World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Penny Red

Article Id: WHEBN0000240756
Reproduction Date:

Title: Penny Red  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Postage stamp, Philately, Postage stamps and postal history of Cyprus, Plate block, Franking
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Penny Red

An unperforated Penny Red, position 2, row 2
Date of production 1841 (1841)–1879 (1879)
Printer Perkins, Bacon & Co
Perforation
  • 1841: none
  • 1850: 16 gauge (experimental)
  • 1854: 16 gauge
  • 1855: 14 gauge
Depicts Queen Victoria
Face value 1d
A perforated Penny Red with letters in four corners and plate 148, therefore printed 1871 or later
The plate number, 148 in this case, may be found in the margin of the stamp.

The Penny Red was a British postage stamp, issued in 1841. It succeeded the Penny Black and continued as the main type of postage stamp in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1879, with only minor changes to the design during that time. The colour was changed from black to red because of difficulty in seeing a cancellation mark on the Penny Black; a black cancel was readily visible on a Penny Red.[1]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Plate numbers 2
  • Withdrawal 3
  • Chronology 4
  • See also 5
  • References and sources 6
  • External links 7

History

Initially, some of the same plates that were used to print the Penny Black were used to print the Penny Red and about 21 billion Penny Reds were printed by Messrs. Perkins, Bacon & Co.[2] Initially, the stamp had no perforations, and had to be cut from the sheet using scissors in the same manner as for the Penny Black and the early printings of the Two pence blue. Perforations, (experimental gauge 16), first came into use in 1850 and were officially adopted in 1854 (in the same size as the experimental issue). The experimental issue can be distinguished from the general issue as the later was applied to stamp which used a different alphabet type for the letters in the lower corners. Each stamp has unique corner letters AA, AB, AC ... AL etc., so its position on the plate can be identified.

In January 1855, the perforation size was changed from 16 to 14 as it was found that the sheets were coming apart too easily. The reduced size allowed the sheets to remain intact until pressure was applied to force the separation.

The stamps were printed in sheets of 240 (20 rows of 12 stamps), so one row cost 1 shilling and a complete sheet one pound. This 240 stamps per sheet configuration continued with all British postage stamps issued until 1971 when decimal currency was introduced when the sheet size was changed to 200, (20 rows of 10 stamps) making the lowest value denomination (half penny) one pound per sheet.

Plate numbers

On 1 April 1864, the stamp was issued with the plate number engraved in the design, in the left and right side lace work. At this time, the stars in the top corners were also replaced with the same check letters as used in the lower corners, but in reverse order.[3]

Because of wear, over 400 different plates were used to print the Penny Red. Two different basic watermarks were used for the paper, small crown, (on the early issues) and large crown, introduced on 15 May 1855. The first stamps printed on the large crown watermarked paper showed two small vertical lines in the central portion of the crown. Later printings showed a revised watermark on which these central lines are not present.

Withdrawal

The era of the Penny Red came to its close at the end of 1879, along with Perkins Bacon's contract. It was superseded by the Penny Venetian Red printed by De La Rue, which was in use for a little over a year before being succeeded in turn by the long-lived Penny Lilac.

Chronology

  • 10 February 1841 - first issue: colour of 1d stamp changed from black to red-brown.[4]
  • 24 February 1854 - perforations 16 introduced.[5]
  • January 1855[6] - perforation size changed from 16 to 14.
  • 15 May 1855[7] - watermark changed from small crown to large crown.
  • 1858 - letters in all four corners, colour lake-red[8]
  • 1 April 1864 - letters on all four corners and plate number engraved on each stamp from plate 71 onwards.[2]
  • 27 October 1879 - last plate (225) put to press.
  • 3 December 1879 - contract to print the Penny Red formally ended.[9]

See also

References and sources

Notes
  1. ^ "1840 2d and 1841 2d a plating aid". Steven Allen British and Colonial Stamps. Retrieved 5 May 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "The Penny Red". The Penny Red Collector. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  3. ^ Stanley Gibbons Ltd, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 1: Queen Victoria (8th ed. 1985) p. 207.
  4. ^ SG7, Stanley Gibbons Stamp Catalogue, Commonwealth & British Empire Stamps 1840-1970, issued in 2009
  5. ^ SG17.
  6. ^ SG22.
  7. ^ SG26.
  8. ^ SG44.
  9. ^ http://www.pennystars.com Penny Red at pennystars. Retrieved 10 November 11.
Sources
  • Stanley Gibbons Ltd, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 1: Queen Victoria
  • J.B. Seymour & C. Gardiner-Hill The Postage Stamps of Great Britain Part 1 (Royal Philatelic Society London, 3rd. edition, 1967)
  • W.R.D. Wiggins (Ed.) The Postage Stamps of Great Britain Part 2 (Royal Philatelic Society London, 2nd edition, 1962)

External links

  • Examples of unused Penny Reds from the Phillips Collection at the British Postal History Museum
  • Penny Red Collector
  • Article by Robert Murray, aimed at novices.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.