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Proteus syndrome

Proteus syndrome
Classification and external resources
OMIM 176920
DiseasesDB 30070
eMedicine derm/721 ped/1912
MeSH D016715

Proteus syndrome, also known as Wiedemann syndrome (named after the German pediatrician Hans-Rudolf Wiedemann), is a rare congenital disorder[1]:554 that causes skin overgrowth and atypical bone development, often accompanied by tumors over half the body.[2]:776

Proteus syndrome is highly variable,[3] and is named after the Greek sea-god Proteus, who could change his shape.

The condition appears to have been first described in the American medical literature by Drs. Samia Temtamy and John Rogers in 1976.[4][5] Dr. Michael Cohen described it in 1979.[6] Only a few more than 200 cases have been confirmed worldwide, with estimates that about 120 people are currently alive with the condition.[7] As attenuated forms of the disease may exist, there could be many people with Proteus syndrome who remain undiagnosed. Those most readily diagnosed are also the most severely disfigured.

Contents

  • Signs and symptoms 1
  • Genetics 2
  • Treatment 3
  • Classification 4
  • Notable cases 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Signs and symptoms

Proteus syndrome causes an overgrowth of skin, bones, muscles, fatty tissues, and blood and lymphatic vessels.

Proteus syndrome is a progressive condition wherein children are usually born without any obvious deformities. Tumors of skin and bone growths appear as they age. The severity and locations of these various asymmetrical growths vary greatly but typically the skull, one or more limbs, and soles of the feet will be affected. There is a risk of premature death in affected individuals due to deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism caused by the vessel malformations that are associated with this disorder. Because of carrying excess weight and enlarged limbs, arthritis and muscle pain may also be symptoms — as is the case for Mandy Sellars, a woman living with a form of Proteus syndrome[8] (but see "Notable Cases" below). Further risks may occur due to the mass of extra tissue.

The disorder itself does not uniformly cause learning impairments: the distribution of intelligence deficits among sufferers of Proteus syndrome appears higher than that of the general population, although this is difficult to determine with statistical significance.[9] In addition, the presence of visible deformity may have a negative effect on the social experiences of the sufferer, causing cognitive and social deficits.

Afflicted individuals are at increased risk for developing certain tumors including unilateral ovarian cystadenomas, testicular tumors, meningiomas, and monomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland.

Genetics

Proteus syndrome is an overgrowth disorder caused by a rare genetic mosaicism. A genetic mutation during embryonic development gives rise to overgrowth in a subset of the individual's cells

In 2011 researchers determined the cause of Proteus syndrome. In 26 of 29 patients who met strict clinical criteria for the disorder, Lindhurst et al. identified an activating mutation in AKT1 kinase in a mosaic state gene.[10] This mutation in the AKT1 gene was present in all 26 affected patients.

Previous research had suggested the condition linked to PTEN on chromosome 10,[11] while other research pointed to chromosome 16.[12] Prior to the findings regarding AKT1 in 2011, other researchers expressed doubt regarding the involvement of PTEN or GPC3, which codes for glypican 3 and may play a role in regulating cell division and growth regulation.[13][14]

Treatment

A team of doctors in Australia have trial tested the drug rapamycin in the treatment of a patient said to have Proteus syndrome and have found it to be an effective remedy.[15] However, the diagnosis of Proteus syndrome in this patient has been questioned by others.[16]

Classification

Many sources classify Proteus syndrome to be a type of nevus syndrome. The lesions appear to be distributed in a mosaic manner.[17] It has been confirmed that the disorder is an example of genetic mosaicism.[18]

Notable cases

In 1971, Ashley Montagu suggested in his book The Elephant Man: A Study in Human Dignity that Joseph Merrick suffered from neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and this has continued to be reported. Newer research has suggested that Merrick's deformities were actually caused by Proteus syndrome (PS), or possibly by a combination of NF1 with PS. However, the exact condition suffered by Joseph Merrick is still not known with certainty.[19][20]

