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Prince Andrew, Duke of York

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Prince Andrew, Duke of York

Prince Andrew
Duke of York (more)
The Duke of York, 2014
Born (1960-02-19) 19 February 1960
Buckingham Palace, London, England
Spouse Sarah Ferguson
(m. 1986; div. 1996)
Issue Princess Beatrice of York
Princess Eugenie of York
Full name
Andrew Albert Christian Edward[1]
House House of Windsor
Father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Mother Elizabeth II
Religion Church of England

Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG GCVO CD ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward, born 19 February 1960), is the second son and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to succeed his mother; he is currently sixth in line.

He also holds the actual rank of commander and the honorary rank of vice admiral (as of February 2015) in the Royal Navy, in which he served as an active duty helicopter pilot and later instructor in helicopter flight. He saw active service during the Falklands War, flying on multiple missions including anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy and casualty evacuation.

In 1986, Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson; the couple's marriage, subsequent separation and eventual divorce in 1996 attracted a high level of media coverage. As well as carrying out various royal duties, he served as Britain's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment until July 2011.


  • Early life and education 1
  • Military service 2
    • Royal Navy 2.1
    • Falklands War 2.2
    • Career naval officer 2.3
  • Marriage and divorce 3
  • Official duties and charitable work 4
  • Controversies 5
    • Alleged comments on corruption and Kazakhstan 5.1
    • Friendship with Jeffrey Epstein 5.2
    • Sex abuse allegations 5.3
    • Meetings with Ilham Aliyev 5.4
    • Arms sales 5.5
  • Personal interests 6
  • Titles, styles, honours and arms 7
    • Titles and styles 7.1
      • Naval ranks 7.1.1
    • Honours 7.2
      • Appointments 7.2.1
      • Honorary military appointments 7.2.2
    • Arms 7.3
    • Personal standard for Canada 7.4
  • Issue 8
  • Ancestry 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Early life and education


Prince Andrew was born in the Belgian Suite of Mrs Harold Phillips.[3] He is the namesake of his paternal grandfather, Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, who died 16 years before he was born.

Prince Andrew was the first child born to a reigning monarch at Buckingham Palace since the birth of Queen Victoria's youngest child, Princess Beatrice, in 1857. (Incidentally, Andrew also named his elder daughter Beatrice.) As the child of the sovereign, Prince Andrew was styled from birth as His Royal Highness and held the title The Prince Andrew.

As with his older siblings, a governess was appointed to look after the Prince and was responsible for his early education at Buckingham Palace. Prince Andrew was then sent to Heatherdown School near Ascot in Berkshire, before attending, in September 1973, Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland, as his father and elder brother had done before him. While there, Prince Andrew spent six months – from January to June 1977 – participating in an exchange programme to Lakefield College School in Lakefield, Ontario, and left Gordonstoun in July two years later with A-Levels in English, history, economics, and political science. Prince Andrew did not go to university but instead entered the Britannia Royal Naval College at Dartmouth.

Military service

Royal Navy

It was announced in November 1978 that Prince Andrew would join the Royal Navy the following year, and in December he underwent various sporting tests and examinations at the Aircrew Selection Centre, at RAF Biggin Hill, along with further tests and interviews at HMS Daedalus, and interviews at the Admiralty Interview Board, HMS Sultan. During March and April 1979, the Prince was enrolled at the Royal Naval College Flight, undergoing pilot training, until he was accepted as a trainee helicopter pilot and signed on for 12 years from 11 May 1979. On 1 September of the same year, Prince Andrew was appointed as a midshipman, and entered Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth.[4] During 1980 he also took the Royal Marines All Arms Commando Course.

