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Richard Nixon presidential campaign, 1968

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Subject: United States presidential election, 1968, Richard Nixon, Richard Nixon presidential campaign, 1968, Brian Lamb, H. R. Haldeman
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Richard Nixon presidential campaign, 1968

Richard Nixon for President
Campaign U.S. presidential election, 1968
Candidate Richard Nixon
U.S. House of Representatives 1947–1950
U.S. Senator 1950–1953
Vice President 1953–1961
Affiliation Republican Party

The Richard Nixon presidential campaign of 1968 began when the former 1960 Presidential election, and the 1962 California Gubernatorial race.

En route to the New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller, California Governor Ronald Reagan, and Illinois Senator Charles Percy. Nixon won most of the state primaries, and gained enough delegate strength to secure the nomination on the first ballot at the Republican National Convention. He named Maryland Governor Spiro Agnew as his running mate.

In the general election, Nixon emphasized "law and order" and tried to position himself as the champion of the so-called "silent majority". He attempted to de-emphasize the controversial Vietnam War by claiming that he had a "secret plan" to end the war. He ran well ahead of his opponent, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, in the polls, but slipped in the polls after refusing to take part in presidential debates, and following an announcement from the Democratic president Lyndon B. Johnson that a bombing halt had been achieved in Vietnam.

Nixon won in a close election on November 5, 1968, and was inaugurated as the 37th President of the United States on January 20, 1969.


Nixon during his 1950 Senatorial campaign

Nixon served as a member of the United States Congress representing the 12th District of California [1] from 1947 until his election to the Senate in 1950. During this time, he gained a reputation as an ardent anti-Communist.[2] Selected by Republican Party Presidential nominee Dwight D. Eisenhower as his running mate in the 1952 presidential election, Nixon was elected and served as Vice President at the height of the Cold War. During his tenure, he traveled the world on "goodwill tours", promoting pro-American policies.[2] He was re-elected to the position in 1956. At the end of Eisenhower's second term in 1960, the Republican Party nominated Nixon as their presidential candidate. He lost in a close election to John F. Kennedy, which many credited in part to his uncomfortable disposition during the first televised debate.[2] After a defeat in the 1962 California Gubernatorial race, Nixon was labeled a "loser" by the media.[3] This defeat was widely believed to be the end of his career;[4] in an impromptu concession speech the morning after the election, Nixon famously blamed the media for favoring his opponent, saying, "You won't have Nixon to kick around anymore because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference."[4] In September, the New York Post published an article claiming that campaign donors were buying influence with Nixon by providing him with a secret cash fund for his personal expenses.[4] He moved to New York, joined the Mudge Rose Guthrie Alexander & Ferdon law firm,[5] regrouped, considered, but decided against a run for president in 1964,[6] and later began to plan for a 1968 presidential campaign.

Campaign developments

Early stages

On January 7, 1967, Nixon held a secret meeting with his closest advisers to discuss a potential campaign and brainstorm strategies to obtain enough delegates to win the Republican presidential nomination. He asked the attendees to not discuss the meeting with anyone, but to subtly spread word that he would run for president. The next month, during an interview with the Washington D.C. in late May.[11]

During the spring and summer, Nixon went on international voyages to Eastern Europe[12] and Latin America[13] to tout his foreign policy credentials.[7] He returned in August and conducted meetings with his advisors to formulate a solid campaign strategy; two days later his campaign manager, Gaylord Parkinson, left his position to care for his ailing wife. Commentators opined that the vacancy built "an element of instability" for the campaign. The position was soon temporarily filled by former Governor Henry Bellmon of Oklahoma.[14] The next week, five staff members were fired after private investigators determined that information had been leaked to the campaigns of potential primary rivals Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York and Governor Ronald Reagan of California.[15] The news did not stall the progression of the campaign, and soon Nixon, Mudge, Rose, Guthrie & Alexander member Leonard Garment assembled an advertising team that included CBS Television president Frank Shakespeare.[16]

By mid-September 1967, the Nixon campaign had organized headquarters in four states deemed critical to the Republican primaries. Nixon hoped the moves would increase his delegate strength and demonstrate his "ability to win." He notified the media that his decision on whether to run for president would be officially announced anytime between early December and February.[17] Meanwhile, Nixon and his staff discussed plans for the handling of the war in Vietnam. They advised him to soften his stance on the war and encouraged him to shift his focus from foreign affairs to domestic policy in order to avoid the divisive war and peace issue. Observers noted that this move potentially hurt Nixon by straying from his image "as a foreign policy expert."[18]

