World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Classification and external resources
ICD-10 D89.2
ICD-9-CM 273.1 - 273.2
DiseasesDB 9614
MeSH D010265

Paraproteinemia, or monoclonal gammopathy, is the presence of excessive amounts of paraprotein or single monoclonal gammaglobulin in the blood. It is usually due to an underlying immunoproliferative disorder.

It is sometimes considered equivalent to plasma cell dyscrasia.[1]


  • Types 1
  • Possible causes 2
  • Diagnosis 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


Paraproteinemias may be categorized according to the type of monoclonal protein found in blood:

The three types of paraproteins may occur alone or in combination in a given individual. Note that while most heavy chains or whole immunoglobulins remain within blood vessels, light chains frequently escape and are excreted by the kidneys into urine, where they take the name of Bence Jones protein.

It is also possible for paraproteins (usually whole immunoglobulins) to form polymers by aggregating with each other; this takes the name of macroglobulinemia and may lead to further complications. For example, certain macroglobulins tend to precipitate within blood vessel with cold, a phenomenon known as cryoglobulinemia. Others may make blood too viscous to flow smoothly (usually with IgM macroglobulins), a phenomenon known as Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

Possible causes


These disorders are characterized by the presence of any abnormal protein that is involved in the immune system, which are most often immunoglobulins and are associated with the clonal proliferation of lymphocytes.[2]

When a paraproteinemia is present in the blood, there will be a narrow band, or spike, in the serum protein electrophoresis because there will be an excess of production of one protein.[3]

There are two large classes of blood proteins: albumin and globulin. They are generally equal in proportion, but albumin is much smaller than globulin, and slightly negatively charged, which leads to an accumulation at the end of the electrophoretic gel. The globulins separate out into three regions on the electrophoretic gel, which are the α band, the β band, and the γ band.

  • The γ band is where the immunoglobulins appear, which is why they are also known as gammaglobulins.[5] The majority of paraproteins appear in this band.[4]

See also


  1. ^ "paraproteinemia" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Health Communication Network. Immunoproliferative disorders- Topic Tree. Accessed March 2007.
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ Abbas, A.K and Lichtman, A.H. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. Fifth Edition. Elsevier Saunders. Philadelphia. 2005

External links

  • Paraproteinaemia at
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.