After passing out from Dartmouth, the Prince went on to elementary flying training with the Royal Air Force at RAF Leeming, and later, basic flying training with the navy at HMS Seahawk, where he learned to fly the Gazelle helicopter.[4] After being awarded his "wings", he moved onto more advanced training on the Sea King helicopter, and conducted operational flying training until 1982, when he joined carrier based squadron, 820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the aircraft carrier, HMS Invincible.[4]

Falklands War

The Falkland Islands, which are a British overseas territory claimed by Argentina,[5] were invaded by Argentina on 2 April 1982, an event that instigated the Falklands War. Invincible was one of the two operational aircraft carriers available at the time, and, as such, was to play a major role in the Royal Navy task force assembled to sail south to retake the islands. However, Prince Andrew's place on board and the possibility of the Queen's son being killed in action made the British Government apprehensive, and the Cabinet desired that Prince Andrew be moved to a desk job for the duration of the conflict. The Queen, though, insisted that her son be allowed to remain with his ship, meaning Prince Andrew remained on board Invincible to serve as a Sea King helicopter co-pilot, flying on missions that included anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation, transport, and search and air rescue. He witnessed the Argentinian attack on the SS Atlantic Conveyor.[6]

At the cessation of the war, Invincible returned to Argentinean military government reportedly planned, but did not attempt, to assassinate the Prince on Mustique in July 1982.[7] Though he had brief assignments to HMS Illustrious, RNAS Culdrose, and the Joint Services School of Intelligence, Prince Andrew remained with Invincible until 1983. In Commander Nigel Ward's book, Sea Harrier Over the Falklands, Prince Andrew was described as "an excellent pilot and a very promising officer".

Career naval officer

The Duke of York with the US Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta commemorating 100th anniversary of Naval Aviation at the National Building Museum in 2011.

In late 1983, Prince Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland, was trained to fly the Lynx helicopter, and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on 1 February 1984, whereupon the Queen appointed him as her personal aide-de-Camp.[4] Prince Andrew then went on to serve aboard HMS Brazen as a flight pilot until 1986,[4] including deployment to the Mediterranean Sea as part of Standing NRF Maritime Group 2, and undertook the Lieutenants' Greenwich Staff course. On 23 October 1986, the Duke of York (as he was by then) transferred to the General List, enrolled in a four-month helicopter warfare instructor's course at RNAS Yeovilton, and, upon graduation, served from February 1987 to April 1988 as a helicopter warfare officer in 702 Naval Air Squadron, RNAS Portland, as well as on HMS Edinburgh as an Officer of the Watch and Assistant Navigating Officer until 1989, including a six-month deployment as part of exercise Outback 88 to the Far East.[4]

The Duke of York served as flight commander and pilot of the Lynx HAS3 on HMS Campbeltown from 1989 to 1991, during which he also acted as Force Aviation Officer to Standing NRF Maritime Group 1 while the Campbeltown was flagship of the NATO force in the North Atlantic from 1990 to 1991.[4] He then passed the squadron command examination on 16 July 1991, attended the Staff College, Camberley, the following year, and completed the Army Staff course, becoming a Lieutenant-Commander on 1 February and passing the ship command examination on 12 March 1992. From 1993 to 1994, Prince Andrew commanded the Hunt-class minehunter HMS Cottesmore.[4]

From 1995 to 1996, the Duke was posted as Senior Pilot of 815 Naval Air Squadron – then the largest flying unit in the Fleet Air Arm – his main role in that position being to supervise flying standards and to guarantee an effective operational capability.[4] He was then made a Commander on 27 April 1999,[4] and went on to finish his active naval career at the British Ministry of Defence until 2001, as an officer of the Diplomatic Directorate of the Naval Staff. In July of that year, the Duke of York was retired from the Active List of the Navy,[4] and, three years later, was made an Honorary Captain, rather than the substantive rank of Captain, as would be customary. On 19 February 2010, his 50th birthday, he was promoted to Honorary Rear Admiral. Five years later, he was promoted to Vice Admiral.[8]

Marriage and divorce

The Duke and Duchess of York on their wedding day.

