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Red Bank 7, New Brunswick

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Red Bank 7, New Brunswick

Metepenagiag Mi'kmaq Nation
New Brunswick

Coordinates: 46°56′00″N 65°49′00″W / 46.93333°N 65.81667°W / 46.93333; -65.81667Coordinates: 46°56′00″N 65°49′00″W / 46.93333°N 65.81667°W / 46.93333; -65.81667

Country Canada
Province New Brunswick
County Northumberland County
Established 1783
 • Chief Freeman Ward
 • Council Norman Ward
Michael Anthony John Haddad
Kenny Levy
Lawrence J Ward
Delbert Ward
 • MP Tilly O'Neill-Gordon (C)
 • MLAs Jake Stewart (PC)
Robert Trevors (PC)
 • Total 39.07 km2 (15.09 sq mi)
Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2006)(2010 AANDC)[1][2]
 • Total 551
Time zone Atlantic (AST) (UTC-4)
 • Summer (DST) ADT (UTC-3)
NTS Map 021I13
Postal code span:

Metepenagiag (pronounced MET-DEH-B'-NAH-GHEE-AGH) (previously known as the Red Bank First Nation, is a Mi'kmaq First Nation community comprising four reserves: Red Bank Indian reserves # 4 and # 7, Indian Point and Big Hole Track, centred at Red Bank, approximately 20 km west of Miramichi, New Brunswick,Canada.(2010 AANDC)[1]


Metepenagiag Mi'kmaq Nation are located at the head of tide of the Miramichi River. For thousands of years Mi’kmaq communities along New Brunswick’s northeastern shore, lived near tidal estuaries where tidal saltwater flows inland creating an ecosystem for "anadramous fish species such as salmon, sturgeon, gaspereau or alewife, striped bass, and eel, that seasonally move up the estuaries in large numbers." Some of these species spawned above the ‘head of tide’ and up the freshwater streams. (Leavitt 1996)[3](Keenlyside 1999)[4]

Although officially recognised in 1783, Metepenagiag has been home to a Mi'kmaq community for over 3000 years,[5] making it the oldest community in New Brunswick.

Augustine Mound

Evidence for the age of the community was revealed in 1972 by Joseph Mike Augustine. After reading a 1972 National Geographic article about an ancient burial mound in Arizona, Augustine recalled the mound where his father had taken him near his home.(Petten 1995)[6] The mound was on the caribou hunting trail that he and his father used regularly and they stopped to rest there.
"They'd make a fire and have some tea or a bit of something to eat, and Augustine's father would tell him of the history of this place. In times past, his father would say, Indians would celebrate here, building a fire in the centre of the mound and dancing around it. It was those Indians, his father said, who built the mound.
—Petten, 1995
The artifacts found at the site (the Augustine Mound), and a second nearby site (the Oxbow site) demonstrated that Metepenagiag had been continuously inhabited for over 3000 years,[5] and that the community enjoyed trading relationships with other First Nations communities, stretching as far west as the Ohio River Valley.[5](Turnbull 1976)[7]

In 1975 the Augustine Mound was designated as a National Historic Site of Canada. The Augustine Mound has similarities to the elaborate burial rites of the Adena culture of the Ohio Valley and contained materials that were not local including copper from Lake Superior area. Turnbull argues that the Red Bank people were part of a broad Northeastern pre-contact trade network. He also suggested that some Maritime people adopted aspects of the Adena culture religion.(Turnbull 1976)[7] (Keenlyside 1999)[4] claimed that Adena culture peoples moved to Atlantic Canada.[4] Ceramic fragments were also found at Red Bank part of the ceramic technology in use by Maritime First Nations 2500 to 3000 years ago.


In 1982 the nearby Oxbow archaeological site, located within the reserve land of the Metepenagiag Mi’kmaq Nation, on an oxbow bend of the Southwest Miramichi River,(Parks Canada),[8] was also designated a National Historic Site of Canada for its role as "witness and record of 3000 years of continuous Mi’kmaq use of the site".
The Oxbow "contains evidence of 3,000 years of Mi’kmaq history (from 1000 BC to the present) on the north bank of the Little southwest Miramichi River at the head of tide. Annual flooding of the river bank has created a well-stratified site in which the cultural development through time is preserved in multiple layers of sediment. This deep stratigraphic development is virtually unique in Maritime Canada.
—Parks Canada
Over 100 additional archaeological sites have been discovered in the area since 1975. Metepenagiaq First Nations now has their Metepenagiag Heritage Park.[5][9][10]


Although the Red Bank Band lands established by the New Brunswick Order-in-Council in 1808, comprised 10,000 acres, settlers and squatters occupied almost all of allocated land by the late 1830s. Only the village at Red Bank and the back wood lots were left for the Band. Under the Specific Claims Policy (2005) it was found that the 1895 alleged surrender of land was invalid and the Metepenagiag Mi'kmaq Nation negotiated for more land.(2010 AANDC)[1]

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Gloucester County, New Brunswick
  • Joe Mike Augustine - Discoverer of the Augustine Mound
  • Noah Augustine - Native activist and former Chief

See also

Further reading

  • Allen, Patricia Marlene (1980) (PDF). Retrieved 30 August 2013.


External links

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