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Republican Left of Catalonia

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Collection: 1931 Establishments in Spain, Catalan Independence Movement, Catalan Nationalism, Democratic Socialist Parties, European Free Alliance, Political Parties Established in 1931, Political Parties in Catalonia, Political Parties in Northern Catalonia, Political Parties in the Balearic Islands, Pro-Independence Parties, Republican Left of Catalonia, Secessionist Organizations in Europe, Socialist Parties in Spain
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Republican Left of Catalonia

Republican Left of Catalonia
Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya
President Oriol Junqueras i Vies
Secretary-General Marta Rovira i Vergés
Founded March 19, 1931
Headquarters C/Calàbria, 166
08015 Barcelona, Spain
Ideology Catalan nationalism[1][2]
Catalan independence
[3][4][5][6][7][8][9]
Left-wing nationalism
[10][11][12]
Democratic socialism[13]
Republicanism
Political position Left-wing[14][15]
European affiliation European Free Alliance
European Parliament group The Greens–European Free Alliance
Colours Orange
Congress of Deputies
3 / 350
Spanish Senate
1 / 264
European Parliament
2 / 54
Parliament of Catalonia
62 / 135
Town councillors in Catalonia
2,384 / 9,077
Town councillors in the Balearic Islands
16 / 925
Website
www.esquerra.cat
Politics of Catalonia
Political parties
Elections

The Republican Left of Catalonia (Catalan: Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, ERC; IPA: ) is a left-wing, Catalan pro-independence political party in the Catalonia region of Spain.[16] It is also the main sponsor of the independence movement from France and Spain in the territories known among Catalan nationalists as Països Catalans. Occitan Republican Left, formed in 2008, acts as the Aranese section.

Its current president is Oriol Junqueras and its secretary-general is Marta Rovira.

Contents

  • Political principles and representation 1
  • History 2
  • Presidents 3
  • General Secretaries 4
  • Election results 5
    • Parliament of Catalonia 5.1
    • Congress of Deputies 5.2
    • Local councils 5.3
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Political principles and representation

Its basic political principles are defined in the Statement of Ideology approved at the 19th National Congress in 1993. This is organised into the three areas that give the organisation its name: Esquerra (commitment to the Left's agenda in the political debate), República (commitment to the Republican form of government vs. Spain's current constitutional monarchy) and Catalunya (Catalan independentism, which, as understood by ERC, comprises the Catalan Countries).

Despite having been one of the main forces behind the movement for amendment, the party eventually opposed the 2006 changes to the Catalan Statute of Autonomy to increase Catalonia's autonomy. It did so on the grounds that it did not do enough to increase Catalan independence. This caused a government crisis with its partners (specially with the Partit dels Socialistes de Catalunya, PSC) which led to an early election in 2006.

Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya has 21 seats in the Catalan Parliament, suffering a dramatic setback after the Catalan parliamentary election of 2010 and an equally dramatic gain in 2012, and one seat in the Balearic Parliament. Until 2010, it was one of the three coalition members of the tripartite left-wing Catalan Government, together with Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC) and Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV). The coalition was often uneasy due to tensions related to the new Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. The snap election on November 25, 2012 saw ERC rise to a total of 21 seats in the Catalan Parliament.

Out of the Catalan countries, it has three seats (fifth largest group by seats) in the Spanish Parliament and two seats in the European Parliament.

History

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Catalonia
Portrait of Pere Mestres i Albet (1901-1975), professor of electrical expert, founder of ERC (Republican Left of Catalonia), Minister of Interior of the Government of Catalonia (October, 1933 - December, 1933) and Public Works and Health (1933-1936).

Led by Francesc Macià and Lluís Companys, the party had done extremely well in the municipal elections of April 1931. On the day the election results were announced, they declared Catalonia would become an independent republic within a federal state. This was not exactly what had been agreed in the Pact of San Sebastián, so later that month they negotiated with the Madrid government that Macià would become president of the Generalitat of Catalonia.[17]

In 1934, led by Lluís Companys, the elected Catalan President, the party declared an independent Catalan Republic within the Spanish Federation proposed by Companys, following the entry of right-wing ministers of the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA) into the Government of the Spanish Republic, however the party leaders (including Companys) and all the Catalan Government (called Generalitat) were arrested and jailed for this, and special autonomy laws for Catalonia were suspended until 1936.

