World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Riga Offensive (1944)

Article Id: WHEBN0017036003
Reproduction Date:

Title: Riga Offensive (1944)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 1st Shock Army, Omakaitse, Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II, Soviet evacuation of Tallinn, 6th Guards Army
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Riga Offensive (1944)

Riga Offensive (1944)
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II
Date September 14 - October 24, 1944
Location Latvia, Estonia
Result Soviet victory
Belligerents

Germany

Omakaitse militia
 Soviet Union
Commanders and leaders
Ferdinand Schörner Hovhannes Bagramyan
Andrei Yeremenko
Ivan Maslennikov

The Riga Offensive (known in (Russian: Рижская наступательная операция, the Riga Offensive Operation — its formal Soviet title) was part of the larger Baltic Offensive on the Eastern Front during World War II. It took place late in 1944, and drove German forces from the city of Riga.

Prelude

Soviet forces had advanced towards the Baltic coast in the beginning of their Tartu Offensive and at the end of the highly successful Belorussian Offensive (Operation Bagration), during July and August 1944, and at one point had broken through to the Gulf of Riga. During August, the German 18th Army had mounted a counter-attack, Operation Doppelkopf. Simultaneously the German ValgaVõrtsjärv line, supported by the local Estonian Omakaitse militia battalions, repelled the heavy pressure of the Soviet 3rd Baltic Front's Tartu Offensive.[1] The German Army Group North's commander, Ferdinand Schörner designed Operation Aster to pull his troops out of mainland Estonia. The parallel Riga Offensive would see Soviet forces apply further pressure on Army Group North, which still held much of Latvia and Estonia.

Deployments

Red Army

Elements of:

Wehrmacht

The offensive

The Soviet forces launched a ferocious attack on the Riga axis on September 14, 1944. Within 4 days, the German 16th Army had suffered serious damage, while in the 18th Army's sector, ten of the eighteen German divisions had been reduced to Kampfgruppe level.[2] In the northern segment placed along the line of Lake VõrtsjärvVäike Emajõgi River – railway junction of ValgaGauja River, the Soviet 3rd Baltic Front attacked the German XXVIII Army Corps and the Omakaitse battalions.[3] In fierce battles, the German and Estonian units held their positions.[1]

From the south, the 43rd Army was threatening the approaches to Riga itself, where the German X Corps had been shattered.[2] Schoerner began to move his divisions into the Courland Peninsula, intending to shorten the front and pull back from Riga. A counter-attack was carried out by the XXXIX Panzer Corps of 3rd Panzer Army, temporarily placed under Schörner's overall command, but the Soviet opposition was too strong.[4]

In the meantime, Stavka had been preparing a new axis of attack under the cover of a further push towards Riga, the new plan being put forward in a directive of September 24.[5] On September 27, the 16th Army began to report Soviet traffic away from its front, to the south-west.[2] In fact, several major Soviet force concentrations (notably the 4th Shock and 51st Armies) were being shifted southwards in preparation for a major thrust westwards towards Memel by the 1st Baltic Front. German intelligence detected the movement of several of the armies involved, but were unable to detect their destination.[6]

The resulting offensive, the Battle of Memel, was launched on October 5; Bagramyan's 1st Baltic Front shattered the Third Panzer Army, finally severing the land connection between the German Army Group Centre and Army Group North. Schoerner's forces around Riga and in Courland were now cut off.

On October 9, Schoerner signalled that he would attack towards Memel and try and re-establish the land connection if Riga could be evacuated.[7] Soviet forces were again moving forwards outside Riga, and brought the city within the range of artillery fire on October 10. Leaving a screening force of the 227th Infantry Division and the guns of the 6th Motorized Anti-Aircraft Division, the 18th Army retreated through Riga into Courland, destroying bridges on its route.[7] Riga was taken by forces of the 3rd Baltic Front on October 13. Over the next few days Soviet units were reported in action to the west of Riga, stating that German forces had been cleared from the eastern bank of the Lielupe River by October 17.[8]

Aftermath

Army Group North had been driven into the Courland Pocket, where it remained isolated until the end of the war in Europe.

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ a b c Mitcham, p.150
  3. ^
  4. ^ Mitcham, p.148
  5. ^ Glantz, p.433
  6. ^ Glantz, p.440
  7. ^ a b Mitcham, p.152
  8. ^ RIA Novosti Archive

References

  • Glantz, D. Soviet Military Deception in the Second World War, Frank Cass, London, 1989, ISBN 0-7146-3347-X

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.