World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Red rain in Kerala

Article Id: WHEBN0004290903
Reproduction Date:

Title: Red rain in Kerala  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Panspermia, Extraterrestrial life, Pathological science, Planetarium hypothesis, 2001 in India
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Red rain in Kerala

For other uses, see Red rain.
Rain water sample (left) and after the particles settled (right). Dried sediment (centre).

The Kerala red rain phenomenon was a blood rain (red rain) event that occurred from 25 July to 23 September 2001, when heavy downpours of red-coloured rain fell sporadically on the southern Indian state of Kerala, staining clothes pink.[1] Yellow, green, and black rain was also reported.[2][3][4] Coloured rain was also reported in Kerala in 1896 and several times since,[5] most recently in June 2012.[6][7]

Following a light microscopy examination, it was initially thought that the rains were coloured by fallout from a hypothetical meteor burst,[5] but a study commissioned by the Government of India concluded that the rains had been coloured by airborne spores from locally prolific terrestrial algae.[5]

It was not until early 2006 that the coloured rains of Kerala gained widespread attention when the popular media reported that Godfrey Louis and Santhosh Kumar of the Mahatma Gandhi University in Kottayam proposed a controversial argument that the coloured particles were extraterrestrial cells.[3][8][9] Red rains were also reported from 15 November 2012 to 27 December 2012 occasionally in eastern and north-central provinces of Sri Lanka,[10] where scientists from the Sri Lanka Medical Research Institute (MRI) are investigating to ascertain their cause.[11][12][13]


Kottayam district in Kerala, which experienced the most red rainfall

The coloured rain of Kerala began falling on 25 July 2001, in the districts of Kottayam and Idukki in the southern part of the state. Yellow, green, and black rain was also reported.[2][3][4] Many more occurrences of the red rain were reported over the following ten days, and then with diminishing frequency until late September.[3] According to locals, the first coloured rain was preceded by a loud thunderclap and flash of light, and followed by groves of trees shedding shrivelled grey "burnt" leaves. Shriveled leaves and the disappearance and sudden formation of wells were also reported around the same time in the area.[14][15][16] It typically fell over small areas, no more than a few square kilometres in size, and was sometimes so localised that normal rain could be falling just a few meters away from the red rain. Red rainfalls typically lasted less than 20 minutes.[3] Each millilitre of rain water contained about 9 million red particles, and each litre of rainwater contained approximately 100 milligrams of solids. Extrapolating these figures to the total amount of red rain estimated to have fallen, it was estimated that 50,000 kilograms (110,000 lb) of red particles had fallen on Kerala.[3]

Description of the particles

The brownish-red solid separated from the red rain consisted of about 90% round red particles and the balance consisted of debris.[5] The particles in suspension in the rain water were responsible for the colour of the rain, which at times was strongly coloured red. A small percentage of particles were white or had light yellow, bluish grey and green tints.[3] The particles were typically 4 to 10 µm across and spherical or oval. Electron microscope images showed the particles as having a depressed centre. At still higher magnification some particles showed internal structures.[3]

Chemical composition

Elemental analysis
Analysis by the CESS
Analysis by Louis & Kumar (%)
Al 1.0 0.41
Ca 2.52
C 51.00 49.53
Cl 0.12
H 4.43
Fe 0.61 0.97
Mg 1.48
N 1.84
O 45.42
K 0.26
P 0.08
Si 7.50 2.85
Na 0.49 0.69
Photomicrograph of particles from red rain sample

Several groups of researchers analysed the chemical elements in the solid particles, and different techniques gave different results. The particles were composed mostly of carbon and oxygen with lesser amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen, silicon, chlorine and metals.

Some water samples were brought to the Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS) in India, where they separated the suspended particles by filtration. The pH (acidity) of the water was found to be around 7 (neutral). The electrical conductivity of the rainwater showed the absence of any dissolved salts. Sediment (red particles plus debris) was collected and analysed by the CESS using a combination of ion-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and wet chemical methods. The major elements found are listed below.[5] The CESS analysis also showed significant amounts of heavy metals, including nickel (43 ppm), manganese (59 ppm), titanium (321 ppm), chromium (67ppm) and copper (55 ppm).

