Omega meson

; the Template:Subatomic particle boson subsequently decays into a down antiquark (Template:Subatomic particle) and an up quark (Template:Subatomic particle).

Strong interactions: An up quark (Template:Subatomic particle) emits a gluon (Template:Subatomic particle) which decays into a down quark (Template:Subatomic particle) and a down antiquark (Template:Subatomic particle). ]]

This list is of all known and predicted scalar, pseudoscalar and vector mesons. See list of particles for a more detailed list of particles found in particle physics.

Mesons are unstable subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark. They are part of the hadron particle family – particles made of quarks. The other members of the hadron family are the baryons – subatomic particles composed of three quarks. The main difference between mesons and baryons is that mesons have integer spin (thus are bosons) while baryons are fermions (half-integer spin). Because mesons are bosons, the Pauli exclusion principle does not apply to them. Because of this, they can act as force mediating particles on short distances, and thus play a part in processes such as the nuclear interaction.

Since mesons are composed of quarks, they participate in both the weak and strong interactions. Mesons with net electric charge also participate in the electromagnetic interaction. They are classified according to their quark content, total angular momentum, parity, and various other properties such as C-parity and G-parity. While no meson is stable, those of lower mass are nonetheless more stable than the most massive mesons, and are easier to observe and study in particle accelerators or in cosmic ray experiments. They are also typically less massive than baryons, meaning that they are more easily produced in experiments, and will exhibit higher-energy phenomena sooner than baryons would. For example, the charm quark was first seen in the J/Psi meson (Template:Subatomic particle) in 1974,[1][2] and the bottom quark in the upsilon meson (Template:Subatomic particle) in 1977.[3]

Each meson has a corresponding antiparticle (antimeson) where quarks are replaced by their corresponding antiquarks and vice-versa. For example, a positive pion (Template:Subatomic particle) is made of one up quark and one down antiquark; and its corresponding antiparticle, the negative pion (Template:Subatomic particle), is made of one up antiquark and one down quark. Some experiments show the evidence of tetraquarks – "exotic" mesons made of two quarks and two antiquarks, but the particle physics community as a whole does not view their existence as likely, although still possible.[4]