In October, political experts predicted that Nixon would gain delegates in the important states of [19] Romney officially announced his candidacy in November, prompting Nixon to step up his efforts. He spent most of this period on the campaign trail in New Hampshire. Observers following Nixon noted that during this period, he seemed more relaxed and easygoing than in his past political career. One commentator examined that he was not "the drawn, tired figure who debated Jack Kennedy or the angry politician who conceded his California [Gubernatorial] defeat with such ill grace." [20] He also began making appearances at fundraisers in his adopted home state of New York, helping to raise $300,000 for the re-election campaign of Senator Jacob K. Javits. At the end of December, Time Magazine labeled Nixon as the "man to beat." [21]

Nixon entered 1968 as the front-runner for the Republican nomination. However, polls suggested that in a head to head match up with incumbent President Lyndon Johnson, Nixon trailed in a 50% to 41% contest.[22] Later in the month, Nixon embarked on a tour of Texas. During a stop, he lampooned President Johnson's State of the Union address, asking, "Can this nation afford to have four more years of Lyndon Johnson's policies that have failed at home and abroad?"[23] At this time, reports suggested that Nixon would formally announce his bid in February.[23]

Primary campaign

On February 1 in New Hampshire, Nixon announced his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination, commenting that problems "beyond politics" needed to be addressed.[24] Immediately following his entrance, the advertising team prepared for the ad campaign. They watched video of Nixon and determined that he was at his best when speaking spontaneously. The team organized a question and answer session with seven members of the New Hampshire Republican Party, and taped Nixon's responses to be edited and used in advertisements.[25] He campaigned in the state, even though polls suggested that he would easily win its brainwashed" during a visit to Vietnam. The move left Nixon nearly unopposed for the upcoming primaries, and narrowed his presidential nomination opponents to Nelson Rockefeller and Ronald Reagan, neither of whom had announced their candidacy.[28]

Because of Romney's exit, Nixon declared in early March that he would "greatly expand [his] efforts in the non-primary states."[29] Time Magazine observed that Nixon could now focus his political attacks solely on President Johnson. However, the void also caused problems for Nixon. Time argued that the prospect of soundly defeating second tier candidates such as former Alabama.[33]


As the Wisconsin Primary loomed in early April, Nixon's only obstacle seemed to be preventing his supporters from voting in the Democratic primary for Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota as a protest to President Johnson. However, Johnson withdrew from the race before the primary. Ronald Reagan's name was on the ballot in Wisconsin but he did not campaign in the state and was still not a declared candidate.[49] Nixon won the primary with 80% followed by Reagan with 11% and Stassen with 6%.[50] With Johnson removed from the race, Nixon fell behind Democratic candidates Eugene McCarthy, Hubert Humphrey and Robert Kennedy in head to head match-ups.[51] At the end of April, Nixon called for a moratorium on criticism of the Johnson policy in Vietnam as negotiations were underway: "The one man who can do anything about peace is Lyndon Johnson, and I'm not going to do anything to undercut him".[52] However, the Democratic candidates for president remained fair game for criticism. He argued that "A divided Democratic Party cannot unite a divided country; a united Republican Party can."[52] He also began to discuss economics more frequently, announcing that he planned to cut spending while criticizing the Democratic policy of raising taxes.[53] During a question and answer session with the American Society of Newspaper Editors, Nixon spoke extemporaneously and received numerous interruptions of applause. The largest came when he addressed the issue of crime, proclaiming that "there cannot be order in a free society without progress, and there cannot be progress without order." [54]

Nixon campaigning in Pennsylvania, July 1968

On the last day of April, Rockefeller announced that he would campaign for the presidency despite his previous statement that he would not run.[55] Immediately following his entrance, he defeated Nixon in the Massachusetts primary 30% to 26%.[56] New Harris polls found that Rockefeller fared better against Democratic candidates than Nixon.[57] But the outlook started to look better for Nixon after he won the Indiana primary over Rockefeller.[58] Off the victory, Nixon campaigned in Nebraska where he criticized the three leading Democratic candidates as "three peas in a pod, prisoners of the policies of the past."[59] He then proposed a plan to tackle crime that included wiretapping, legislation to counter previous Supreme Court decisions, the forming of a congressional committee targeting crime and reforms to the criminal justice system. He did not connect crime to racial rioting, drawing praise from Civil Rights leaders.[59] Nixon won the primary in Nebraska, defeating the non-candidate Reagan 71% to 22%.[60] At the next primary, in Oregon, Reagan seemed more willing to compete with Nixon, and Rockefeller sat out.[61] But Nixon won with 72%, fifty points ahead of Reagan.[62]