Louis and Kumar used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the red solid and showed that the particles were composed of mostly carbon and oxygen, with trace amounts of silicon and iron.[3] A CHN analyser showed content of 43.03% carbon, 4.43% hydrogen, and 1.84% nitrogen.[3]

J. Thomas Brenna in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University conducted carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses using a scanning electron microscope with X-ray micro-analysis, an elemental analyser, and an isotope ratio (IR) mass spectrometer. The red particles collapsed when dried, which suggested that they were filled with fluid. The amino acids in the particles were analysed and seven were identified (in order of concentration): phenylalanine, glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, aspartic acid, threonine, and arginine. He concluded that the results were consistent with a marine origin or a terrestrial plant that uses a C4 photosynthetic pathway.[17]

Official report

A single spore viewed with a transmission electron microscope, purportedly showing a detached inner capsule.

Initially, the Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS) stated that the likely cause of the red rain was an exploding meteor, which had dispersed about 1,000 kg (one ton) of material. A few days later, following a basic light microscopy evaluation, the CESS retracted this as they noticed the particles resembled spores,[18] and because debris from a meteor would not have continued to fall from the stratosphere onto the same area while unaffected by wind. A sample was, therefore, handed over to the Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI) for microbiological studies, where the spores were allowed to grow in a medium suitable for growth of algae and fungi. The inoculated Petri dishes and conical flasks were incubated for three to seven days and the cultures were observed under a microscope.

In November 2001, commissioned by the Government of India's Department of Science & Technology, the Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS) and the Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI) issued a joint report, which concluded:[5][18]

The site was again visited on 16 August 2001 and it was found that almost all the trees, rocks and even lamp posts in the region were covered with Trentepohlia estimated to be in sufficient amounts to generate the quantity of spores seen in the rainwater.[5] Although red or orange, Trentepohlia is a symbiosis) between a fungus and an alga or cyanobacterium.

The report also stated that there was no meteoric, volcanic or desert dust origin present in the rainwater and that its color was not due to any dissolved gases or pollutants.[5] The report concluded that heavy rains in Kerala -in the weeks preceding the red rains- could have caused the widespread growth of lichens, which had given rise to a large quantity of spores into the atmosphere. However, for these lichen to release their spores simultaneously, it is necessary for them to enter their reproductive phase at about the same time. The CESS report noted that while this may be a possibility, it is quite improbable.[5] Also, they could find no satisfactory explanation for the apparently extraordinary dispersal, nor for the apparent uptake of the spores into clouds. CESS scientists noted that "While the cause of the colour in the rainfall has been identified, finding the answers to these questions is a challenge."[18] Attempting to explain the unusual spore proliferation and dispersal, researcher Ian Goddard proposed several local atmospheric models.[19]

Parts of the CESS/TBGRI report were supported by [23]

Alternative hypotheses

History records many instances of unusual objects falling with the rain – in 2000, in an example of raining animals, a small waterspout in the North Sea sucked up a school of fish a mile off shore, depositing them shortly afterwards on Great Yarmouth in the United Kingdom.[24] Coloured rain is by no means rare, and can often be explained by the airborne transport of rain dust from desert or other dry regions which is washed down by rain. "Red Rains" have been frequently described in southern Europe, with increasing reports in recent years.[25][26] One such case occurred in England in 1903, when dust was carried from the Sahara and fell with rain in February of that year.[27]

At first, the red rain in Kerala was attributed to the same effect, with dust from the deserts of Arabia initially the suspect.[14] LIDAR observations had detected a cloud of dust in the atmosphere near Kerala in the days preceding the outbreak of the red rain.[28][29] However, laboratory tests from all involved teams ruled out the particles were desert sand.