Summary table

Meson summary table[5]
Light unflavoured
(S=C=B=0)
Strange
(S=±1, C=B=0)
Charmed, strange
(C=S=±1)
cc
IG(JPC) IG(JPC) IG(JP) IG(JP) IG(JPC)
π± 1(0) π
2
(1670)
1(2−+) K± 1/2(0) D±
s
0(0) η
c
(1S)
0+(0−+)
π0 1(0−+) φ(1680) 0(1−−) K0 1/2(0) D
s
0(??) J/ψ(1S) 0-(1−-)
η 0+(0−+) ρ
3
(1690)
1+(3−−) K0
S
1/2(0) D*
s0
(2317)±
0(0+) χ
c0
(1P)
0+(0++)
f
0
(500)
0+(0++) ρ(1700) 1+(1−−) K0
L
1/2(0) D
s1
(2460)±
0(1+) χ
c1
(1P)
0+(1++)
ρ(770) 1+(1−−) a
2
(1700)
1(2++) K*
0
(800)
1/2(0+) D
s1
(2536)±
0(1+) h
c
(1P)
 ??(1+-)
ω(782) 0(1−−) f0(1710) 0+(0++) K*(892) 1/2(1) D
s2
(2573)
0(??) χ
c2
(1P)
0+(2++)
η′ (958) 0+(0−+) η(1760) 0+(0−+) K
1
(1270)
1/2(1+) D*
s1
(2700)±
0(1-) η
c
(2S)
0+(0-+)
f
0
(980)
0+(0++) π(1800) 1(0−+) K
1
(1400)
1/2(1+) D*
sJ
(2860)±
0(??) ψ(2S) 0-(1--)
a
0
(980)
1(0++) f
2
(1810)
0+(2++) K*(1410) 1/2(1) D
sJ
(3040)±
0(??) ψ(3770) 0-(1--)
φ(1020) 0(1−−) X(1835)  ??(?−+) K*
0
(1430)
1/2(0+) Bottom
(B=±1)
X(3872) 0?(??+)
h
1
(1170)
0(1+−) φ
3
(1850)
0(3−−) K*
2
(1430)
1/2(2+) X(3915) 0+(??+)
b
1
(1235)
1+(1+−) η
2
(1870)
0+(2−+) K(1460) 1/2(0) B± 1/2(0-) χ
c2
(2P)
0+(2++)
a
1
(1260)
1(1++) π
2
(1880)
1(2−+) K
2
(1580)
1/2(2) B0 1/2(0-) X(3940)  ??(???)
f
2
(1270)
0+(2++) ρ(1900) 1+(1−−) K(1630) 1/2(??) B±/B0 Admixture ψ(4040) 0-(1--)
f
1
(1285)
0+(1++) f
2
(1910)
0+(2++) K
1
(1650)
1/2(1+) B±/B0/B0
s
/b-baryon
Admixture
X(4050)±  ?(??)
η(1295) 0+(0−+) f
2
(1950)
0+(2++) K*(1680) 1/2(1) X(4140) 0+(??+)
π(1300) 1(0−+) ρ
3
(1990)
1+(3−−) K
2
(1770)
1/2(2) Vcb and Vub CKM Matrix
Admixture
ψ(4160) 0-(1--)
a
2
(1320)
1(2++) f
2
(2010)
0+(2++) K*
3
(1780)
1/2(3) X(4160)  ??(???)
f
0
(1370)
0+(0++) f
0
(2020)
0+(0++) K
2
(1820)
1/2(2) B* 1/2(1-) X(4250)±  ?(??)
h
1
(1380)
 ?(1+−) a
4
(2040)
1(4++) K(1830) 1/2(0) B*
J
(5732)
 ?(??) X(4260)  ??(1--)
π
1
(1400)
1(1−+) f
4
(2050)
0+(4++) K*
0
(1950)
1/2(0+) B
1
(5721)0
1/2(1+) X(4350) 0+(??+)
η(1405) 0+(0−+) π
2
(2100)
1(2−+) K*
2
(1980)
1/2(2+) B*
1
(5721)0
1/2(2+) X(4360)  ??(1--)
f
1
(1420)
0+(1++) f
0
(2100)
0+(0++) K*
0
(2045)
1/2(4+) Bottom, strange
(B=±1, S=∓1)
ψ(4415) 0-(1--)
ω(1420) 0(1−−) f
2
(2150)
0+(2++) K
2
(2250)
1/2(2) X(4430)±  ?(??)
f
2
(1430)
0+(2++) ρ(2150) 1+(1−−) K
3
(2320)
1/2(3+) B0
s
0(0-) X(4660)  ??(1--)
a
0
(1450)
1(0++) φ(2170) 0(1−−) K*
5
(2380)
1/2(5) B*
s
0(1-) bb
ρ(1450) 1+(1−−) f
0
(2200)
0+(0++) k
4
(2500)
1/2(4) B
s1
(5830)0
0(1+) η
b
(1S)
0+(0-+)
η(1475) 0+(0−+) fJ(2200) 0+(2++
or 4++)
K(3100)  ??(???) B*
s2
(5840)0
0(2+) Υ(1S) 0-(1--)
f
0
(1500)
0+(0++) Charmed
(C=±1)
B*
sJ
(5850)
 ?(??) χ
b0
(1P)
0+(0++)
f
1
(1510)
0+(1++) η(2225) 0+(0−+) Bottom, charmed
(B=C=±1)
χ
b1
(1P)
0+(1++)
f′
1
(1525)
0+(2++) ρ
3
(2250)
1+(3−−) D± 1/2(0) h
b
(1P)
 ??(1+-)
f
2
(1565)
0+(2++) f2(2300) 0+(2++) D0 1/2(0) B±
c
0(0) χ
2b
(1P)
0+(2++)
ρ(1570) 1+(1−−) f
4
(2300)
0+(4++) D*(2007)0 1/2(1) Υ(2S) 0-(1--)
h
1
(1595)
0(1+−) f
0
(2330)
0+(0++) D*(2010)± 1/2(1) Υ(1D) 0-(2--)
π
1
(1600)
1(1−+) f
2
(2340)
0+(2++) D*
0
(2400)0
1/2(0+) χ
b0
(2P)
0+(0++)
a
1
(1640)
1(1++) ρ
5
(2350)
1+(5−−) D*
0
(2400)±
1/2(0+) χ
b1
(2P)
0+(1++)
f
2
(1640)
0+(2++) a
6
(2450)
1(6++) D
1
(2420)0
1/2(1+) Υ(4S) 0-(1--)
η
2
(1645)
0+(2−+) f
6
(2510)
0+(6++) D
1
(2420)±
1/2(??) X(10610)±  ?+(1+)
ω(1650) 0(1−−) Other Light D
1
(2430)0
1/2(1+) X(10650)±  ?+(1+)
ω
3
(1670)
0(3−−) Further States D*
2
(2460)0
1/2(2+) Υ(10860) 0-(1--)
D*
2
(2460)±
1/2(2+) Υ(11020) 0-(1--)
D(2550)0 1/2(0-)
D(2600) 1/2(??)
D*(2640)± 1/2(??)
D(2750) 1/2(??)

