World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pubic symphysis

Article Id: WHEBN0000331750
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pubic symphysis  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Pelvis, Puborectalis muscle, Abdomen, Lakshmi Tatma, Human leg
Collection: Joints, Pelvis
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Pubic symphysis

Pubic symphysis
Symphysis pubis exposed by a coronal section. (Pubic symphysis visible at center left.)
#5 is Pubic symphysis
Details
Latin symphysis pubica, symphysis pubis
Dorlands
/Elsevier
s_31/12776084
Anatomical terminology

The pubic symphysis or symphysis pubis is the midline cartilaginous joint (secondary cartilaginous) uniting the superior rami of the left and right pubic bones. It is located anterior to the urinary bladder and superior to the external genitalia; for females it is above the vulva and for males it is above the penis. In males, the suspensory ligament of the penis attaches to the pubic symphysis. In females, the pubic symphysis is intimately close to the clitoris. In normal adults it can be moved roughly 2 mm and with 1 degree rotation. This increases for women at the time of childbirth.[1]

Contents

  • Structure 1
    • Fibrocartilage 1.1
    • Hyaline cartilage 1.2
    • Development 1.3
  • Function 2
  • Clinical relevance 3
    • Injury 3.1
    • Disease 3.2
    • Pregnancy 3.3
    • Symphysiotomy 3.4
  • Society and culture 4
    • Use in forensic anthropology 4.1
  • Additional images 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Structure

The pubic symphysis is a nonsynovial amphiarthrodial joint, and comes from the Greek word "symphysis", meaning "growing together". The width of the pubic symphysis at the front is 3–5 mm greater than its width at the back. This joint is connected by fibrocartilage and may contain a fluid-filled cavity; the center is avascular, possibly due to the nature of the compressive forces passing through this joint, which may lead to harmful vascular disease.[2] The ends of both pubic bones are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage attached to the fibrocartilage. The fibrocartilaginous disk is reinforced by a series of ligaments. These ligaments cling to the fibrocartilaginous disk to the point that fibers intermix with it.

Two such ligaments are the superior pubic ligament and the inferior pubic ligament, which provide the most stability, the anterior and posterior ligaments are weaker. The strong and thicker superior ligament is reinforced by the tendons of the rectus abdominis muscle, the abdominal external oblique muscle, the gracilis muscle, and by muscles of the hip. The superior pubic ligament connects together the two pubic bones superiorly, extending laterally as far as the pubic tubercles. The inferior ligament in the pubic arch is also known as the arcuate pubic ligament or subpubic ligament, is a thick, triangular arch of ligamentous fibers, connecting together the two pubic bones below, and forming the upper boundary of the pubic arch. Above, it is blended with the interpubic fibrocartilaginous lamina; laterally, it is attached to the inferior rami of the pubic bones; below, it is free, and is separated from the fascia of the urogenital diaphragm by an opening through which the deep dorsal vein of the penis passes into the pelvis.

Fibrocartilage

Fibrocartilage is composed of small, chained bundles of thick, clearly defined, type I collagen fibers. This fibrous connective tissue bundles have cartilage cells between them; these cells to a certain extent resemble tendon cells. The collagenous fibers are usually placed in an orderly arrangement parallel to tension on the tissue. It has a low content of glycosaminoglycans (2% of dry weight). Glycosaminoglycans are long, unbranched polysaccharides (relatively complex carbohydrates) consisting of repeating disaccharide units. Fibrocartilage does not have a surrounding perichondrium. Perichondrium surrounds the cartilage of developing bone; it has a layer of dense, irregular connective tissue and functions in the growth and repair of cartilage.

Hyaline cartilage

Hyaline cartilage is the white, shiny gristle at the end of long bones. This cartilage has poor healing potential, and efforts to induce it to repair itself frequently end up with a similar, but poorer fibrocartilage.

Development

In the newborn, the symphysis pubis is 9–10 mm in width, with thick cartilaginous end-plates. By mid-adolescence the adult size is achieved. During adulthood the end-plates decrease in width to a thinner layer. Degeneration of the symphysis pubis accompanies aging and postpartum. Women have a greater thickness of this pubic disc which allows more mobility of the pelvic bones, hence providing a greater diameter of pelvic cavity during childbirth.