K.K. Sasidharan Pillai, a senior scientific assistant in the Indian Meteorological Department, proposed dust and acidic material from an eruption of Mayon Volcano in the Philippines as an explanation for the coloured rain and the "burnt" leaves.[30] The volcano was erupting in June and July 2001[31] and Pillai calculated that the Eastern or Equatorial jet stream could have transported volcanic material to Kerala in 25–36 hours. The Equatorial jet stream is unusual in that it flows from east to west at about 10° N,[32] approximately the same latitude as Kerala (8° N) and Mayon Volcano (13° N). This hypothesis was also ruled out as the particles were neither acidic nor of volcanic origin, but were spores.[5]

A study has been published showing a correlation between historic reports of coloured rains and of meteors;[33] the author of the paper, Patrick McCafferty, stated that sixty of these events (coloured rain), or 36%, were linked to meteoritic or cometary activity. But not always strongly. Sometimes the fall of red rain seems to have occurred after an air-burst, as from a meteor exploding in air; other times the odd rainfall is merely recorded in the same year as the appearance of a comet.

Panspermia hypothesis

In 2003 Godfrey Louis and Santhosh Kumar, physicists at the Mahatma Gandhi University in Kottayam, Kerala, posted an article entitled "Cometary panspermia explains the red rain of Kerala"[34] in the non-peer reviewed arXiv web site. While the CESS report said there was no apparent relationship between the loud sound (possibly a sonic boom) and flash of light which preceded the red rain, to Louis and Kumar it was a key piece of evidence. They proposed that a meteor (from a comet containing the red particles) caused the sound and flash and when it disintegrated over Kerala it released the red particles which slowly fell to the ground. However, they omitted an explanation on how debris from a meteor continued to fall in the same area over a period of two months while unaffected from winds.

Their work indicated that the particles were of biological origin (consistent with the CESS report), however, they invoked the panspermia hypothesis to explain the presence of cells in a supposed fall of meteoric material.[35][36][37] Additionally, using ethidium bromide they were unable to detect DNA or RNA in the particles. Two months later they posted another paper on the same web site entitled "New biology of red rain extremophiles prove cometary panspermia"[38] in which they reported that

"The microorganism isolated from the red rain of Kerala shows very extraordinary characteristics, like the ability to grow optimally at 300 °C (572 °F) and the capacity to metabolise a wide range of organic and inorganic materials."

These claims and data have yet to be verified and reported in any peer reviewed publication. In 2006 Louis and Kumar published a paper in Astrophysics and Space Science entitled "The red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible extraterrestrial origin"[3] which reiterated their arguments that the red rain was biological matter from an extraterrestrial source but made no mention of their previous claims to having induced the cells to grow. The team also observed the cells using phase contrast fluorescence microscopy, and they concluded that: "The fluorescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectangle Nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds, suggesting, though not proving an extraterrestrial origin."[9] One of their conclusions was that if the red rain particles are biological cells and are of cometary origin, then this phenomenon can be a case of cometary panspermia.[3]

On August 2008 Louis and Kumar again presented their case in an astrobiology conference.[39] The abstract for their paper states that
"The red cells found in the red rain in Kerala, India are now considered as a possible case of extraterrestrial life form. These cells can undergo rapid replication even at an extreme high temperature of 300 °C. They can also be cultured in diverse unconventional chemical substrates. The molecular composition of these cells is yet to be identified".