Prince Andrew married grandfather. Prince Andrew had known Ferguson since childhood; they had met occasionally at polo matches, and became re-acquainted with each other at Royal Ascot in 1985.

The couple appeared to have a happy marriage with their two daughters, and presenting a united outward appearance during the late 1980s; the Duchess was seen as refreshing in the context of the formal protocol surrounding the Royal Family. However, the Duke of York's frequent travel due to his military career, as well as relentless, often critical, media attention focused on the Duchess of York, led to fractures in the marriage. On 19 March 1992, the couple announced plans to separate and did so in an amicable way. Some months later, pictures appeared in the tabloid media of the Duchess in intimate association with her financial advisor at the time, John Bryan, which effectively ended any hopes of a reconciliation between the Duke and Duchess. Thereafter, the marriage was ended in divorce on 30 May 1996,[10] though the split was friendly, and the Duke of York spoke fondly of his former wife: "We have managed to work together to bring our children up in a way that few others have been able to and I am extremely grateful to be able to do that."[11]

It was stipulated that the custody of the two Princesses would be shared between their parents, and the Duchess even continued to live at the Duke's home, Sunninghill Park, until 2004, when he moved to the Royal Lodge. In 2003, Richard Kay, in his first gossip column for the Daily Mail, asserted that the Duke was about to marry the businesswoman Amanda Staveley. She was, however, subsequently quoted in The Sunday Telegraph saying "I will not be marrying Andrew now or in the future." In 2007, Sarah, Duchess of York, purchased Dolphin House, a mansion directly beside the Royal Lodge. In 2008, a fire at Dolphin House resulted in Sarah moving into the Royal Lodge, again sharing a home with the Duke of York. Prince Andrew's lease of Royal Lodge is for 75 years, with the Crown Estate as landlord, and the ongoing annual tenancy charge is nothing.[12]

In May 2010, Sarah, Duchess of York, was filmed by a News of the World reporter claiming that the Duke of York had agreed that if she were to receive £500,000, he, the Prince, would meet the donor and pass on useful top-level business contacts. She was filmed receiving, in cash, $40,000 as a down payment. The Duke's entourage emphatically denied he knew of the situation.[13]

In July 2011, Sarah, Duchess of York, stated that her multi-million pound debts had been cleared due to the intervention of her former husband, who she compared to a "knight on a white charger".[14]

Official duties and charitable work

The Duke of York in his role as the UK's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment at the World Economic Forum on the Middle East, 2008.

From 2001 until July 2011, the Duke of York worked with

Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Born: 19 February 1960
Lines of succession
Preceded by
Prince Henry of Wales
Line of succession to the British throne
6th position
Succeeded by
Princess Beatrice of York
Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom
Preceded by
The Prince of Wales
& Duke of Rothesay
Gentlemen Succeeded by
The Earl of Wessex
Preceded by
The Duke of Cambridge
in current practice
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Duke of York
8th creation
23 July 1986 – present
Academic offices
Preceded by
Sir Patrick Stewart
Chancellor of the University of Huddersfield
Other offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Kent
Special Representative for International Trade and Investment
  • The Duke of York's official website
  • The Duke of York
  • Prince Andrew, Duke of York at the Internet Movie Database