Because this table was initially derived from published results and many of those results were preliminary, as many as 64 of the mesons in the above table may not exist or have the wrong mass or quantum numbers.

Main article: Meson

These lists detail all known and predicted pseudoscalar (JP = 0) and vector (JP = 1) mesons.

The symbols encountered in these lists are: I (isospin), J (total angular momentum), P (parity), C (C-parity), G (G-parity), u (up quark), d (down quark), s (strange quark), c (charm quark), b (bottom quark), Q (charge), B (baryon number), S (strangeness), C (charm), and B′ (bottomness), as well as a wide array of subatomic particles (hover for name).

The properties and quark content of the particles are tabulated below; for the corresponding antiparticles, simply change quarks into antiquarks (and vice-versa) and flip the sign of Q, B, S, C, and B′. Particles with next to their names have been predicted by the standard model but not yet observed. Values in red have not been firmly established by experiments, but are predicted by the quark model and are consistent with the measurements.

Pseudoscalar mesons

Pseudoscalar mesons
Particle name Particle
symbol
Antiparticle
symbol
Quark
content
Rest mass (MeV/c2) IG JPC S C B' Mean lifetime (s) Commonly decays to

(>5% of decays)

Pion[6] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 139.57018±0.00035 1 0 0 0 0 (2.6033±0.0005)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle
Pion[7] Template:Subatomic particle Self \mathrm{\tfrac{u\bar{u} - d\bar{d}}{\sqrt{2}}}\,[a] 134.9766±0.0006 1 0−+ 0 0 0 (8.4±0.5)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle
Eta meson[8] Template:Subatomic particle Self \mathrm{\tfrac{u\bar{u} + d\bar{d} - 2s\bar{s{\sqrt{6}}}\,[a]}} 547.853±0.024 0+ 0−+ 0 0 0 (5.0±0.3)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[b] Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or
Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or

Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle

Eta prime meson[9] Template:Subatomic particle(958) Self \mathrm{\tfrac{u\bar{u} + d\bar{d} + s\bar{s}}{\sqrt{3}}}\,[a] 957.78±0.06 0+ 0−+ 0 0 0 (3.39±0.16)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[b] Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or

(Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle) / (Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle) or
Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle

Charmed eta meson[10] Template:Subatomic particle(1S) Self Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 2980.3±1.2 0+ 0−+ 0 0 0 (2.30±0.17)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[b] decay modes
Bottom eta meson[11] Template:Subatomic particle(1S) Self Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 9390.9±2.8 0+ 0+ 0 0 0 Unknown decay modes
Kaon[12] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 493.677±0.016 12 0 1 0 0 (1.2380±0.0021)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or

Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or
Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle

Kaon[13] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 497.614±0.024 12 0 1 0 0 [c] [c]
K-Short[14] Template:Subatomic particle Self \mathrm{\tfrac{d\bar{s} - s\bar{d}}{\sqrt{2}}}\,[e] 497.614±0.024[d] 12 0 (*) 0 0 (8.953±0.005)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or

Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle

K-Long[15] Template:Subatomic particle Self \mathrm{\tfrac{d\bar{s} + s\bar{d}}{\sqrt{2}}}\,[e] 497.614±0.024[d] 12 0 (*) 0 0 (5.116±0.020)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or
Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or

Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or
Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle

D meson[16] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 1869.60±0.16 12 0 0 +1 0 (1.040±0.007)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 decay modes
D meson[17] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 1864.83±0.14 12 0 0 +1 0 (4.101±0.015)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 decay modes
strange D meson[18] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 1968.47±0.33 0 0 +1 +1 0 (5.00±0.07)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 decay modes
B meson[19] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 5279.15±0.31 12 0 0 0 +1 (1.638±0.011)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 decay modes
B meson[20] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 5279.50±0.30 12 0 0 0 +1 (1.530±0.009)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 decay modes
Strange B meson[21] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 5366.3±0.6 0 0 −1 0 +1 1.472+0.024
Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps10
×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11
decay modes
Charmed B meson[22] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 6277±6 0 0 0 +1 +1 (4.53±0.41)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 decay modes

