World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Poppy

Article Id: WHEBN0000161758
Reproduction Date:

Title: Poppy  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Floral emblem, Marjah, Live and Let Die (film), Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, 2011 in Afghanistan
Collection: Flowers, Plant Common Names, Symbols
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Poppy

Poppies on Lake Geneva, Montreux
Yellow or California poppy in New Delhi,India

A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae. Poppies are herbaceous plants, often grown for their colorful flowers. One species of poppy, Papaver somniferum, produces edible seeds and is also the source of the crude drug opium which contains powerful medicinal alkaloids such as morphine and has been used since ancient times as an analgesic and a source of narcotic, medicinal and recreational drugs. Following the trench warfare which took place in the poppy fields of Flanders, during the 1st World War, poppies have become a symbol of remembrance of soldiers who have died during wartime.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Uses 2
  • Symbolism 3
  • History 4
  • Medical uses 5
  • Other uses 6
  • Gallery 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9

Description

Poppies are herbaceous annual, biennial or short-lived perennial plants. Some species are monocarpic, dying after flowering. Poppies can be over 4 feet tall with flowers up to six inches across. The flowers have 4 to 6 petals, many stamens forming a conspicuous whorl in the centre of the flower and an ovary consisting of from 2 to many fused carpels. The petals are showy, may be of almost any color and some have markings. The petals are crumpled in the bud and as blooming finishes, the petals often lie flat before falling away. Poppies are in full bloom late spring to early summer.[1] Most species secrete latex when injured. Bees use poppies as a pollen source. The pollen of the oriental poppy, Papaver orientale, is dark blue, that of the field or corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas) is grey to dark green.[2] The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is mainly grown in eastern and southern Asia, and South Eastern Europe. It is believed that it originated in the Mediterranean region.[3]

Poppies belong to the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae, which includes the following genera:

Uses

Plastic Remembrance Day poppies in Canada
Poppy (Canadian version) worn on the lapel

The flowers of most poppy species are attractive and are widely cultivated as annual or perennial ornamental plants. This has resulted in a number of commercially important cultivars, such as the Shirley poppy, a cultivar of Papaver rhoeas and semi-double or double (flore plena) forms of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum and oriental poppy (Papaver orientale). Poppies of several other genera are also cultivated in gardens. A few species have other uses, principally as sources of drugs and foods. The opium poppy is widely cultivated and its worldwide production is monitored by international agencies. It is used for production of dried latex and opium, the principal precursor of narcotic and analgesic opiates such as morphine, heroin and codeine. Poppy seeds are rich in oil, carbohydrates, calcium, and protein. Poppy oil is often used as cooking oil, salad dressing oil, or in products such as margarine. Poppy oil can also be added to spices for cakes, or breads. Poppy products are also used in different paints, varnishes, and some cosmetics (Jonsson and Krzymanski, 1989).

Symbolism

Poppies have long been used as a symbol of sleep, peace, and death: Sleep because the opium extracted from them is a sedative, and death because of the common blood-red color of the red poppy in particular. In Greek and Roman myths, poppies were used as offerings to the dead.[4] Poppies used as emblems on tombstones symbolize eternal sleep. This symbolism was evoked in the children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, in which a magical poppy field threatened to make the protagonists sleep forever.[4]

The Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red exhibit at the Tower of London, which consists of 888,246 ceramic poppies, one for each British and colonial death[5]

A second interpretation of poppies in Classical mythology is that the bright scarlet color signifies a promise of resurrection after death.[6]

The

  1. ^ Simon,J.E., Chadwick, A.F. and Craker L.E. (1984) Herbs: An indexed bibliography, 1971-1980: the scientific literature on selected herbs, and aromatic and medicinal plants of the Temperate Zone. Elsevier, Amsterdam and New York. ISBN 0444996265
  2. ^
  3. ^ Kryzmanski, J. and Jonsson, R. (1999) Poppy. In: Robbelon, G., Downey, R.K., Ashri,A.(eds.), Oil Crops of the World. Their Breeding and Utilization. McGraw Hill, New York, ISBN 00-705-30815. p. 388-393.
  4. ^ a b L. Frank Baum, Michael Patrick Hearn, The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 173, ISBN 0-517-50086-8
  5. ^ "Queen visits Tower of London poppy garden". BBC News. Retrieved 6 November 2014
  6. ^ Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, 24. 15 p. 96, ISBN 0-14-001026-2
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ Jared Diamond (1997) Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. W W Norton & Co, ISBN 0-393-03891-2. p. 101
  12. ^ Meadway, C., George, S. and Braithwaite, R. (1998) Opiate concentration following the ingestion of poppy seed products – evidence for 'the poppy seed defence'. Forensic Science International 96, 29–38
  13. ^ National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian currency. Banknotes in circulation: 500 Denars (1996 issue) & 500 Denars (2003 issue). – access date 30 March 2009
  14. ^
  15. ^ Veterans of Foreign Wars Buddy Poppy Website
  16. ^ Canadian Poppy Coins
  17. ^ Dr. Hutchins, R. E. 1965. The Amazing Seeds. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company

References

See also

Gallery

Canada issued special quarters (25-cent coins) with a red poppy on the reverse in 2004, 2008 and 2010. The 2004 Canadian "poppy" quarter was the world's first colored circulation coin.[16]

Artificial poppies (called "Buddy Poppies") are used in the veterans' aid campaign by the Veterans of Foreign Wars, which provides money to the veterans who assemble the poppies and various aid programs to veterans and their families.[15]

The girl's given name "Poppy" is taken from the name of the flower.[14]

The powerful symbolism of Papaver rhoeas has been borrowed by various advocacy campaigns, such as the White Poppy and Simon Topping's black poppy.

A poppy flower is depicted on the reverse of the Macedonian 500-denar banknote, issued in 1996 and 2003.[13] The poppy is also part of the coat of arms of the Republic of Macedonia.

In Mexico, Grupo Modelo, the makers of Corona beer, used red poppy flowers in most of its advertising images until the 1960s.

The California poppy, Eschscholzia californica, is the state flower of California.

Other uses

Ancient Egyptian doctors would have their patients eat seeds from a poppy to relieve pain. Poppy seeds contain small quantities of both morphine and codeine,[12] which are pain-relieving drugs that are still used today. Poppy seeds and fixed oils can also be nonnarcotic because when they are harvested the morphine practically disappears from the seeds twenty days after the flower has opened (Jonsson and Krzymanski, 1989).

Medical uses

Wild poppies are confined to the coastal areas of the Western Mediterranean. It is suggested that wild poppy was domesticated by the indigenous people of Western and Central Europe between 6000 and 3500 BC.[11]

History

[10][9][8]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.