In 1936, at the dawn of the Spanish Civil War, ERC decided to become part of the Spanish Popular Front to contest that year's election, which it won. Esquerra became the leading force of the Popular Front in Catalonia and tried to maintain the unity of the Front in the face of growing tensions between the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM) and the Communist Party of Spain (PCE).

The party was declared illegal (along with all other participants in the Popular Front) by Francisco Franco after he came to power in 1939. The former president of the Catalan Generalitat, Lluís Companys, was arrested by German agents in collaboration with Vichy France, returned to Spain and executed in 1940.

The party is also federated with parties in the Balearic Islands and in Northern Catalonia in France, as well as with Republican Left of the Valencian Country in the Valencian Community. Except for their Balearic counterpart, none of the latter currently have any parliamentary representation in their respective territories, though they do have 8 municipal councillors in the Balearic Islands[18] and 6 councillors in the Valencian Community.[19]

Presidents

  1. Francesc Macià (1931-1933)
  2. Lluís Companys (1933-1935)
  3. Carles Pi i Sunyer (1933-1935)
  4. Lluís Companys (1936-1940)
  5. Heribert Barrera (1993-1995)
  6. Jaume Campabadal (1995-1996)
  7. Jordi Carbonell (1996-2004)
  8. Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira (2004-2008)
  9. Joan Puigcercós (2008-2011)
  10. Oriol Junqueras i Vies (2011-)

General Secretaries

  1. Joan Lluís Pujol i Font (March 1931 - April 1931)
  2. Josep Tarradellas (April 1931 - March 1932)
  3. Joan Tauler (March 1932 - 1938)
  4. Josep Tarradellas (1938 - 1957)
  5. Joan Sauret (1957 - 1976)
  6. Heribert Barrera (1976-1987)
  7. Joan Hortalà (1987-1989)
  8. Àngel Colom Colom (1989-1996)
  9. Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira (1996-2004)
  10. Joan Puigcercós (2004-2008)
  11. Joan Ridao i Martín (2008-2011)
  12. Marta Rovira i Vergés (2011-)

Election results

Parliament of Catalonia

Parliament of Catalonia
Election Votes % ±pp Seats won +/− Rank Government Leader
1932 224,800 47.1% New
56 / 85
56 #1 Majority gov't Francesc Macià
1980 241,711 8.9% New
14 / 135
14 #5 Gov't support Heribert Barrera
1984 126,971 4.4% 4.5
5 / 135
9 #5 Coalition gov't
CiU-ERC
Heribert Barrera
1988 111,647 4.1% 0.3
6 / 135
1 #5 Opposition Joan Hortalà
1992 210,366 8.0% 3.9
11 / 135
5 #3 Opposition Àngel Colom
1995 305,867 9.4% 1.4
13 / 135
2 #5 Opposition Àngel Colom
1999 271,173 8.7% 0.7
12 / 135
1 #4 Opposition Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira
2003 544,324 16.4% 7.7
23 / 135
11 #3 Coalition gov't
PSC-ERC-ICV
Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira
2006 416,355 14.0% 2.4
21 / 135
2 #3 Coalition gov't
PSC-ERC-ICV
Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira
2010 219,173 7.0% 7.0
10 / 135
11 #5 Opposition Joan Puigcercós
2012 498,124 13.7% 6.7
21 / 135
11 #3 Gov't support Oriol Junqueras
2015 w. Together for Yes
17 / 135
4 #1 Oriol Junqueras

Congress of Deputies

Congress of Deputies
Election Votes % % Cat. Seats +/– Parliament
1931 6.7 (#5) 53.0 (#1)
24 / 470
in opposition
1933 3.7 (#7) 31.0 (#2)
17 / 472
7 in opposition
1936 4.1 (#5) 33.2 (#1)
21 / 473
4 in opposition
1977 143,954 0.8 (#10) 4.7 (#6)
1 / 350
in opposition
1979 123,452 0.7 (#13) 4.2 (#5)
1 / 350
±0 in opposition
1982 138,118 0.7 (#9) 4.0 (#5)
1 / 350
±0 in opposition
1986 84,628 0.4 (#12) 2.7 (#6)
0 / 350
1 N/A
1989 84,756 0.4 (#16) 2.7 (#6)
0 / 350
±0 N/A
1993 189,632 0.8 (#9) 5.1 (#5)
1 / 350
1 in opposition
1996 167,641 0.7 (#9) 4.2 (#5)
1 / 350
±0 in opposition
2000 194,715 0.8 (#9) 5.6 (#4)
1 / 350
±0 in opposition
2004 652,196 2.5 (#5) 15.9 (#3)
8 / 350
7 in opposition
2008 298,139 1.2 (#7) 7.8 (#4)
3 / 350
5 in opposition
2011 256,985 1.1 (#8) 7.1 (#5)
3 / 350
±0 in opposition