External links

  1. ^ The 1960 Order-in-Council giving the surname Mountbatten-Windsor to the male-line descendants of The Duke of Edinburgh and Elizabeth II specifically refers only to such descendants without a royal title, as those with it generally have no need for a surname. Despite this, the Duke of York (like his sister) entered with this surname in the marriage register.
  2. ^ The London Gazette: no. 41961. p. 1377. 20 February 1960.
  3. ^ "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page: Royal Christenings". 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "The Duke of York – Naval Career". The Duke of York official website. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  5. ^ Cahill, Kevin (2010). Who Owns the World: The Surprising Truth About Every Piece of Land on the Planet. New York: Grand Central Publishing.  
  6. ^ "Prince Andrew talks of Falklands horror". Glasgow Herald. 14 November 1983. p. 2. 
  7. ^ "Argentines planned to kill Prince Andrew". Montreal Gazette. Reuters. 17 October 1983. pp. C6. Retrieved 28 January 2012. 
  8. ^ Low, Valentine (12 February 2015). "Queen makes Prince Andrew a vice-admiral". The Times (London). Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  9. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 50606. p. 1. 23 July 1986.
  10. ^ "Andrew Albert Christian Edward Windsor, 1st Duke of York". Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  11. ^ Castle, Stephen (4 February 2008). "From Prince Andrew, critical words for U.S. on Iraq". The New York Times. 
  12. ^ National Audit Office report, 2005. "The Crown Estate – Property Leases with the Royal Family".
  13. ^ "'"Duchess of York 'wanted cash for Prince Andrew access. BBC News. 23 May 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  14. ^ Collins, Nick (25 July 2011). "Duchess of York clears debts thanks to 'knight on white charger' Andrew". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  15. ^ "Prince Andrew to stand down as UK trade envoy", BBC News, 21 July 2011
  16. ^ "Duke of York must lose trade job, says Labour MP", BBC News, 1 March 2011.
  17. ^ "The Middle East Association". Global Arab Network. Retrieved 7 January 2015. 
  18. ^ What's the point of Prince Andrew, and what exactly does he do?
  19. ^ "Message from the Royal Patron", Fight for Sight, accessed 4 February 2015
  20. ^ "Royal Support for the Scouting and Guiding Movements". Official Website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 25 July 2008. 
  21. ^ Hurst, Jeff; "Princely plans for Andrew", Cambridge Times (Canada), 1 May 2007. Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "Financial arrangements of members of the Royal Family". Royal Household. Retrieved 7 March 2011. 
  23. ^ "Prince Andrew, his £15m home and the Kazakhstan connection", The Sunday Times (London), July 2008, retrieved 7 March 2011.
  24. ^ Swinford, Steven (7 March 2011). "Duke of York costs taxpayers £15m". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  25. ^ "Prince Andrew rappels down U.K. building for charity". cbc. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. 
  26. ^ "Prince Andrew descends Europe's tallest building". cbsnews. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. 
  27. ^ "By Royal Appointment: London Met welcomes new Patron". London Metropolitan University. 3 June 2013. 
  28. ^ "Duke of York becomes University Patron". University of Huddersfield. 2 July 2013. 
  29. ^ "The Duke of York to be Patron of the University of Huddersfield". ITV News. 2 July 2013. 
  30. ^ "HRH The Duke of York installed as University Chancellor". University of Huddersfield. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  31. ^
  32. ^ Leigh, David; Evans, Rob; Brooke, Heather (29 November 2010). "WikiLeaks cables: 'Rude' Prince Andrew shocks US ambassador". The Guardian (London). 
  33. ^ a b c Lewis, Jason (26 May 2012). "Money laundering probe puts spotlight on the £15 million sale of the Duke of York's home". Sunday Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  34. ^ a b Greenslade, Roy "Prince Andrew story runs and runs - but editors should beware", The Guardian (blog), 5 January 2015
  35. ^ Duchess of York admits Duke arranged for convicted paedophile Jeffrey Epstein to pay off her debtsIt's the company you keep... the Duke's dangerous liaisons
  36. ^ Duke of York 'appealed to Jeffrey Epstein to help Duchess pay debt'
  37. ^ "Prince Andrew: Envoy career plagued with controversy". BBC News. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  38. ^ a b Palace digs in over Prince Andrew’s links to sex offender Jeffrey Epstein
  39. ^ Oborne, Peter "It was all going so well for the Royal Family", The Daily Telegraph (London), 5 January 2015
  40. ^ "'"Prince Andrew 'sex abuse victim' Virginia Roberts 'was introduced to the Queen. The Daily Telegraph (London). 5 January 2015. 