Mandy Sellars has been diagnosed by some doctors as suffering from this condition.[7] Her legs and feet have grown at a disproportionate rate since birth. However, in 2013, Sellars' case was profiled on British television in a special called Shrinking My 17 Stone Legs, in which it was determined that Sellars' condition was not, in fact, Proteus syndrome, but rather a PIK3CA gene mutation.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
  2. ^ Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.
  3. ^ Jamis-Dow CA, Turner J, Biesecker LG, Choyke PL (2004). "Radiologic manifestations of Proteus syndrome". Radiographics 24 (4): 1051–68.  
  4. ^ Temtamy SA, Rogers JG (December 1976). "Macrodactyly, hemihypertrophy, and connective tissue nevi: Report of a new syndrome and review of the literature". The Journal of Pediatrics 89 (6): 924–927.  
  5. ^ Opitz JM, Jorde LB (July 27, 2011). "Hamartoma Syndromes, Exome Sequencing, and a Protean Puzzle". The New England Journal of Medicine 365 (7): 661–3.  
  6. ^ Cohen MM, Hayden PW (1979). "A newly recognized hamartomatous syndrome". Birth Defects Orig. Artic. Ser. 15 (5B): 291–6.  
  7. ^ a b Woman's 11-stone legs may be lost at BBC
  8. ^ Neglia, Ashley (May 2009). "Living With Proteus syndrome". AOL Health. Retrieved June 2009. 
  9. ^ Turner JT, Cohen MM, Biesecker LG (Oct 1, 2004). "Reassessment of the Proteus syndrome literature: application of diagnostic criteria to published cases". American Journal of Medical Genetics 130A (2): 111–122.  
  10. ^ Lindhurst MJ, Sapp JC, Teer JK, Johnston JJ, Finn EM, Peters K, Turner J, Cannons JL, Bick D, Blakemore L, Blumhorst C, Brockmann K, Calder P, Cherman N, Deardorff MA, Everman DB, Golas G, Greenstein RM, Kato BM, Keppler-Noreuil KM, Kuznetsov SA, Miyamoto RT, Newman K, Ng D, O'Brien K, Rothenberg S, Schwartzentruber DJ, Singhal V, Tirabosco R, Upton J, Wientroub S, Zackai EH, Hoag K, Whitewood-Neal T, Robey PG, Schwartzberg PL, Darling TN, Tosi LL, Mullikin JC, Biesecker LG (Aug 18, 2011). "A mosaic activating mutation in AKT1 associated with the Proteus syndrome.". N Engl J Med 365 (7): 611–9.  
  11. ^ Smith JM, Kirk EP, Theodosopoulos G, Marshall GM, Walker J, Rogers M, Field M, Brereton JJ, Marsh DJ (2002). "Germline mutation of the tumour suppressor PTEN in Proteus syndrome". J. Med. Genet. 39 (12): 937–40.  
  12. ^ Cardoso MT, de Carvalho TB, Casulari LA, Ferrari I (2003). "Proteus syndrome and somatic mosaicism of the chromosome 16". Panminerva medica 45 (4): 267–71.  
  13. ^ Thiffault I, Schwartz CE, Der Kaloustian V, Foulkes WD (October 2004). "Mutation analysis of the tumor suppressor PTEN and the glypican 3 (GPC3) gene in patients diagnosed with Proteus syndrome". Am. J. Med. Genet. A 130A (2): 123–7.  
  14. ^ "Entrez Gene: GPC3 glypican 3". 
  15. ^ Marsh DJ, Trahair TN, Martin JL, Chee WY, Walker J, Kirk EP, Baxter RC, Marshall GM (April 22, 2008). "Rapamycin treatment for a child with germline PTEN mutation". Nature Clinical Practice Oncology 5 (6): 357–361.  
  16. ^ Cohen MM, Turner JT, Biesecker LG (November 1, 2003). "Proteus Syndrome: Misdiagnosis with PTEN Mutations". American Journal of Medical Genetics 122A (4): 323–324.  
  17. ^ Biesecker LG, Happle R, Mulliken JB, Weksberg R, Graham JM, Viljoen DL, Cohen MM (1999). "Proteus syndrome: differential diagnosis, and patient evaluation". Am J Med Genet 84 (5): 389–95.  
  18. ^ Lindhurst MJ, Sapp JC, Teer JK, Johnston JJ, Finn EM, Peters K, Turner J, Cannons JL, Bick D, Blakemore L, Blumhorst C, Brockmann K, Calder P, Cherman N, Deardorff MA, Everman DB, Golas G, Greenstein RM, Kato BM, Keppler-Noreuil KM, Kuznetsov SA, Miyamoto RT, Newman K, Ng D, O'Brien K, Rothenberg S, Schwartzentruber DJ, Singhal V, Tirabosco R, Upton J, Wientroub S, Zackai EH, Hoag K, Whitewood-Neal T, Robey PG, Schwartzberg PL, Darling TN, Tosi LL, Mullikin JC, Biesecker LG (August 2011). "A mosaic activating mutation in AKT1 associated with the Proteus syndrome". N. Engl. J. Med. 365 (7): 611–9.  
  19. ^ Tibbles JA, Cohen MM (1986). "The Proteus syndrome: the Elephant Man diagnosed". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 293 (6548): 683–5.  
  20. ^ (London) 48(3) 104.Biologist- Spiring P (2001). "The Improbable Elephant Man". , - The Sunday Telegraph, - BBC News, Eurekalert!- , - The Daily Telegraph
  21. ^ Steve Corbett "Help! My leg weighs 17-stone!", Sun+, 15 February 2013, retrieved 16 December 2014

External links

  • GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (PHTS)
  • The Proteus Family Network UK
  • The Proteus Syndrome Foundation
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