In early June, Nixon continued to be regarded as the favorite to win the nomination, but observers noted that he had not yet "locked up" the nomination. He still faced challenges from Nelson Rockefeller and Ronald Reagan, and was not on the ballot in California, where Reagan won a large slate of delegates. Behind the scenes, Nixon workers lobbied for delegates from "[66] At the end of the month, Nixon had two thirds of the required 667 delegates necessary to win the nomination.[67]

On July 1, Nixon received the endorsement of Senator John G. Tower of Texas, handing him at least 40 delegates.[48] With his nomination all but assured, Nixon's ad team began preparing for the general election. A series of advertisements featuring panel question and answer sessions with Nixon and friends of campaign staffers were filmed in New York. The tapes were sent to the swing states of Ohio, Michigan and Illinois, giving Nixon the advantage of advertising long before the Democratic Party settled on a candidate.[68] At this time, Nixon decided with a group of legislators that "crime and disorder" would be presented as the number one issue in the nation. This continued to be a major theme of the Nixon campaign, and would continue to be used extensively during the general election.[69] Nixon publicly announced his opposition to the military draft, proposing to replace the current system with a volunteer army incentivized with higher pay.[70] Former President Dwight Eisenhower gave Nixon his endorsement in mid-July, breaking his tradition of waiting until after the primary, because of the election's importance.[38] By the end of July, reports circulated that Nixon had 691 probable delegates for the convention, placing him over the 667 delegate threshold. However, Rockefeller disputed these numbers.[71] Sources within Washington reported that Reagan caused greater concern for the Nixon campaign than Rockefeller. A possible scenario surfaced where Nixon's southern delegates would drop their support to back the more conservative Reagan. However, Nixon staffers believed that if such a scenario occurred, liberal Rockefeller delegates in the Northeast would support Nixon to prevent a Reagan nomination.[72]

Republican National Convention

Nixon (right) with VP nominee Spiro Agnew

The Republican National Convention was held from August 5 to 9 at the [78]

General election

Nixon-Agnew campaign logo

As the general election campaign began, Nixon decided that he would focus his efforts on the "big seven" states of California, Texas, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Pennsylvania and New York.[79] He tapped Roger Ailes to produce one hour television programs to advertise the campaign to strategically chosen regions.[16] The campaign also continued to use panel segments throughout the general election, opting to air live, using real citizens whom they instructed to ask tough questions because the campaign believed that Nixon responded well to such questions.[80] He started his ground campaign for the general election with a tour of the mid-west. While on his first stop in Springfield, Illinois, he discussed the importance of unity, stating that "America [now] needs to be united more than any time since Lincoln." [81] He then traveled to Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania before returning to New York for a meeting with former rival Nelson Rockefeller.[76] In the latest Gallup polls following the convention, Nixon led Humphrey 45% to 29% and topped McCarthy 42% to 37%.[82] At the end of the month, Hubert Humphrey narrowly won Democratic presidential nominee over McCarthy at a protest filled convention. Pundits argued that the split party and lack of "law and order" at the convention placed Nixon in a good position.[83] Around this time, Nixon began regularly receiving briefings about the Vietnam War from President Johnson.[84] Johnson also explained to Nixon that he did not want the war to be politicized, and Nixon agreed but questioned whether Humphrey would also comply.[46]

Following the Democratic convention, Nixon continued to be labeled as the front-runner for the presidency and was described as "relaxed [and] confident," counter to his "unsure" self from 1960. Observers also wondered if even the Democratic President Johnson favored Nixon over Humphrey.[85] Nixon traveled to [90] By the end of the month, many in the Nixon campaign believed his election was guaranteed and began to prepare for the transition period, despite Nixon's warning that "the one thing that can beat us now is overconfidence." [91] Gallup polls showed Nixon leading Humphrey 43% to 28% at the end of September.[92]