  41. ^ Rayner, Gordon (4 January 2015). "Prince Andrew prepares for grim year ahead as 'sex abuse' claims refuse to go away". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  42. ^ "BBC Advice - Age Of Consent". BBC. 
  43. ^ Prince Andrew under renewed pressure to speak about 'sex abuse' claims after flight logs emerge
  44. ^
  45. ^ Prince Andrew arrives in Davos to answer claims of 'sex orgy with nine teenagers'
  46. ^ Withnall, Adam (4 January 2015). "Teenage 'sex slave' Virginia Roberts claims she was paid £10,000 by Jeffrey Epstein to have sex with Prince Andrew". The Independent (London). 
  47. ^ Booth, Robert; Lewis, Paul (4 January 2015). "Palace takes unusual step to deny Prince Andrew underage sex claims". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  48. ^ Virginia Roberts sex claims: Accuser outlines allegations as Prince Andrew is expected to speak in Davos
  49. ^ Prince Andrew set for first public event since sex claim
  50. ^ It’s time for Prince Andrew to man up
  51. ^ [2]
  52. ^ "'"Prince Andrew sex claims woman 'should not be believed. BBC News. 3 January 2015. 
  53. ^ "US lawyer takes legal action in Prince Andrew sex claim case", BBC News, 6 January 2015
  54. ^ Lewis, Paul. "Prince Andrew named in US lawsuit over underage sex claims". The Guardian (London). 
  55. ^ Sherwell, Philip. "Prince Andrew sex abuse allegation thrown out by judge". UK Daily Telegraph - 7 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015. A US judge has ruled that sex allegations made against Prince Andrew in court papers filed in Florida must be struck from the public record. 
  56. ^ Buncombe (New York), Andrew. "Prince Andrew sex claims case: Judge orders that allegations against Duke of York be thrown out". The Independent UK, 7 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015. A US judge has ordered that “lurid” sex allegations made against Prince Andrew and which led to a major crisis for the member of the royal family, be struck from the record 
  57. ^ Judge orders Prince Andrew sex allegations struck from court record
  58. ^ a b Armitage, Jim (12 November 2014). "Duke of York to meet Azeri despot Ilham Aliyev for 12th time". The Independent (London). Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  59. ^ "Prince Andrew: 'Cheerleader in chief for the arms industry'". Channel 4 News. 10 March 2011.
  60. ^ "Campaigners call for UK to halt arms exports to Bahrain as Prince Andrew joins sales drive". Campaign Against Arms Trade. 15 January 2014.
  61. ^ What scandal involving Prince Andrew says about Britain’s elites
  62. ^ Royal, by Robert Lacey, 2002.
  63. ^ "Prince Andrew flies home amid growing crisis over under-age sex claims". Daily Mail (London). 4 January 2015. 
  64. ^ "Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson buy luxury chalet". BBC News. 10 January 2015.
  65. ^ "HRH The Duke of York installed as Liveryman". The Worshipful Company of Shipwrights. 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. 
  66. ^ Foggo, Daniel; Swinford, Steven; Mikhailova, Anna (27 July 2008). "Prince Andrew, his £15m home and the Kazakhstan connection". The Times (London). Archived from the original on 4 September 2008. On one of his most recent visits, in May, he [Prince Andrew] is understood to have spent a weekend on a goose-shooting excursion with Nursultan Nazarbayev, the president of Kazakhstan. ... Timur Kulibayev, 41, is a billionaire oil and gas tycoon who is known to Andrew, not least through their attendance at hunting parties thrown by Nazarbayev. ... Kulibayev has also been busy inviting VIPs, reportedly including the prince, to regular hunting meets hosted by the Kazakh president. 
  67. ^ "The Duke of York – Style and titles". Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  68. ^ The London Gazette: no. 56951. p. 6753. 2 June 2003.
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The Duke of York – Honours and Decorations". The Duke of York official website. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  70. ^ "St George's Chapel > History > Orders of Chivalry". St George's Chapel. Archived from the original on 20 August 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  71. ^ "The Duke of York appointed GCVO, 21 February 2011". Official Website of The British Monarchy. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  72. ^ Jackson, Michael (Summer 2007). "Honours of the Crown" (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News (26). Monarchist League of Canada. p. 12. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  73. ^ Johnson, Alice (26 November 2010). "Khalifa, Queen Elizabeth II exchange orders". Gulf News (Dubai). 
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "The Duke of York – Service appointments". Retrieved 25 April 2015. 



