World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Opioid antagonist

Article Id: WHEBN0003533299
Reproduction Date:

Title: Opioid antagonist  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Naltrexone, Neuromodulation, Nicotinic antagonist, Opioid, List of opioids
Collection: Opioid Antagonists
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Opioid antagonist

An opioid antagonist, or opioid receptor antagonist, is a receptor antagonist that acts on opioid receptors.

Naloxone and naltrexone are commonly used opioid antagonist drugs which are competitive antagonists that bind to the opioid receptors with higher affinity than agonists but do not activate the receptors. This effectively blocks the receptor, preventing the body from responding to opioids and endorphins.

Some opioid antagonists are not pure antagonists but in fact do produce some weak opioid partial agonist effects, and can produce analgesic effects when administered in high doses to opioid-naive individuals. Examples of such compounds include nalorphine and levallorphan. However the analgesic effects from these specific drugs are limited and tend to be accompanied by dysphoria, most likely due to additional agonist action at the kappa opioid receptor. As they induce opioid withdrawal effects in people who are taking, or have recently used, opioid full agonists, these drugs are considered to be antagonists for practical purposes.

The weak partial agonist effect can be useful for some purposes, and has previously been used for purposes such as long-term maintenance of former opioid addicts using nalorphine, however it can also have disadvantages such as worsening respiratory depression in patients who have overdosed on non-opioid sedatives such as alcohol or barbiturates. Naloxone on the other hand has no partial agonist effects, and is in fact a partial inverse agonist at mu opioid receptors, and so is the preferred antidote drug for treating opioid overdose.

Naltrexone is also a partial inverse agonist, and this property is exploited in treatment of opioid addiction, as a sustained course of low-dose naltrexone can reverse the altered homeostasis which results from long-term abuse of opioid agonist drugs. This is the only treatment available which can reverse the long-term after effects of opioid addiction known as post acute withdrawal syndrome, which otherwise tends to produce symptoms such as depression and anxiety that may lead to eventual relapse. A course of low-dose naltrexone is thus often used as the final step in the treatment of opioid addiction after the patient has been weaned off the substitute agonist such as methadone or buprenorphine, in order to restore homeostasis and minimise the risk of post acute withdrawal syndrome once the maintenance agonist has been withdrawn.

Contents

  • Selective antagonists 1
  • Depersonalization disorder 2
  • In fiction 3
  • See also 4
  • External links 5
  • References 6

Selective antagonists

All of the opioid antagonists used in medicine are non-selective, either blocking all three opioid receptors, or blocking the mu-opioid receptor but activating the kappa receptor. However for scientific research selective antagonists are needed which can block one of the opioid receptors but without affecting the other two. This has led to the development of antagonists which are highly selective to one of the three receptors;

Other selective antagonists are also known, but the three listed above were the first selective antagonists discovered for each respective opioid receptor, and are still the most widely used.

J-113,397 is a selective antagonist of the nociceptin receptor, and AT-076 is a non-selective, balanced antagonist of all of the opioid receptors including the nociceptin receptor.

Depersonalization disorder

Naloxone and naltrexone have both been studied for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. In a 2001 study with naloxone, three of fourteen patients lost their depersonalization symptoms entirely, and seven showed marked improvement.[1] The findings of a 2005 naltrexone study were slightly less promising, with an average of a 30% reduction of symptoms, as measured by 3 validated dissociation scales.[2] The more dramatic result of naloxone versus naltrexone is suspected to be due to different endogenous opioid receptor selectivity in naloxone, which is better suited to individuals suffering from depersonalization disorder.

In fiction

  • In the episode of House, "Skin Deep", opioid antagonist drugs were administered in order to completely remove the patient's heroin induced addiction/withdrawal symptoms (during an induced coma in order to relieve the extreme pain of their use), so that an accurate diagnosis of paraneoplastic syndrome caused by cancer was differentiated.
  • In an episode of Royal Pains, a character dangerously tries to undergo a procedure (and go under anaesthesia) in his own home.
  • In an episode of Hannibal, Dr.Lecter administers Naloxone to Jack Crawford's wife after she tries to commit suicide by overdosing on morphine.

See also

External links

  • David S, Lancaster T, Stead LF. Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation (Cochrane Review), The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2005. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Opioid Antagonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

References

  1. ^ Nuller, Yuri. "Effect of naloxone therapy on depersonalization: a pilot stud". Sage. Retrieved 10/8/2011. 
  2. ^ Simeon, Daphne. "An Open Trial of Naltrexone in the Treatment of Depersonalization Disorder". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Retrieved 2011-10-13. 


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.