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Title: Rfxank  
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Subject: Transcription factor, NeuroD, EMX homeogene, Engrailed (gene), HOXC8
Collection: Transcription Factors
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Regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols  ; ANKRA1; BLS; F14150_1; RFX-B
External IDs GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

DNA-binding protein RFXANK is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RFXANK gene.[1][2][3] Major histocompatibility (MHC) class II molecules are transmembrane proteins that have a central role in development and control of the immune system. The protein encoded by this gene, along with regulatory factor X-associated protein and regulatory factor-5, forms a complex that binds to the X box motif of certain MHC class II gene promoters and activates their transcription. Once bound to the promoter, this complex associates with the non-DNA-binding factor MHC class II transactivator, which controls the cell type specificity and inducibility of MHC class II gene expression. This protein contains ankyrin repeats involved in protein-protein interactions. Mutations in this gene have been linked to bare lymphocyte syndrome type II, complementation group B. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, with only one isoform showing activation activity.[3]


RFXANK has been shown to interact with RFXAP[4][5] and CIITA.[4][6]


  1. ^ Masternak K, Barras E, Zufferey M, Conrad B, Corthals G, Aebersold R, Sanchez JC, Hochstrasser DF, Mach B, Reith W (November 1998). "A gene encoding a novel RFX-associated transactivator is mutated in the majority of MHC class II deficiency patients". Nat Genet 20 (3): 273–7.  
  2. ^ Nagarajan UM, Louis-Plence P, DeSandro A, Nilsen R, Bushey A, Boss JM (March 1999). "RFX-B is the gene responsible for the most common cause of the bare lymphocyte syndrome, an MHC class II immunodeficiency". Immunity 10 (2): 153–62.  
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: RFXANK regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein". 
  4. ^ a b Nekrep, N; Geyer M; Jabrane-Ferrat N; Peterlin B M (August 2001). "Analysis of ankyrin repeats reveals how a single point mutation in RFXANK results in bare lymphocyte syndrome". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 21 (16): 5566–76.  
  5. ^ Nekrep, N; Jabrane-Ferrat N; Peterlin B M (June 2000). "Mutations in the bare lymphocyte syndrome define critical steps in the assembly of the regulatory factor X complex". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (12): 4455–61.  
  6. ^ Hake, S B; Masternak K; Kammerbauer C; Janzen C; Reith W; Steimle V (October 2000). "CIITA leucine-rich repeats control nuclear localization, in vivo recruitment to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II enhanceosome, and MHC class II gene transactivation". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (20): 7716–25.  

Further reading

  • Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery.". Genome Res. 6 (9): 791–806.  
  • Lin JH, Makris A, McMahon C, et al. (1999). "The ankyrin repeat-containing adaptor protein Tvl-1 is a novel substrate and regulator of Raf-1.". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (21): 14706–15.  
  • Nagarajan UM, Peijnenburg A, Gobin SJ, et al. (2000). "Novel mutations within the RFX-B gene and partial rescue of MHC and related genes through exogenous class II transactivator in RFX-B-deficient cells.". J. Immunol. 164 (7): 3666–74.  
  • Wiszniewski W, Fondaneche MC, Lambert N, et al. (2000). "Founder effect for a 26-bp deletion in the RFXANK gene in North African major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient patients belonging to complementation group B.". Immunogenetics 51 (4–5): 261–7.  
  • Nekrep N, Jabrane-Ferrat N, Peterlin BM (2000). "Mutations in the bare lymphocyte syndrome define critical steps in the assembly of the regulatory factor X complex". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (12): 4455–61.  
  • Zhang QH, Ye M, Wu XY, et al. (2001). "Cloning and functional analysis of cDNAs with open reading frames for 300 previously undefined genes expressed in CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells". Genome Res. 10 (10): 1546–60.  
  • Nekrep N, Geyer M, Jabrane-Ferrat N, Peterlin BM (2001). "Analysis of ankyrin repeats reveals how a single point mutation in RFXANK results in bare lymphocyte syndrome". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (16): 5566–76.  
  • Dimberg J, Hugander A, Häll-Karlsson BM, Sirsjö A (2002). "RFX-B, a MHC class II transcription factor, suppressed in human colorectal adenocarcinomas". Int. J. Mol. Med. 9 (3): 213–6.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903.  
  • Wiszniewski W, Fondaneche MC, Louise-Plence P, et al. (2003). "Novel mutations in the RFXANK gene: RFX complex containing in-vitro-generated RFXANK mutant binds the promoter without transactivating MHC II". Immunogenetics 54 (11): 747–55.  
  • Grimwood J, Gordon LA, Olsen A, et al. (2004). "The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19". Nature 428 (6982): 529–35.  
  • Wang AH, Grégoire S, Zika E, et al. (2005). "Identification of the ankyrin repeat proteins ANKRA and RFXANK as novel partners of class IIa histone deacetylases". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (32): 29117–27.  
  • Krawczyk M, Masternak K, Zufferey M, et al. (2005). "New functions of the major histocompatibility complex class II-specific transcription factor RFXANK revealed by a high-resolution mutagenesis study". Mol. Cell. Biol. 25 (19): 8607–18.  
  • Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, et al. (2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89.  

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