Name Birth Marriage Issue
Princess Beatrice of York 8 August 1988
Princess Eugenie of York 23 March 1990


The Duke of York has his own royal banner for Canada, comprising the shield of the Canadian Royal Arms defaced with a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, within which is a depiction of Prince Andrew's cypher (an "A" surmounted by a coronet), and with a white label of three points, the centre one charged with an anchor and the other two blank, taken from his coat of arms.

The Duke of York's banner for Canada

Personal standard for Canada

Arms of Prince Andrew, Duke of York
The Duke's personalised coat of arms are the shield of the arms of the sovereign in right of the United Kingdom.
The coronet of a son of the sovereign Proper, thereon a lion statant guardant Or crowned of the same coronet charged with a label as in the arms.
Quarterly 1st and 4th Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or 2nd Or a lion rampant Gules within a double tressure flory counterflory Gules 3rd Azure a harp Or stringed Argent
Dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned proper, sinister a unicorn Argent, armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or.
The Order of the Garter ribbon.
Honi soit qui mal y pense
(Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)
Other elements
The whole differenced by a label of three points Argent, the central point charged with an anchor Azure.
The Duke's personal Royal Standard is that of the sovereign in right of the United Kingdom, labelled for difference as in his arms.
As with the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom. The first and fourth quarters are the arms of England, the second of Scotland, the third of Ireland. The anchor has been a brisure for Dukes of York since 1892.


United Kingdom
New Zealand

Honorary military appointments



Foreign orders

See also List of honours of the British Royal Family by country


Naval ranks

For May 2007 only, Andrew became entitled to be called (albeit academically) His Grace The Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.

Andrew has been a British prince from birth. His present style and title in full is: His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew Albert Christian Edward, Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, Baron Killyleagh,[67] Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Canadian Forces Decoration, Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty.

  • 19 February 1960 – 23 July 1986: His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew
  • 23 July 1986 – present: His Royal Highness The Duke of York

Titles and styles

Titles, styles, honours and arms

The Duke is a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, the senior maritime City livery company.[65] In recent years, he has developed strong links with Kazakhstan and is a regular goose hunting companion of the country's President Nursultan Nazarbayev.[66] He is a supporter of Norwich City Football Club.

The Duke is a capable and keen golfer, playing off a low single-figure handicap.[62] He was Captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews between 2003 and 2004—during the club's 250th anniversary season—is patron of a number of royal golf clubs, and has been elected as an honorary member of many others. The Duke is also a keen skier [63] and has bought an exclusive skiing chalet in Verbier, Switzerland for between £8m and £13m jointly with Sarah Ferguson.[64]

Personal interests

Andrew Smith has also said, "The prince has consistently used his position to promote arms sales and boost some of the most unpleasant governments in the world, his arms sales haven’t just given military support to corrupt and repressive regimes. They've lent those regimes political and international legitimacy."[61]

In January 2014 Prince Andrew took part in a delegation to Bahrain. Spokesman for CAAT, Andrew Smith said, "We are calling on Prince Andrew and the UK government to stop selling arms to Bahrain. By endorsing the Bahraini dictatorship Prince Andrew is giving his implicit support to their oppressive practices. When our government sells arms it is giving moral and practical support to an illegitimate and authoritarian regime and directly supporting their systematic crackdown on opposition groups. (...) We shouldn't allow our international image to be used as a PR tool for the violent and oppressive dictatorship in Bahrain."[60]