On September 2010 he presented a similar paper at a conference in California, USA[40]

Cosmic ancestry

Researcher Chandra Wickramasinghe used Louis and Kumar's "extraterrestrial origin" claim to further support his panspermia hypothesis called cosmic ancestry.[41] This hypothesis postulates that life is neither the product of supernatural creation, nor is it spontaneously generated through abiogenesis, but that it has always existed in the universe. Cosmic ancestry speculates that higher life forms, including intelligent life, descend ultimately from pre-existing life which was at least as advanced as the descendants.[42][43][44][45][46]


Louis and Kumar made their first publication of their finding on a web site in 2003, and have presented papers at conferences and in astrophysics magazines a number of times since. The controversial conclusion of Louis et al. is the only hypothesis suggesting that these organisms are of extraterrestrial origin.[47] Such reports have been popular in the media, with major news agencies like CNN repeating the panspermia theory without critique.[48]

The hypothesis' authors – G. Louis and Kumar – did not explain how debris from a meteor could have continued to fall on the same area over a period of two months, despite the changes in climatic conditions and wind pattern spanning over two months.[49][34] Samples of the red particles were also sent for analysis to his collaborators autoclaved) for up to two hours.[9] Their conclusion is that these cells reproduced, without DNA, at temperatures higher than any known life form on earth is able to.[50] They claimed that the cells, however, were unable to reproduce at temperatures similar to known biology.

Regarding the "absence" of DNA, Louis admits he has no training in biology,[48][51] and has not reported the use of any standard microbiology growth medium to culture and induce germination and growth of the spores, basing his claim of "biological growth" on light absorption measurements following aggregation by supercritical fluids,[38] an inert physical observation. Both his collaborators, Wickramasinghe[52] and Milton Wainwright[22] independently extracted and confirmed the presence of DNA from the spores. The absence of DNA was key to Louis and Kumar's hypothesis that the cells were of extraterrestrial origins.[34]

Louis' only reported attempt to stain the spore's DNA was by the use of malachite green, which is generally used to stain bacterial endospores, not algal spores,[53] whose primary function of their cell wall and their impermeability is to ensure its own survival through periods of environmental stress. They are therefore resistant to ultraviolet and gamma radiation, desiccation, lysozyme, temperature, starvation and chemical disinfectants. Visualizing algal spore DNA under a light microscope can be difficult due to the impermeability of the highly resistant spore wall to dyes and stains used in normal staining procedures. To stain the spores' DNA, which is tightly packed, encapsulated and desiccated, spores must first be cultured in suitable growth medium and temperature to first induce germination, then cell growth followed by reproduction.[48]

Other researchers have noted recurring instances of red rainfalls in 1818, 1846, 1872, 1880, 1896, and 1950, including one described by Charles Darwin,[48] and several times since then.[54] Most recently, coloured rainfall occurred over Kerala during the summers of 2001, 2006, 2007, 2008,[55] and 2012; since 2001, the botanists have found the same Trentepohlia spores every time.[48] This supports the notion that the red rain is a seasonal local environmental feature caused by algal spores.[48][56][57][58][59]

In popular culture

The Red Rain science-fiction film was loosely based on the red rain in Kerala story. It was directed by Rahul Sadasivan and released in India in 6 December 2013.[60]