In early October, commentators weighed in on Nixon's advantage, explaining that he could legitimately blame the Johnson administration for the Vietnam War and use campaign advertisements with images of dead American soldiers while avoiding discussion about the war with the excuse that he did not want to disrupt the peace talks in Populist." [95] As Democratic Vice Presidential nominee Edmund Muskie criticized Nixon for his connections to Strom Thurmond, Nixon continued to oppose a possible debate with Humphrey and Wallace as well as a debate between the running mates[96] on the basis that he did not want to give Wallace any more exposure. Observers argued that Nixon also opposed debates because of his experience during the 1960 encounter with John F. Kennedy, which many cited as a factor in his defeat.[97] In another lesson learned from 1960, the campaign employed 100,000 workers to oversee Election day polling sites to prevent a recurrence of what many Republicans viewed as 1960's stolen election.[98] Nixon went on a train campaign tour of Ohio near the end of October. From the back of the "Nixon Victory Special" car, he bashed Vice President Humphrey as well as the Secretary of Agriculture and Attorney General of the Johnson cabinet, for farmer's debt and the rising crime rate.[99] At this time, the campaign released two controversial television advertisements juxtaposing a smiling Humphrey with images of the Vietnam War and the chaos at the 1968 Democratic National Convention; the advertisements aroused protests from the Humphrey campaign.[100] By the end of October, Nixon began to lose his edge over Humphrey; he led only 44% to 36% in Gallup polls, down five points from a few weeks earlier.[101] Observers noted that the decline was related to Nixon's refusal to debate.[102]

At the beginning of November, President Johnson announced that a bombing halt had been achieved in Vietnam. Observers noted that the development significantly helped Humphrey although Nixon had given his support to the talks.[103] At this time, Nixon operative Meet the Press and explained that he would cooperate completely with Johnson. He then phoned the President after the appearance and personally reassured him.[46] The final Harris poll before the election showed Nixon trailing Humphrey 43% to 40%, but Gallup's final poll showed Nixon leading 42% to 40%.[104] On the eve of the election, Nixon and Humphrey bought time on rival television networks to make their final pleas to the American people. Nixon appeared on NBC, while his Democratic challenger went on ABC.[105] Nixon used this appearance to counter the surge given to Humphrey by the bombing halt, claiming that he had just received "a very disturbing report"[104] that tons of supplies were being moved into South Vietnam by the North. Humphrey labeled this charge as "irresponsible",[104] causing Nixon to counter that Humphrey "doesn't know what's going on."[106] Overall, Nixon spent $6,270,000 on television advertising, most of which was judged to have only reinforced supporters.[107]

Election Day

On November 5, Election Day, Nixon defeated Humphrey by a margin of 301 to 191 in the [108]


Nixon's campaign was noted for its unprecedented reliance on television (and relative disregard for newspapers). Television had hurt Nixon in the 1960 race against Kennedy; in 1968, he assembled a staff that helped turn the medium to his advantage.[109] This staff included Harry Treleaven, Frank Shakespeare, Len Garment, and Roger Ailes. Many commercials for the general election—sequences of still photographs with voice-overs by Nixon—were produced by Eugene "Gene" Jones.[110]

When Nixon himself appeared on television, it was through the format of live conferences in which Nixon was questioned by members of the public. Participants were usually but not always Republicans, and Nixon may have benefited from the inclusion of unsympathetic questioners.[111] The panels (and audiences) were created with careful attention to demographics, always including one African American and one member of the working class.[112] Press were not admitted.[113]


Although Nixon initially escalated America's involvement in the Vietnam War, he subsequently ended US involvement in 1973 and ended the draft. Nixon's visit to the People's Republic of China in 1972 opened diplomatic relations between the two nations, and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year. Domestically, his administration generally embraced policies that transferred power from Washington to the states. Among other things, he initiated wars on cancer and drugs, imposed wage and price controls, enforced desegregation of Southern schools and established the Environmental Protection Agency. Though he presided over Apollo 11, he scaled back manned space exploration. He was reelected by a landslide in 1972 before resigning in disgrace after the Watergate scandal.