In March 2011 Kaye Stearman of the Campaign Against the Arms Trade told Channel 4 News CAAT sees Prince Andrew as part of a bigger problem, "He is the front man for UKTI. Our concerns are not just Prince Andrew, it's the whole UKTI set up. They see arms as just another commodity but it has completely disproportionate resources. At the London office of UKTI the arms sector has more staff than all the others put together. We are concerned that Prince Andrew is used to sell arms, and where you sell arms it is likely to be to despotic regimes. He is the cheerleader in chief for the arms industry, shaking hands and paving the way for the salesmen."[59]

Arms sales

As of November 2014, the Duke had met Ilham Aliyev, the president of Azerbaijan, on 12 separate occasions.[58] He had to stand down as a trade envoy for the UK in 2011 following controversy over his friendship with Mr. Aliyev, who has been criticised for corruption and for abuses of human rights by Amnesty International, but he has continued to visit him in Azerbaijan since standing down.[58]

Meetings with Ilham Aliyev

On 7 April 2015, Judge Kenneth Marra ruled that the "sex allegations made against Prince Andrew in court papers filed in Florida must be struck from the public record".[55][56] Marra made no ruling as to whether claims by Roberts are true or false, specifically stating that Roberts may later give evidence when the case comes to court. [57]

Dershowitz said, "she's lied about me ... she should not be believed about anyone else ... it must be presumed all her allegations against Prince Andrew were false as well."[52] Dershowitz initiated legal proceedings contesting the allegations and he and Epstein are suing the lawyers representing Roberts.[38][53] By contrast Virginia Roberts stated she would not "be bullied back into silence."[54]

Buckingham Palace stated that "any suggestion of impropriety with underage minors is categorically untrue", later repeating the denials.[46][47] Lawyers for Roberts claim a request to the Duke for a statement under oath about the allegations was returned unanswered.[48][49] Further, when the Duke was asked if he planned to reply under oath, he refused to answer and left the room.[50] The American government may also be trying to prevent the Duke having to testify under oath.[51]

In January 2015, Virginia Roberts made allegations of sexual impropriety against the Duke in court papers related to a civil action in Florida arising from the Epstein affair, but to which the Duke was not a party. Roberts claimed that the Duke was among men, including "a former prime minister" and Alan Dershowitz, who had had sex with her while she was a teenager. She alleged she was first introduced to and, for £10,000,[40] had sex with the Duke on a trip to London in 2001, when she was 17[41] (which is above the age of consent in the United Kingdom[42]), and again in New York (where the age of consent is 17). Flight logs show the Duke and Virginia Roberts were in the same places when she alleges sex happened.[43] The Duke and Roberts were also photographed together with the Duke's arm round Roberts' waist.[44] Roberts said she was pressured to have sex with the Duke and "wouldn't have dared object" and feared leaving, as she felt Epstein, through contacts, could have got her "killed or abducted". The allegations have, as of early 2015, not been tested in any court,[34] but Roberts repeated allegations against the Duke and against Epstein in a sworn legal statement under penalty of perjury.[45]

Sex abuse allegations

Peter Oborne, writing in The Daily Telegraph in January 2015, that "the proven facts are grim enough. What was the prince doing, in the first place, with Epstein, a paedophile who was jailed in 2008 for soliciting young girls for under-age prostitution?"[39]

In March 2011, it was reported that the Duke's friendship with Jeffrey Epstein, a man with a conviction in Florida for soliciting an underage girl for prostitution, was producing "a steady stream of criticism". Sarah, Duchess of York, disclosed that the Duke helped arrange for Epstein to pay off some of her debts.[35] The Duke strolled publicly with Epstein after the latter's release from prison, allegedly while negotiating this financial help.[36] In July 2011, the Duke was reported to have cut all ties with Epstein,[37] but, despite this, as of January 2015, there was growing pressure on Buckingham Palace to explain the Duke's connection with Epstein.[38]