See also


  1. ^ a b Gentleman, Amelia; Robin McKie (5 March 2006). "Red rain could prove that aliens have landed". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 12 March 2006. 
  2. ^ a b JULY 28, 2001, The Hindu: Multicolour rain
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Louis, G.; Kumar A.S. (2006). "The red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible extraterrestrial origin". Astrophysics and Space Science 302: 175.  
  4. ^ a b Ramakrishnan, Venkitesh (30 July 2001). "Colored rain falls on Kerala". BBC. Retrieved 6 March 2006. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sampath, S.; Abraham, T. K., Sasi Kumar, V., & Mohanan, C.N. (2001). "Coloured Rain: A Report on the Phenomenon" (PDF). Cess-Pr-114-2001 (Center for Earth Science Studies and Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute). Archived from the original on 13 June 2006. Retrieved 30 August 2009. 
  6. ^ 6 August 2012Epoch TimesRed rain in India may have alien origin by Arshdeep Sarao,
  7. ^ "Morning shower paints rural Kannur red". The Times of India. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  8. ^ Panspermia theorists say India's red rain contains life not seen on Earth. Farquhar, S. 3 September 2010
  9. ^ a b c Gangappa, Rajkumar; Chandra Wickramasinghe; Milton Wainwright; A. Santhosh Kumar; Godfrey Louis (29 August 2010). Hoover, Richard B; Levin, Gilbert V; Rozanov, Alexei Y; Davies, Paul C. W., eds. "Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121 °C and their red fluorescence". Proceedings of the SPIE. Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology XIII ( 7819: 18.  
  10. ^ Red Rain in Sri Lanka in 2012
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ Chandra Wickramasinghe says yellow rain is young red rain before growth [1]
  14. ^ a b Radhakrishnan, M. G. (2001). "Scarlets of Fire". India Today. Archived from the original on 26 December 2004. Retrieved 6 March 2006. 
  15. ^ Mystery of the scarlet rains and other tales — Times of India, 6 August 2001
  16. ^ Now wells form spontaneously in Kerala — Times of India, 5 August 2001 (from the Internet Archive)
  17. ^ DiGregorio, Barry E. (2007). "What made the rain red in India? Isotopic analysis points to a terrestrial origin for the unusual organic particles that coloured the rain like blood.". Analytical Chemistry (Washington, DC, United States) 79 (9): 3238.  
  18. ^ a b c "Red rain was fungus, not meteor". The Indian Express. 6 August 2001. Retrieved 31 May 2008. 
  19. ^ Ian Goddard (March 2006). "The Colored Rains of Kerala: An Exploration of Possible Causal Mechanisms". Noesis – the Journal of the Mega Society (180). Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  20. ^ "It's raining aliens". Retrieved 3 June 2008. transcript of a  
  21. ^ Benfield, Chris (3 June 2008). "Is mysterious 'red rain' first evidence of life in space?". Yorkshire Today. Retrieved 3 June 2008. 
  22. ^ a b David Darling's Newsletter #39
  23. ^ Gangappa, Rajkumar Gangappa; Stuart Hogg (22 November 2012). "DNA unmasked in the red rain cells of Kerala". Microbiology 159 (Pt 1): 107–11.  
  24. ^ Lane, Megan (7 August 2000). "It's raining fish!". BBC. Retrieved 6 March 2006. 
  25. ^ Bücher, A and Lucas, C, 1984. Sédimentation éolienne intercontinentale, poussières sahariennes et géologie. Bull Centr Rech Explor Prod Elf-Aquitanie 8, pp. 151–165
  26. ^ Avila, Anna; Peñuelas, Josep (April 1999). "Increasing frequency of Saharan rains over northeastern Spain and its ecological consequences". The Science of the Total Environment 228 (2–3): 153–156.  
  27. ^ Mill H. R., R. K. G. Lempfert, 1904, The great dust fall of February 1903 and its origin. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 30:57.
  28. ^ Satyanarayana, M.; Veerabuthiran S., Ramakrishna Rao D. Presennakumar B. (2004). "Colored Rain on the West Coastal Region of India: Was it Due to a Dust Storm". Aerosol Science and Technology 28: 24–26. 
  29. ^ Veerabuthiran, S.; Satyanarayana, M. (June 2003). "Lidar observations on atmospheric dust transported from south-west Asia to Indian west coast region: A case study of colour rain event occurred during July 2001". Indian Journal of Radio & Space Physics 32: 158–165. Retrieved 30 May 2008. 
  30. ^ Varma, M. Dinesh (1 September 2001). "Theory links 'scarlet rain' to Mayon volcano". The Hindu. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 
