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Philippine mouse-deer

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Title: Philippine mouse-deer  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Tragulus, Artiodactyla, Flores warty pig, Eudorcas, Nanger
Collection: Endemic Fauna of the Philippines, Fauna of Palawan, Mammals of the Philippines, Tragulus
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Philippine mouse-deer

Philippine mouse-deer[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Tragulidae
Genus: Tragulus
Species: T. nigricans
Binomial name
Tragulus nigricans
Thomas, 1892
Synonyms

Tragulus napu nigricans
Muntiacus nigricans

The Philippine mouse-deer (Tragulus nigricans), also known as the Balabac chevrotain or pilandok (in Filipino), is a small, nocturnal ruminant, which is endemic to Balabac and nearby smaller islands (Bugsuc and Ramos) southwest of Palawan in the Philippines. The genus Tragulus means 'little goat' and the Philippine mouse-deer has been named so due to the horizontal pupils of the eyes. This position of the pupil allows for an increase in peripheral depth perception. It has traditionally been considered a subspecies of the greater mouse-deer (T. napu). In 2004, though, T. nigricans was separated from T. napu as its own species due to differences in skull morphology (skull measurements).[3] Contrary to its common name, the Philippine mouse-deer does not belong to the deer family Cervidae, but is a member of the chevrotain family.

Contents

  • Morphology 1
  • Behavior and ecology 2
  • Reproduction 3
  • In culture 4
  • Conservation 5
  • In captivity 6
  • References 7

Morphology

It has a black and brown coat with white stripes on the throat and chest. Each individual hair has sections of different colors - the base is generally light (ranging from white to ashy brown), with a tawny, orange, or brown midsection, and a long black tip. The most striking markings of the Balabac chevrotain are on the throat, with three narrow white stripes beginning from a white patch under the chin and extending down towards the chest. In intense contrast to these white stripes (and sharply defining them), the rest of the throat is jet black; in some specimens the black coloration even overtakes and obscures the stripes. Towards the chest, these black and white markings disappear into a broad brown band which crosses the lower throat.[4] The head itself is generally darker in color than the rest of the body. Broad rufous or fulvous 'eyebrow' stripes extend from the anterior corners of the eyes to the base of ears. The bridge of the nose and forehead are dark brown, becoming increasingly infused with black towards the crown of the head. The sides of the head are more fulvous. A naked glandular patch on the underside of the jaw is bordered with white, which runs into the white patch at the top of the throat.[5] Its slender legs and arched back are covered by brown fur, with a white base. A dark line runs from each ear past the eye toward the nose. Though the Philippine mouse-deer traditionally has been considered a subspecies of the greater mouse-deer, its measurements are intermediate between those of the greater mouse-deer and the lesser mouse-deer from the nearby island of Borneo.[3] Measurements for this species have been consistent over the last eighty years of research. On average, the Balabac mouse deer measures 40–50 cm from the head to the tail base and reaches an average of 18 cm tall at shoulder height.[6]

The male of its species does not have any antlers like a true deer. They use their large, tusk-like canine teeth on the upper jaw for self-defense or territorial fights with other males.

Behavior and ecology

It is a solitary, nocturnal animal, but has on occasion been seen in pairs for short periods of time. The Philippine mouse-deer's main diet consists of leaves, flowers, and other vegetation in the dense forest undergrowth. During the day, it takes shelter in the dense primary and secondary forests and avoids movement. At sundown, it will wander into mangroves and more open areas to feed. They have also been spotted along the seashore. The natives of the Philippines believe the Philippine mouse-deer has a mutual relationship with a species of python; according to them, when the Philippine mouse-deer is hunted by a natural predator or by humans with the aid of dogs, it will hide in a burrow, and when the predator comes by, the python will eat the predator.[7]

Reproduction

The Philippine mouse-deer can be classified as a r-selected species. This type of organism lives in habitats that can be described as unstable or changing. Those falling under this category will normally reach sexual maturity at a young age. T. nigricans is thought to reach sexual maturity at five months of age. R-selected species also have small body sizes and normally have shorter life spans. The mouse-deer has been estimated to live about fourteen years and usually produces one offspring per litter. Two offspring can occur, but is extremely rare. The gestation time ranges from 140 to 177 days.[8]

In culture

The Philippine mouse-deer is usually portrayed as a trickster in Philippine folklore. In a Maranao tale, the Philippine mouse-deer tricks a prince into giving up his bag of gold and facing a hive of angry bees.[9]

Conservation

The Philippine mouse-deer is threatened due to a variety of reasons, such as poaching and capture for the wild animal trade. Hunting has also caused a great decline in the number of individuals left. The meat is considered a delicacy on the islands, and the skin is also used to make leather. Although no true estimates of the Philippine mouse-deer population have been made to date, they are assumed to be declining in numbers. Hunters have commented that the mouse-deer is becoming harder to find. The biggest reason for decline is habitat loss.[2] The mouse-deer's habitat is being converted to agricultural lands for coconut plantations and other crops. It is fully protected under Philippine law, but enforcement of this protection is mostly ineffective.[2] The Philippines do have what are called priority sites which protect the land. Currently, eighteen priority sites are funded by Global Environment Facility/World Bank and the European Union. Unfortunately, T. nigricans does not occur on any of these sites to benefit from their protection. What is being suggested to help with the survival of this species is more research and better protection of their habitat.[10]

In captivity

Outside the Philippines, the only Philippine mouse-deers in captivity are at seven different collections in Europe.[11]

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c Oliver, W., Matillano, J. & Widmann, P. (2008). Tragulus nigricans. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 6 November 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of endangered.
  3. ^ a b Meijaard, I., and C. P. Groves (2004). A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mouse-deer. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 63-102.
  4. ^ Rabor, D. S. 1977. Philippine Birds and Mammals: A project of the U. P. Science Education Center. Quezon City: University of Philippines Press.
  5. ^ Allen, J. A., and J. R. White. 1910. Mammals from Palawan Island, Philippine Islands. Bulletin of the AMNH; 28: 13-17.
  6. ^ http://www.ultimateungulate.com/Artiodactyla/Tragulus_nigricansFull.html
  7. ^ http://scienceray.com/biology/zoology/mouse-deer/
  8. ^ Nowak, R. M. [editor]. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World (Fifth Edition). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  9. ^ Tales of Laughter - Pilandok and the Sumusong-sa-Alongan
  10. ^ Heaney, Lawrence R., and Neil Aldrin D. Mallari. A preliminary analysis of current gaps in the protection of threatened Philippine terrestrial mammals. Sylvatrop Tech. J. of Philip. Ecosystems and Nat. Res. 10(1 & 2): 28-39.
  11. ^ [1]
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