[a] ^ Makeup inexact due to non-zero quark masses.
[b] ^ PDG reports the resonance width (Γ). Here the conversion τ = ħΓ is given instead.
[c] ^ Strong eigenstate. No definite lifetime (see kaon notes below)
[d] ^ The mass of the Template:Subatomic particle and Template:Subatomic particle are given as that of the Template:Subatomic particle. However, it is known that a difference between the masses of the Template:Subatomic particle and Template:Subatomic particle on the order of 2.2×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11 MeV/c2 exists.[15]
[e] ^ Weak eigenstate. Makeup is missing small CP–violating term (see notes on neutral kaons below).

Vector mesons

Vector mesons
Particle name Particle
symbol
Antiparticle
symbol
Quark
content
Rest mass (MeV/c2) IG JPC S C B' Mean lifetime (s) Commonly decays to

(>5% of decays)

Charged rho meson[23] Template:Subatomic particle(770) Template:Subatomic particle(770) Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 775.11±0.34 1+ 1 0 0 0 ~4.5×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[f][g] Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle
Neutral rho meson[23] Template:Subatomic particle(770) Self \mathrm{\tfrac{u\bar{u}-d\bar{d}}{\sqrt 2}}\, 775.49±0.34 1+ 1−− 0 0 0 ~4.5×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[f][g] Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle
Omega meson[24] Template:Subatomic particle(782) Self \mathrm{\tfrac{u\bar{u} + d\bar{d}}{\sqrt{2}}}\, 782.65±0.12 0 1−− 0 0 0 (7.75±0.07)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[f] Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or

Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle

Phi meson[25] Template:Subatomic particle(1020) Self Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 1019.445±0.020 0 1−− 0 0 0 (1.55±0.01)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[f] Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or
Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or
(Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle) / (Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle)
J/Psi[26] Template:Subatomic particle Self Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 3096.916±0.011 0 1−− 0 0 0 (7.09±0.21)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[f] (1S) decay modes
Upsilon meson[27] Template:Subatomic particle(1S) Self Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 9460.30±0.26 0 1−− 0 0 0 (1.22±0.03)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[f] (1S) decay modes
Kaon[28] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 891.66±0.026 12 1 1 0 0 ~7.35×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[f][g] (892) decay modes
Kaon[28] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 895.94±0.22 12 1 1 0 0 (7.346±0.002)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[f] (892) decay modes
D meson[29] Template:Subatomic particle(2010) Template:Subatomic particle(2010) Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 2010.25±0.14 12 1 0 +1 0 (6.9±1.9)×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[f] Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or
Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle
D meson[30] Template:Subatomic particle(2007) Template:Subatomic particle(2007) Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 2006.96±0.16 12 1 0 +1 0 >3.1×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[f] Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or
Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle
strange D meson[31] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 2112.3±0.5 0 1 +1 +1 0 >3.4×10Template:Val/delimitnum/gaps11[f] Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle or
Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle
B meson[32] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 5325.1±0.5 12 1 0 0 +1 Unknown Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle
B meson[32] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 5325.1±0.5 12 1 0 0 +1 Unknown Template:Subatomic particle + Template:Subatomic particle
Strange B meson[33] Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle 5415.4±1.4 0 1 −1 0 +1 Unknown Template:Subatomic particle+Template:Subatomic particle
Charmed B meson Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle Unknown 0 1 0 +1 +1 Unknown Unknown

[f] ^ PDG reports the resonance width (Γ). Here the conversion τ = ħΓ is given instead.
[g] ^ The exact value depends on the method used. See the given reference for detail.

Notes on neutral kaons

There are two complications with neutral kaons:[34]

Note that these issues also exist in principle for other neutral flavored mesons; however, the weak eigenstates are considered separate particles only for kaons because of their dramatically different lifetimes.[34]

See also


References

Bibliography

  • (German)
  • (German)
  • (German)

External links

  • Particle Data Group – The Review of Particle Physics (2008)
  • Mesons made thinkable, an interactive visualisation allowing physical properties to be compared
ar:قائمة الميزونات

it:Lista dei mesoni

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