The Duke of York riding in the carriage procession at Trooping the Colour, 16 June 2012

Friendship with Jeffrey Epstein

Libby Purves wrote in The Times in January 2015: "Prince Andrew dazzles easily when confronted with immense wealth and apparent power. He has fallen for 'friendships' with bad, corrupt and clever men, not only in the US but in Libya, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tunisia, wherever."[34]

In May 2012, it was reported that Swiss and Italian police investigating "a network of personal and business relationships" allegedly used for "international corruption" were looking at the activities of Enviro Pacific Investments which charges "multi-million pound fees" to energy companies wishing to deal with Kazakhstan.[33] The trust is believed to have paid £6 million towards the purchase of Sunninghill which now appears derelict.[33] In response, a Palace spokesman said "This was a private sale between two trusts. There was never any impropriety on the part of The Duke of York".[33]

Earlier in 2010, it was revealed that the Kazakhstan President's billionaire son-in-law Timur Kulibayev paid the Duke of York's representatives £15 million – £3 million over the asking price – via offshore companies, for the Duke's Surrey mansion, Sunninghill Park. Kulibayev frequently appears in US dispatches as one of the men who have accumulated millions in gas-rich Kazakhstan.[32]

The dispatch continued: "His mother's subjects seated around the table roared their approval. He then went on to 'these (expletive) journalists, especially from the National Guardian [sic], who poke their noses everywhere' and (presumably) make it harder for British businessmen to do business. The crowd practically clapped!"

The Duke, she explained, "was referencing an investigation, subsequently closed, into alleged kickbacks a senior Saudi royal had received in exchange for the multi-year, lucrative BAE Systems contract to provide equipment and training to Saudi security forces."

As the United Kingdom's Special Trade Representative, the Duke of York travelled the world to promote British businesses. It was revealed in the United States diplomatic cables leak that the Duke had been reported on by Tatiana Gfoeller, the United States Ambassador to Kyrgyzstan, discussing bribery in Kyrgyzstan and the investigation into the Al-Yamamah arms deal.

Alleged comments on corruption and Kazakhstan


In 2013, it was announced that the Duke was becoming the Patron of London Metropolitan University [27] and the University of Huddersfield.[28][29] In July 2015 he was installed as Chancellor of the University of Huddersfield.[30] He became the Patron of the charity Attend[31] in 2003, and is a member of the International Advisory Board of the Royal United Services Institute.

On 3 September 2012, the Duke of York was among a team of 40 people who abseiled down The Shard (tallest building in Europe) to raise money for educational charities the Outward Bound Trust and the Royal Marines Charitable Trust Fund.[25][26]

On 8 March 2011, The Daily Telegraph reported: "In 2010, the Prince spent £620,000 as a trade envoy, including £154,000 on hotels, food and hospitality and £465,000 on travel."[24]

The Duke of York receives a £249,000 annuity from the Queen.[22] The Sunday Times reported in July 2008 that for "the Duke of York's public role,... he last year received £436,000 to cover his expenses."[23]

The Duke of York in Titanic Belfast on 29 January 2013

The Duke is also Patron of Fight for Sight, a charity dedicated to research into the prevention and treatment of blindness and eye disease,[19] and was a member of the Scout Association.[20] He tours Canada frequently to undertake duties related to his Canadian military role. Rick Peters, the former Commanding Officer of the Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada stated that Prince Andrew is "very well informed on Canadian military methods."[21]

[18] claims he does this work well and wrote, "He is particularly passionate when dealing with young start-up entrepreneurs and bringing them together with successful businesses at networking and showcasing events. Andrew is direct and to the point, and his methods seem to work." Robert Jobson Since that ended the Duke continued to support UK enterprise without a special role. [17]

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