See also


  1. ^ "Election News Broadcast to 'Times' Readers", Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California), November 6, 1946 
  2. ^ a b c "A Politician", (Nixon Presidential Library and Museum) 
  3. ^ "Kennedy In Speculation", The Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia), March 13, 1968: 3 
  4. ^ a b c "The Vice President". The Life. Richard Nixon Presidential Library. Retrieved July 18, 2008. 
  5. ^ Devlin, James (May 2, 1963), "Nixon Plans to Change Residence to New York", The Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia): 1 
  6. ^ Sullivan, Ronald (July 3, 1964). "Nixon Out of the Race". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c Perlstein, p. 176
  8. ^ "In Business", Time Magazine, February 20, 2011 
  9. ^ "Goldwater says he favors Nixon as candidate in '68", The Bulletin (Bend, Oregon), March 29, 1967: 1 
  10. ^ Hess, Steven; Broder, David (December 1, 1967), "The Political Durability Of Nixon", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida): 18 
  11. ^ "Dick's Lucky Palm", Time Magazine, June 2, 1967 
  12. ^ Evans, Rowland; Novak, Robert (April 2, 1967), "Eastern Europeans Lobby Richard Nixon For Trade Measure", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida): 7 
  13. ^ "Nation: Around the World, A Block Away", Time Magazine, May 19, 1967 
  14. ^ Novak, Robert; Evans, Rowland (August 22, 1967), "Lack of Permanent Campaign Manager To Handicap Nixon", The Milwaukee Sentinel (Milwaukee, Wisconsin): 7 
  15. ^ Allen, Robert; Scott, Paul (September 1, 1967), "Leaks Plague Nixon Backers", Rome News-Tribune (Rome, Georgia): 3 
  16. ^ a b Jamieson, p. 230
  17. ^ "Nixon's Target: Early Primaries", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida), September 17, 1967: 178 
  18. ^ Novak, Robert; Evans, Rowland (September 23, 1967), "Nixon Firm in Vietnam Stand", The Free-Lance Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia): 3 
  19. ^ "Pros Favor Nixon", The Daily Collegian (University Park, Pennsylvania) 68 (9), October 3, 1967: 5 
  20. ^ "A New Nixon?", Eugene Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon), December 2, 1967: 4 
  21. ^ "Revving Up", Time Magazine, December 22, 1967 
  22. ^ Harris, Louis (January 8, 1968), "Poll Shows LBJ Favorite in 1968 Presidential Race", The Spokesman-Review (Spokane, Washington): 4 
  23. ^ a b "Political Notes: Off & On", Time Magazine, January 26, 1968 
  24. ^ "Nixon will run", The Age (Melbourne, Australia), February 2, 1968: 2 
  25. ^ Jamieson, p. 258
  26. ^ a b c "Republicans: The Crucial Test", Time Magazine, February 16, 1968 
  27. ^ Harris, Louis (February 19, 1968), "Viet War Boost Ups Nixon Appeal", The Spokesman-Review (Spokane, Washington): 17 
  28. ^ "Romney's Exit Unanticipated Move", The Prescott Courier (Prescott, Arizona), February 27, 1968: 11 
  29. ^ a b c d "The New Rules of Play", Time Magazine, March 8, 1968 
  30. ^ Buckley, William (March 30, 1968), "Why So Many Americans Dislike Richard Nixon", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania): 4 
  31. ^ Wicker, Tom (March 13, 1968), "Nixon's Strong Showing May Force Rocky Move", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida): 21 
  32. ^ a b Morin, Relman (March 22, 1968), "Republicans Speculate On Draft of Rockefeller", The Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia): 1 
  33. ^ Gallup, George (March 27, 1968), "Nixon Leading LBJ In Survey", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida): 13 
  34. ^ a b c d e f "Tower Heads Nixon Panel of Advisers", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida), July 20, 1968: 8 
  35. ^ a b c "Nixon Refuses Collision Demanded By Rocky", The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida), June 21, 1968: 7 
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  37. ^ a b c Kraft, Joseph (August 10, 1968), "Nixon New Leader of New South", The Spokesman-Review (Spokane, Washington): 51 
  38. ^ a b "Nixon Backed by Eisenhower", Spokane Daily Chronicle (Spokane, Washington), July 18, 1968: 22 