  31. ^ "Mayon eruption status update June 2001". Retrieved 26 May 2008. 
  32. ^ "Jet Streams around the World". BBC Weather Centre. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 
  33. ^ McCafferty, Partick (2008). "Bloody rain again! Red rain and meteors in history and myth". International Journal of Astrobiology 7: 9.  
  34. ^ a b c Louis, Godfrey; Kumar, A. Santhosh (5 October 2003). "Cometary panspermia explains the red rain of Kerala". arXiv:0310120 [astro-ph].
  35. ^ Extraterrestrial Life' in Red Rain of Kerala"'". Earthfiles. 6 August 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2009. 
  36. ^ "Red rain cell research: A new perspective for interplanetary transfer of life." EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 4, EPSC2009-707-1, 2009. European Planetary Science Congress.
  37. ^ "An optical spectroscopic study correlating the yellow rain and cultured red rain microbes." Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7441, 74410N (11 September 2009); doi:10.1117/12.826780
  38. ^ a b Louis, Godfrey; Kumar, A. Santhosh (29 December 2003). "New biology of red rain extremophiles prove cometary panspermia". arXiv:0312639 [astro-ph].
  39. ^ Godfrey Louis and A. Santhosh Kumar. "Unusual autofluorescence of cultured red-rain cells". SPIE Symposium, San Diego, California 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  40. ^ Louis, Godfrey Louis; A. Santhosh Kumar (7 September 2010). Richard B. Hoover, Gilbert V. Levin, Alexei Y. Rozanov, Paul C.W. Davies (editors). "Growth characteristics of red rain microbes at temperatures below 100 °C". Proceedings of the SPIE. Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology XIII (San Diego, California: Proc. SPIE Vol. 7819, 78190R) 7819: 78190R.  
  41. ^ Creationism versus Darwinism. Published in Darwinism, Design, and Public Education (2003)
  42. ^ Evolution from Space: A Theory of Cosmic Creationism. Authors: Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe. ISBN 0-671-49263-2
  43. ^ Our Place in the Cosmos: The Unfinished Revolution by Wickramasinghe and Hoyle. (1993)
  44. ^ Evolution From Space (The Omni Lecture) and Other Papers on the Origin of Life. By Fred Hoyle (Enslow; Hillside, NJ; 1982)
  45. ^ Figures don't Lie but Creationists Figure. By Alec Grynspan ( 9 November 1997)
  46. ^ Emergence of Life on Earth: A Historical and Scientific Overview. By Iris Fry. Rutgers University Press, 1 February 2000.
  47. ^ Louis, Godfrey. "Home Page of Dr. Godfrey Louis". Retrieved 3 September 2010. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f Dunning, Brian (21 September 2010). "Alien Downpour: The Red Rain of India". Skeptoid (224). Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  49. ^ The Unexplained Red Rain of Kerala
  50. ^ "Red alien cells reproduce, just like Wickramasinghe wanted". Hidden Cause, Visible Effects. 1 September 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  51. ^ Fluorescence Mysteryin Red Rain Cells of Kerala, India (2009)
  52. ^ "Cardiff Centre of Astrobiology: Analysis of Red Rain of Kerala". University of Cardiff. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 
  53. ^ Mayberry, William (7 April 2004). "Spore Stain Tutorial". American Society for Microbiology. Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2009. 
  54. ^ Blood Red' Rain Falls in India People Are Freaking Out"'". Before It is News. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  55. ^ Godfrey Louis
  56. ^ Mysterious blood rain falls again from skies over Kerala, India
  57. ^ Red Rain Again in Kerala
  58. ^ Fluorescence Mystery in Red Rain Cells of Kerala, India
  59. ^ Panics Residents in Kerala, India Again
  60. ^ "Red Rain film". One India Entertainment. October 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 

External links

  • Sampath, S., Abraham, T. K., Sasi Kumar, V., & Mohanan, C.N. (2001). Colored Rain: A Report on the Phenomenon. CESS-PR-114-2001, Center for Earth Science Studies and Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute.
  • New Scientist"When aliens rained over India" by Hazel Muir in
  • BBC News"Searching for 'our alien origins'" by Andrew Thompson in
  • Earthfiles"Fluorescence Mystery in Red Rain Cells of Kerala, India " Linda Moulton Howe
  • "Home page of Dr A Santhosh Kumar"
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.