com/tour_malaysia/ns_historical.htm
        4. ^
        5. ^ a b
        6. ^
        7. ^
        8. ^
        9. ^ a b Kemp, p 50
        10. ^ a b
        11. ^ Trust: A true story of Women and Gangs. Pip Desmond. 2009. Page 26
        12. ^ Ministry of Justice - Census of Prison Inmates 1991
        13. ^ Corrections Department - Gang Membership.
        14. ^ [1]
        15. ^
        16. ^
        17. ^
        18. ^ a b
        19. ^
        20. ^ http://www.3news.co.nz/Wanted-man-apprehended-in-Glenfield-house/tabid/423/articleID/168805/Default.aspx
        21. ^ http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/crime/8549667/King-Cobras-gang-in-Wellington-police
        22. ^ http://tvnz.co.nz/content/209992/2539670/article.html
        23. ^
        24. ^ http://www.gangscene.co.nz/gangscene-new-zealand-motorcycle-gangs-omcg.html
        25. ^ http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/9610098/Bandidos-move-on-Christchurchs-patch
        26. ^ http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/crime/9751272/Bandidos-gang-claims-big-presence-in-south
        27. ^ http://www.odt.co.nz/news/dunedin/289526/bandidos-no-threat-public-academics
        28. ^

        External links

        • Official site of Negeri Sembilan State Government
        • Tourism Malaysia – Johor
        • Negeri Sembilan travel guide written and maintained by locals




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