World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Nirvikalpa

Article Id: WHEBN0001617709
Reproduction Date:

Title: Nirvikalpa  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Videha mukti, Sahasrara, Kasaya (attachment), Mahasamādhi, Paramahamsa
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Nirvikalpa

Nirvikalpa is a Sanskrit adjective with the general sense of "not admitting an alternative",[1] formed by applying the contra-existential prepositional prefix निः ("away, without, not") to the term विकल्प ("alternative, variant thought or conception").[2]

Contents

  • Usage 1
    • Raja Yoga 1.1
    • Shaivism 1.2
    • Buddhism 1.3
  • See also 2
  • Notes 3
  • References 4
  • Sources 5
    • Printed sources 5.1
    • Web-sources 5.2
  • External links 6

Usage

Raja Yoga

In Raja Yoga, nirvikalpa samadhi is a synonym for Asamprajnata Samadhi, the highest stage of samadhi.[web 1] Heinrich Zimmer in his book distinguishes Nirvikalpa Samadhi from other states as follows:

Nirvikalpa samādhi, on the other hand, absorption without self-consciousness, is a mergence of the mental activity (cittavṛtti) in the Self, to such a degree, or in such a way, that the distinction (vikalpa) of knower, act of knowing, and object known becomes dissolved — as waves vanish in water, and as foam vanishes into the sea.[3]

According to Swami Sivananda, it is also called Nirbija Samadhi:[web 1]

"Without seeds or Samskaras [...] All the seeds or impressions are burnt by the fire of knowledge [...] all the Samskaras and Vasanas which bring on rebirths are totally fried up. All Vrittis or mental modifications that arise from the mind-lake come under restraint. The five afflictions, viz., Avidya (ignorance), Asmita (egoism), Raga-dvesha (love and hatred) and Abhinivesha (clinging to life) are destroyed and the bonds of Karma are annihilated [...] It gives Moksha (deliverance from the wheel of births and deaths). With the advent of the knowledge of the Self, ignorance vanishes. With the disappearance of the root-cause, viz., ignorance, egoism, etc., also disappear."[web 1]

Shaivism

Nirvikalpaka yoga is a technical term in the philosophical system of Shaivism, in which there is a complete identification of the "I" and Shiva, in which the very concepts of name and form disappear and Shiva alone is experienced as the real Self. In that system, this experience occurs when there is complete cessation of all thought-constructs.[4]

Buddhism

In Buddhist philosophy, the technical term nirvikalpa-jñāna is translated by Edward Conze as "undifferentiated cognition".[5] Conze notes that only the actual experience of nirvikalpa-jñāna can prove the reports given of it in scriptures. He describes the term as used in the Buddhist context as follows:

The "undiscriminate cognition" knows first the unreality of all objects, then realizes that without them also the knowledge itself falls to the ground, and finally directly intuits the supreme reality. Great efforts are made to maintain the paradoxical nature of this gnosis. Though without concepts, judgements and discrimination, it is nevertheless not just mere thoughtlessness. It is neither a cognition nor a non-cognition; its basis is neither thought nor non-thought.... There is here no duality of subject and object. The cognition is not different from that which is cognized, but completely identical with it.[6]

A different sense in Buddhist usage occurs in the Sanskrit expression nirvikalpayati (Pali: nibbikappa) that means "makes free from uncertainty (or false discrimination)" = distinguishes, considers carefully.[note 1]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For Buddhist usage as "makes free from uncertainty (or false discrimination) = distinguishes, considers carefully, and note that the term means "free from vikalpa", and Pali equivalent nibbikappa, see Edgerton 1953, p.304.[7]

References

  1. ^ Apte, p.555; Monier-Williams, p.542
  2. ^ Usharbudh Arya translates it as "non-discursive" when applied to the subject of thought.Arya 1986, p. 111.
  3. ^ Zimmer 1951, pp. 436–437.
  4. ^ Singh 1979, p. xxxiii.
  5. ^ Conze 1962, p. 253.
  6. ^ Conze 1962, p. 253, footnote ‡.
  7. ^ Edgerton 1953, p. 304, volume 2.

Sources

Printed sources

  • Arya, Usharbudh (1986), Yoga-Sūtras of Patañjali (Volume 1 ed.), Honesdale, Pennsylvania: The Himilayan International Institute,  
  • Conze, Edward (1962), Buddhist Thought In India (First Ann Arbor Edition, The University of Michigan Press 1967 ed.), George Allen & Unwin Ltd.,  
  • Edgerton, Franklin (1953), Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary (Reprint, Two-volume ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass,  
  • Singh, Jaideva (1979), Śiva Sūtras (Reprint ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass,  
  • Zimmer, Heinrich (1951), Philosophies of India (Ninth Bollingen Paperback, 1989 ed.), Princeton: Princeton University Press,  

Web-sources

  1. ^ a b c Raja Yoga SamadhiSri Swami Sivananda,

External links

  • Comans, Michael. "The Question of the Importance of Samadhi in Modern and Classical Advaita Vedanta- Notes: 19", realization.org, 1993
  • The Method of Early Advaita Vedanta p. 141-4 on Nirvikalpa Samadhi
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.