Local councils

Local councils
Election Votes % Seats +/–
1979 103,547 3.9 (#5)
210 / 8,223
1983 84,984 2.9 (#5)
155 / 8,199
55
1987 74,700 2.5 (#6)
185 / 8,186
30
1991 91,995 3.4 (#5)
228 / 8,328
43
1995 203,053 6.3 (#5)
526 / 8,426
298
1999 224,955 7.7 (#5)
676 / 8,497
150
2003 414,549 12.8 (#3)
1,278 / 8,690
602
2007 334,923 11.7 (#3)
1,580 / 8,932
302
2011 257,705 9.0 (#4)
1,377 / 9,132
203
2015 510,137 16.4 (#3)
2,384 / 9,077
1,007

See also

References

  1. ^ Guibernau, Montserrat (2004), Catalan Nationalism: Francoism, transition and democracy, Routledge, p. 82 
  2. ^ Hargreaves, John (2000), Freedom for Catalonia?: Catalan Nationalism, Spanish Identity and the Barcelona Olympic Games, Cambridge University Press, p. 84 
  3. ^ Buffery, Helena; Marcer, Elisenda (2011), Historical Dictionary of the Catalans, Scarecrow Press, p. 198 
  4. ^ Paluzie, Elisenda (2010), "The costs and benefits of staying together: the Catalan case in Spain", The Political Economy of Inter-Regional Fiscal Flows: Measurement, Determinants and Effects on Country Stability (Edward Elgar Publishing): 367 
  5. ^ Hooghe, Liesbet; Marks, Gary; Schakel, Arjan H. (2010), The Rise of Regional Authority: A Comparative Study of 42 Democracies, Routledge, p. 194 
  6. ^ Schrijver, Frans (2006), Regionalism After Regionalisation: Spain, France and the United Kingdom, Vossiuspers, Amsterdam University Press, p. 112 
  7. ^ McLaren, Lauren M. (2008), Constructing Democracy in Southern Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Italy, Spain, and Turkey, Routledge, p. 184 
  8. ^ Roller, Elisa (2004), "Conflict and Cooperation in EU Policy-Making: The Case of Catalonia", The EU and Territorial Politics Within Member States: Conflict Or Co-Operation? (Brill): 80 
  9. ^ "Parties and Elections in Europe, "Spain", The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck". Parties & Elections. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  10. ^ Alonso, Sonia (2012), Challenging the State: Devolution and the Battle for Partisan Credibility, Oxford University Press, p. 77 
  11. ^ Ramiro, Luis; Morales, Laura (2007), "European integration and Spanish parties: Elite empowerment amidst limited adaptation", The Europeanization of National Political Parties: Power and organizational adaptation (Routledge): 146 
  12. ^ Moreno, Luis; Colino, César (2010), "Kingdom of Spain", Diversity and Unity in Federal Countries (McGill-Queen's University Press): 299 
  13. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". http://www.parties-and-elections.eu/spain.html. Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  14. ^ Jaume Ribas Vilanova. "En un país normal, una socialdemocràcia normal". LaColumna.cat. 
  15. ^ jaume. "Junqueras dice que CiU y PSC son "la vieja política" rendida al poder". El Periódico. 
  16. ^ Jaume Renyer Alimbau, ERC: temps de transició. Per una esquerra forta, renovadora i plural (Barcelona: Cossetània, 2008).
  17. ^ "The Battle for Spain" Beevor (2006) p.25
  18. ^ Dades electorals detallades de les Eleccions Locals 2011, arxiu històric electora, accessed 28 November 2012
  19. ^ Dades electorals detallades de les Eleccions Locals 2011, arxiu històric electora, accessed 28 November 2012

External links

  • Site of the party (Catalan)
  • Ideological declaration (English) (PDF)
  • ERC’s brief history (English) (PDF)
  • Joventuts de l'Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya Youth section's site (Catalan)
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