  39. ^ Just, Ward (April 28, 1968), "Despite Lead, Nixon Lacking Commitments", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida): 5 
  40. ^ Matthews, Frank (June 13, 1968), "Rocky, Scranton Analogy Viewed", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania): 7 
  41. ^ "Honesty Urged by Goldwater", Spokane Daily Chronicle (Spokane, Washington), February 10, 1968: 13 
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  45. ^ "Today's News Roundup", The Bulletin (Bend, Oregon), February 16, 1968: 3 
  46. ^ a b c Johnson, Robert "K.C." (January 26, 2009), "Did Nixon Commit Treason in 1968? What The New LBJ Tapes Reveal", History News Network (George Mason University) 
  47. ^ a b Chamberlain, John (August 12, 1968), "Two Stubborn, Honest Men Held The Pass For Nixon", The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida): 7 
  48. ^ a b "Sen. Tower Backs Nixon", Eugene Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon), July 1, 1968: 1 
  49. ^ "Wisconsin Voters To Log Reaction To LBJ Move", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida), April 2, 1968: 11 
  50. ^ "McCarthy, Nixon win handily in Wisconsin", Rome News-Tribune (Rome, Georgia), April 3, 1968: 1 
  51. ^ Harris, Louis (April 12, 1968), "LBJ Drops Nixon To Foot of Class", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania): 4 
  52. ^ a b "Republicans: Out of Hibernation", Time Magazine, April 26, 1968 
  53. ^ Seeger, Murray (April 26, 1968), "Avoiding The Issue of Economy", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida): 12 
  54. ^ Lawrence, David (April 23, 1968), "Editor's Quizzing of Nixon Could Set Useful Pattern", Spokane Daily Chronicle (Spokane, Washington): 32 
  55. ^ Jamieson, p. 228
  56. ^ "Strong Vote for Rocky", The Age (Melbourne, Australia), May 2, 1968: 1 
  57. ^ Harris, Louis (May 7, 1968), "Rockefeller Shown Topping Nixon", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida): 14 
  58. ^ Wicker, Tom (May 9, 1968), "McCarthy Still A Contender; Big Nixon Vote Impressive", The Spokesman-Review (Spokane, Washington): 3 
  59. ^ a b "Republicans: In Search of Enthusiasm", Time Magazine, May 17, 1968 
  60. ^ Lawrence, David (May 20, 1968), "Nebraska primary settles nothing", Rome News-Tribune (Rome, Georgia): 3 
  61. ^ Pearson, Drew (May 22, 1968), "Reagan Challenge To Nixon Looms In Oregon Primary", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida): 15 
  62. ^ "Gene To California From Oregon Win", The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida), May 29, 1968: 2 
  63. ^ "Nixon's Defeat Implied in Talk by Rockefeller", Spokane Daily Chronicle (Spokane, Washington), June 4, 1968: 24 
  64. ^ Macartney, Roy (June 11, 1968), "Survey shows swing to Humphrey", The Age (Melbourne, Australia): 2 
  65. ^ Evans, Rowland; Novak, Robert (June 26, 1968), "Scheme Weighed For Nixon-Lindsay Ticket", Toledo Blade (Toledo, Ohio): 5 
  66. ^ Evans, Rowland; Novak, Robert (June 5, 1968), "Unknown Could Be Nixon's Running Mate", Toledo Blade (Toledo, Ohio): 7 
  67. ^ "Nixon Getting More Votes", Ellensburg Daily Record (Ellensburg, Washington), June 26, 1968: 1 
  68. ^ Jamieson, p. 259
  69. ^ "Crime No. 1 Issue, Say Nixon Advisers", Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois), July 9, 1968: 1 
  70. ^ Morin, Relman (August 2, 1968), "What Nixon, Rockefeller Have Said on the Issues", The Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia): 3 
  71. ^ "Nixon apparently has enough strength to get nomination", The Bulletin (Bend, Oregon), July 26, 1968: 1 
  72. ^ Biossat, Bruce (July 31, 1968), "Nixon and Reagan", The Victoria Advocate (Victoria, Texas): 3 
  73. ^ "US President – R Convention",, July 30, 2009 
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  75. ^ Rowan, Carl (August 13, 1968), "Nixon Looks Formidable in Attack on Democrats", Spokane Daily Chronicle (Spokane, Washington): 16 
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  77. ^ Jamieson, p. 229
  78. ^ "Nixon Assumes Center Position", The Spokesman-Review (Spokane, Washington), August 10, 1968: 51 