Function

Analysis of the pelvis shows the skinny regions function as arches, transferring the weight of the upright trunk from the sacrum to the hips. The symphysis pubis connects these two weight-bearing arches, and the ligaments that surround this pelvic region maintain the mechanical integrity.

The main motions of the symphysis pubis are superior/inferior glide and separation/compression. The functions of the joint are to absorb shock during walking and allow delivery of a baby.

Clinical relevance

Injury

The pubic symphysis widens slightly whenever the legs are stretched far apart. In sports where these movements are often performed, the risk of a pubic symphysis blockage is high, in which case, after completion of the movement, the bones at the symphysis do not realign correctly and can get jammed in a dislocated position. The resulting pain can be quite severe, especially on further strain put upon the affected joint. In most cases, the joint can only be successfully reduced into its normal position by a trained medical professional.

Disease

Metabolic diseases, such as renal osteodystrophy, produce widening, while ochronosis results in calcific deposits in the symphysis. Inflammatory diseases, such as ankylosing spondylitis, result in bony fusion of the symphysis. Osteitis pubis, the most common inflammatory disease in this area, is treated with anti-inflammatory medication and rest. Degenerative joint disease of the symphysis, which can cause groin pain, results from instability or from abnormal pelvic mechanics.[3]

Symphysiolysis is separation or slipping of the symphysis. It has been estimated to occur in 0.2% of pregnancies.[4]

Pregnancy

During pregnancy in the human, hormones such as relaxin remodel this ligamentous capsule allowing the pelvic bones to be more flexible for delivery. The gap of the symphysis pubis, normally is 4–5 mm but during pregnancy there will be an increase of at least 2–3 mm, therefore, it is considered that a total width of up to 9 mm between the two bones is normal for a pregnant woman. The symphysis pubis separates to some degree during childbirth. In some women this separation can become a diastasis of the symphysis pubis. The diastasis could be the result of a rapid birth[5] or a forceps delivery[6] or maybe even be prenatal.[7] A diastasis of the symphysis pubis is a symptom of pelvic girdle pain (PGP). Overall, about 45% of all pregnant women and 25% of all women postpartum suffer from PGP.[8]

Symphysiotomy

Symphysiotomy is a surgical procedure in which the cartilage of the pubic symphysis is divided to widen the pelvis allowing childbirth when there is a mechanical problem. It allows the safe delivery of the fetus where Caesarean section is not an option. Symphysiotomy is suggested for woman in isolated areas experiencing obstructed labour where other medical intervention is unavailable.[9]

This practice was carried out in Europe before the introduction of the Caesarean section. Historically, during obstructed labour, the skull of the fetus was also, at least occasionally, crushed in order to further facilitate the delivery.[10]

Society and culture

Use in forensic anthropology

Pubic symphyses have importance in the field of forensic anthropology, as they can be used to estimate the age of adult skeletons. Throughout life, the surfaces are worn at a more or less predictable rate. By examining the wear of the pubic symphysis, it is possible to estimate the age of the person at death.[11]

Additional images

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ "Pubic symphysis separation". Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review (2002), 13: 141-155 Kelly Owens, Anne Pearson, Gerald Mason.
  6. ^ "Pubic Symphysial Diastasis During Normal Vaginal Delivery", Journal of Obste India Vol.55 No.4 July/August 2005 pp:365-366 S. A. Panditrao, B. P. Eknathrao, G. U. Popat, M. A. Ramkrishna
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Obstetrics and Gynaecology in The Tropics and Developing Countries. J. B. Lawson, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; D. B. Stewart, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of The West Indies, Jamaica
  10. ^ Hope Langer, MD; New York Times Review of Books, Oct. 22, 2006
  11. ^

External links

  • Pelvic Instability Network Support (PINS)
  • Anatomy photo:17:st-0206 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Major Joints of the Lower Extremity - hip and sacrum (anterior view)"
  • Anatomy photo:44:03-0104 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Male Pelvis: Hemisection of the Male Pelvis"
  • Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15 - Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.