  79. ^ Morin, Relman; Mears, Walter (November 6, 1968), "The Loser Who Won: Richard Milhous Nixon", Eugene Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon): 18 
  80. ^ Jamieson, p. 60
  81. ^ "Demos At Odds Over Viet Plank", The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida), August 19, 1968: 8 
  82. ^ "Iowa's Hughes Boosts McCarthy's Hopes", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida), August 21, 1968: 61 
  83. ^ Reston, James (August 30, 1968), "Party Deeply Hurt By Clashes", The Age (Melbourne, Australia): 2 
  84. ^ "Nixon briefed by LBJ", The Age (Melbourne, Australia), August 12, 1968: 2 
  85. ^ Macartney, Roy (September 14, 1968), "Nixon smells success", The Age (Melbourne, Australia): 5 
  86. ^ "Nixon 'Sets Sail' On Sea Of Cheers", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida), September 5, 1968: 4 
  87. ^ Evans, Rowland; Novak, Robert (September 10, 1968), "Nixon Out to Soothe Negroes", The Free-Lance Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia): 3 
  88. ^ "Nation: THE COUNTERPUNCHER", Time Magazine, September 20, 1968 
  89. ^ "President Asks Texans To Support Humphrey; Nixon Revising Budget", Toledo Blade (Toledo, Ohio), September 17, 1968: 20 
  90. ^ a b c Yogman, Ron (September 28, 1968), "Nixon's 'The One' At Bay Area Rally", The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida): 1 
  91. ^ Boyd, Robert (September 27, 1968), "Nixon Perfume: Victory Scent", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida): 20 
  92. ^ Macartney, Roy (September 30, 1968), "Nixon lifts lead over Humphrey", The Age (Melbourne, Australia): 1 
  93. ^ Reston, James (October 2, 1968), "Nixon On Vietnam: Effective, Evasive,", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida): 63 
  94. ^ "Campaign Heckling Grows", The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida), October 5, 1968: 5 
  95. ^ "Nixon Warns Wallace Vote Helps Demos", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida), October 10, 1968: 11 
  96. ^ "Blocking Debates Called Disservice", Spokane Daily Chronicle (Spokane, Washington), October 11, 1968: 6 
  97. ^ "A 3-way debate would have been in people's interest", The Bulletin (Bend, Oregon), October 14, 1968: 3 
  98. ^ Lawrence, David (October 28, 1968), "'"On Guard Against 'Ghosts, The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida): 9 
  99. ^ "Nearly 2,000 Hear Nixon At Deshler", The Bryan Times (Bryan, Ohio), October 23, 1968: 1 
  100. ^ Jamieson, p. 245-246
  101. ^ "Remember Nixon's Past, LBJ Admonishes Voters", The Milwaukee Sentinel (Milwaukee, Wisconsin), October 28, 1968: 2 
  102. ^ "NIXON'S 2", Time Magazine, October 18, 1968 
  103. ^ Macartney, Roy (November 2, 1968), "Nixon is the man to beat", The Age (Melbourne, Australia): 5 
  104. ^ a b c Bell, Jack (November 5, 1968), "Vietnam Issue Raised Again as Campaign Winds Up", Eugene Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon): 2 
  105. ^ Loory, Stuart (November 4, 1968), "Humphrey, Nixon Will Stage Telethons", St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida): 48 
  106. ^ "Nixon, Humphrey give their views in four-hour telethons from California", The Bulletin (Bend, Oregon), November 5, 1968: 4 
  107. ^ Jamieson, p. 234
  108. ^ Leip, David (2005), "1968 Presidential General Election", 
  109. ^ McGinniss, Selling of the President 1968 (1969), pp. 26–28.
  110. ^ McGinniss, Selling of the President 1968 (1969), p. 114.
  111. ^ McGinniss, Selling of the President 1968 (1969), p. 113.
  112. ^ McGinniss, Selling of the President 1968 (1969), pp. 60–61.
  113. ^ McGinniss, Selling of the President 1968 (1969), p. 62.


External links

  • "'Law and order' Nixon commercial
  • Commercial on youth culture commercial
  • "Nixon's the One", commercial focusing on foreign policy and the singular role of the US commander-in-chief
  • Video of Nixon's response to the 1968 DNC, including footage of Nixon in Chicago and some of a campaign advertisement
  • Nixon's acceptance speech
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